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Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326788


Severe COVID-19 is associated with epithelial and endothelial barrier dysfunction within the lung as well as in distal organs. While it is appreciated that an exaggerated inflammatory response is associated with barrier dysfunction, the triggers of this pathology are unclear. Here, we report that cell-intrinsic interactions between the Spike (S) glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and epithelial/endothelial cells are sufficient to trigger barrier dysfunction in vitro and vascular leak in vivo, independently of viral replication and the ACE2 receptor. We identify an S-triggered transcriptional response associated with extracellular matrix reorganization and TGF-β signaling. Using genetic knockouts and specific inhibitors, we demonstrate that glycosaminoglycans, integrins, and the TGF-β signaling axis are required for S-mediated barrier dysfunction. Our findings suggest that S interactions with barrier cells are a contributing factor to COVID-19 disease severity and offer mechanistic insight into SARS-CoV-2 triggered vascular leak, providing a starting point for development of therapies targeting COVID-19 pathogenesis.

PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293236


Serology has provided valuable diagnostic and epidemiological data on antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in diverse patient cohorts. Deployment of high content, multiplex serology platforms across the world, including in low and medium income countries, can accelerate longitudinal epidemiological surveys. Here we report multiSero, an open platform to enable multiplex serology with up to 48 antigens in a 96-well format. The platform consists of three components: ELISA-array of printed proteins, a commercial or home-built plate reader, and modular python software for automated analysis (pysero). We validate the platform by comparing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike, receptor binding domain (RBD), and nucleocapsid (N) in 114 sera from COVID-19 positive individuals and 87 pre-pandemic COVID-19 negative sera. We report data with both a commercial plate reader and an inexpensive, open plate reader (nautilus). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of classification with single antigens shows that Spike and RBD classify positive and negative sera with the highest sensitivity at a given specificity. The platform distinguished positive sera from negative sera when the reactivity of the sera was equivalent to the binding of 1 ng mL a

PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-293591


To effectively track and eliminate COVID-19, it is critical to develop tools for rapid and accessible diagnosis of actively infected individuals. Here, we introduce a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based optical sensing approach towards these ends. We construct a nanosensor based on SWCNTs noncovalently functionalized with ACE2, a host protein with high binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Presence of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein elicits a robust, two-fold nanosensor fluorescence increase within 90 min of spike protein exposure. We characterize the nanosensor stability and sensing mechanism, and passivate the nanosensor to preserve sensing response in saliva and viral transport medium. We further demonstrate that these ACE2-SWCNT nanosensors retain sensing capacity in a surface-immobilized format, exhibiting a 73% fluorescence turn-on response within 5 s of exposure to 35 mg/L SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles. Our data demonstrate that ACE2-SWCNT nanosensors can be developed into an optical tool for rapid SARS-CoV-2 detection. Abstract Figure: