Purpose: To quantify and describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on procedural volume trends in hand and wrist surgery from 2020 to early 2022 at multiple centers. Methods: In this retrospective comparative study, a real-time, national, federated research database was used to identify patients of interest from 56 health care organizations across the United States. Patients were queried from March 1, 2018, to February 28, 2022. Current Procedural Terminology codes were chosen using the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's hand fellowship procedure requirements. Results: Common hand and wrist surgeries exhibited substantial fluctuations in procedural volume per health care organization during the COVID-19 pandemic. Time periods with considerable procedural volume decreases corresponded with surges in increased COVID-19 caseloads and emergence of COVID-19 variants. Periods of procedural volume increase occurred in the summer of 2020 and immediately following distribution of the COVID-19 vaccine to the public. Fixation of metacarpal fracture, fixation of phalangeal fracture, tendon transfer, flexor tendon repair, and extensor tendon repair consistently showed decreased volumes over the study period. In contrast, ulnar nerve decompression was the only procedure to experience a statistically significant increase in volume over an entire year (2021, +19.2%, P < .001), as compared to before the pandemic. Conclusions: Major milestones of the COVID-19 pandemic correlated with fluctuations in the number of hand and wrist procedures performed across the United States. Future studies should seek to evaluate the impact of patient backlogs and individual procedure fluctuations on financial impacts, patient outcomes, and orthopedic trainee experience. Type of study/level of evidence: Economic/Decision Analysis IV.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a national database. OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 resulted in the widespread shifting of hospital resources to handle surging COVID-19 cases resulting in the postponement of surgeries, including numerous spine procedures. This study aimed to quantify the impact that COVID-19 had on the number of treated spinal conditions and diagnoses during the pandemic. METHODS: Using CPT and ICD-10 codes, TriNetX, a national database, was utilized to quantify spine procedures and diagnoses in patients >18 years of age. The period of March 2020-May 2021 was compared to a reference pre-pandemic period of March 2018-May 2019. Each time period was then stratified into four seasons of the year, and the mean average number of procedures per healthcare organization was compared. RESULTS: In total, 524,394 patient encounters from 53 healthcare organizations were included in the analysis. There were significant decreases in spine procedures and diagnoses during March-May 2020 compared to pre-pandemic levels. Measurable differences were noted for spine procedures during the winter of 2020-2021, including a decrease in lumbar laminectomy and anterior cervical arthrodesis. Comparing the pandemic period to the pre-pandemic period showed significant reductions in most spine procedures and treated diagnoses; however, there was an increase in open repair of thoracic fractures during this period. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 resulted in a widespread decrease in spinal diagnosis and treated conditions. An inverse relationship was observed between new COVID-19 cases and spine procedural volume. Recent increases in procedural volume from pre-pandemic levels are promising signs that the spine surgery community has narrowed the gap in unmet care produced by the pandemic.
INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic strained the United States healthcare system, and associated policies resulted in the postponement or cancellation of many elective surgeries. While most orthopaedic surgeons are aware of how the pandemic affected their patients' care, broader national trends in the operative treatment of orthopaedic knee pathology are poorly characterized. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify trends in orthopaedic knee procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The TriNetX database was queried for orthopaedic knee procedures performed from March 2018 to May 2021. Procedures were classified as arthroplasty (total knee arthroplasty (TKA), revision total knee arthroplasty) or non-arthroplasty (tendon or ligament repair, fracture fixation). Procedural volume per healthcare organization was determined over five seasons from March 2020 to May 2021 and compared to overlapping pre-pandemic periods from March 2018 to May 2019. Descriptive analysis was performed, and comparisons were made using a Student's T-test. RESULTS: Compared to the pre-pandemic period, there were significant decreases in primary TKA (p=0.016), femoral or entire tibial component revision TKA (p=0.005), and open treatment of femoral shaft fractures (p=0.007) in spring 2020. Procedural volume returned to baseline in summer 2020 through winter 2021. In spring 2021, primary TKA (p=0.017) and one component revision TKA (p=0.003) increased compared to the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSION: The greatest decrease in knee procedures occurred early in the pandemic. Rates of these procedures have since rebounded, with some exceeding pre-pandemic levels. Hospitals are now better able to accommodate orthopaedic surgical volume while continuing to care for patients with COVID-19.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Hypopigmentation , Vitiligo , Humans
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Hypopigmentation , Vitiligo , Humans , Vitiligo/epidemiology , Risk Factors
There has been a disparity in familiarity regarding the public interest in gastroenterology terminologies during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to understand the outcomes of the public's view on gastrointestinal topics and their potential social effects. This study is a comparative analysis of American Google Trends gastrointestinal terminology during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to a similar time frame (March 2018-February 2020) to determine how trends in the patient-seeking behavior of gastrointestinal terminology changed throughout the pandemic. The analysis discovered a substantial decrease in search volumes of gastrointestinal topics, more significantly in the first pandemic months. Later in the pandemic, search volumes trended toward pre-pandemic years in terms of public interest. In the case of gastrointestinal procedures, endoscopy and colonoscopies, they surpassed pre-pandemic interest levels statistically (p-values of 0.01 and 0.002). The public's decreased interest in gastrointestinal topics at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic may have adverse effects on the healthcare maintenance of patients who could have had a positive outcome in their gastrointestinal health with proper monitoring. Although gastrointestinal internet searches increased toward pre-pandemic levels as the seasons progressed, further research is needed to determine the social impact of decreased public interest.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , United States
BACKGROUND: Patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs) like DM are known to be vulnerable towards various types of infections due to aggressive disease activity mandating high dose immunosuppressive therapy. The severity of COVID-19 in RDs is limited in literature due to the heterogeneous nature of the condition. Therefore, specific details on mortality is essential to navigate any precautions required in the treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine outcomes of COVID-19 in DM as compared to controls, and identify the risk association of gender, race, interstitial lung disease, neoplasms, and use of immunosuppressant. METHODS: Retrospective data of individuals with DM and COVID-19 and the general population with COVID-19 between January 2020 to August 2021 was retrieved from the TriNetX database. 1:1 Propensity Score matching was used to adjust for confounders. We assessed COVID-19 outcomes such as mortality, hospitalisation, ICU admission, severe COVID-19, mechanical ventilation (MV), acute kidney injury (AKI), venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic stroke, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), renal replacement therapy (RRT) and sepsis. Subgroup analyses included gender, race, ILD, cancer patients, disease-modifying rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) use, and glucocorticoids (GC) use. RESULTS: We identified 5,574 DM patients with COVID-19, and 5,574 general population with COVID-19 (controls). DM with COVID-19 had a lower risk of mortality in comparison to controls [RR 0.76], hospitalisation [RR 0.8], severe COVID-19 [RR 0.76], AKI [RR 0.83], and sepsis [RR 0.73]. Males and African Americans were more likely to develop AKI [RR 1.35, 1.65], while African Americans had higher odds for severe COVID-19 [RR 1.62] and VTE [RR 1.54]. DM with ILD group also experienced higher odds for severe COVID-19 infection [RR 1.64], and VTE [RR 2.06]. DM patients receiving DMARDs and glucocorticoids had higher odds for hospitalisation [RR 1.46, 2.12], and sepsis [RR 3.25, 2.4] Subgroup analysis of 5-year neoplasm history amongst DM patients with COVID-19 was inadequate for meaningful comparison. CONCLUSION: Dermatomyositis patients without comorbities have reasonable COVID-19 outcomes including mortality and hospitalisation. Black race, male gender, ILD, DMARDS and glucocorticoid users, are associated with poor outcomes.
Subject(s)Acute Kidney Injury , Antirheumatic Agents , COVID-19 , Dermatomyositis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Sepsis , Venous Thromboembolism , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/drug therapy , Dermatomyositis/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Male , Prognosis , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/complications , Sepsis/drug therapy
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to define the impact of the novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the volume of common plastic and reconstructive procedures in the United States. METHODS: TrinetX is a national, federated database that was utilized in surveying plastic and reconstructive procedural volumes among 53 Healthcare organizations (HCO) between March 2018 and May 2021. This timeframe was divided into pre-pandemic (March 2018 to February 2020) and pandemic periods (March 2020 to May 2021). Each period was then sub-divided into four seasons of the year and the mean monthly procedural volume per HCO was compared. A student's t-tests comparing pre-pandemic and pandemic seasonal mean procedural volumes were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 366,032 patient encounters among 53 HCO were included. The average seasonal volume per HCO of all procedures reduced from 872.11 procedures during pre-pandemic seasons to 827.36 during pandemic seasons. Spring 2020 vol declined for most procedures as 15 of 24 (63%) assessed procedure categories experienced statistically significant decreases. Spring 2021 experienced rebounds with 15 of 24 (63%) assessed procedures showing statistically significant increases. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic period, the average procedural volume per HCO of 14 procedure categories was significantly less than the pre-pandemic average procedural volume. Overall, an inverse relationship was observed between novel COVID-19 cases and plastic and reconstructive surgery procedure volumes in the United States.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Plastic Surgery Procedures , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Humans , Child
There is minimal information on COVID-19 pandemic's national impact on pediatric neurosurgical operative volumes. In this study, using a national database, TriNetX, we compared the overall and seasonal trends of pediatric neurosurgical procedure volumes in the United States during the pandemic to pre-pandemic periods. In the United States, the incidence of COVID-19 began to rise in September 2020 and reached its maximum peak between December 2020 and January 2021. During this time, there was an inverse relationship between pediatric neurosurgical operative volumes and the incidence of COVID-19 cases. From March 2020 to May 2021, there was a significant decrease in the number of pediatric shunt (-11.7% mean change, p = 0.006), epilepsy (-16.6%, p < 0.001), and neurosurgical trauma (-13.8%, p < 0.001) surgeries compared to pre-pandemic years. The seasonal analysis also yielded a broad decrease in most subcategories in spring 2020 with significant decreases in pediatric spine, epilepsy, and trauma cases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report a national decline in pediatric shunt, epilepsy, and neurosurgical trauma operative volumes during the pandemic. This could be due to fear-related changes in health-seeking behavior as well as underdiagnosis during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Subject(s)COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures , SARS-CoV-2 , Spine , United States/epidemiology
Subject(s)Behcet Syndrome , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
INTRODUCTION: The outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (ax-SpA) have not been explored in detail. Tumour necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) are commonly used for ax-SpA patients, and how they influence outcomes may have implications on COVID-19 management. METHODS: A nationwide multi-centric research network was queried for patients with ax-SpA, including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and non-radiographic SpA (nr-SpA) who had developed COVID-19. An equal number of propensity score(PS) matched controls were extracted from the database amongst patients with COVID-19 who did not have any inflammatory arthritis. Outcomes included mortality and others including hospitalization, intensive care unit, ventilation, acute kidney injury (AKI), renal replacement therapy, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral infarction, venous thromboembolism (VTE), and sepsis. RESULTS: We identified 9766 patients with ax-SpA (924 AS and 8842 nr-SpA) and 691,862 without SpA who had COVID-19. In the unmatched comparison, patients with ax-SpA had higher risk ratios (RR) for all outcomes. After matching for demographics and comorbidities, patients with ax-SpA had lower RR for mortality [RR: 0.707 (95% CI: 0.598-0.836), p < 0.0001], severe COVID-19 [RR: 0.791 (0.69-0.906), p = 0.0007], hospitalization [RR: 0.872 (0.826-0.921), p < 0.0001], and AKI [RR: 0.902 (0.816-0.997), p = 0.044]. Only the risk of VTE was higher in ax-SpA patients [RR: 1.219 (1.037-1.433), p = 0.016]. Amongst the ax-SpA group, males had worse outcomes in 9 out of the 11 domains except for VTE and cerebral infarction, while blacks had worse outcomes in all except for mortality and the need for renal replacement therapy. AS had similar risk ratios for all outcomes compared with nr-SpA except hospitalization [RR: 1.457 (1.03-2.06), p = 0.0318]. There was no difference in outcomes in patients who had received TNFi in the year previous to COVID-19 infection. Ax-SpA patients who had been prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the 3 months prior to COVID-19 had poorer outcomes. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, COVID-19 outcomes were better in patients with ax-SpA as compared with PS matched controls except for increased risk for VTE. The use of TNFi is not associated with better or worse outcomes. These apparently protective effects observed need to be validated and explored further. Key Points â¢ Patients with axial spondyloarthritis have lower mortality and morbidity during COVID-19 infections as compared with propensity score matched controls. â¢ Axial spondyloarthritis is associated with higher risks for venous thromboembolism during COVID-19. â¢ There is no difference in outcomes between ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic spondyloarthritis except in rates of hospitalization, which were higher in ankylosing spondylitis. â¢ Use of tumour necrosis factor inhibitors did not influence COVID-19 outcomes.
Subject(s)Axial Spondyloarthritis , COVID-19 , Spondylarthritis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Humans , Male , Propensity Score , SARS-CoV-2 , Spondylarthritis/drug therapy , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/drug therapy
OBJECTIVES: To determine the severity and outcome of COVID-19 among individuals with lupus as compared to controls. The secondary objective was to identify the risk association of sex, race, presence of nephritis, and use of various immunomodulators with COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective data of individuals with lupus with and without COVID-19 between January 2020 to May 2021 was retrieved from the TriNetX. A one-to-one matched COVID-19 positive control was selected using propensity score(PS) matching. We assessed several outcomes, including all-cause mortality, hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, severe COVID, acute kidney injury (AKI), Haemodialysis, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), ischemic stroke, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and sepsis were assessed. RESULTS: We identified 2140 SLE patients with COVID-19, 29,853 SLE without COVID-19 and 732,291controls. Mortality within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis was comparable among SLE and controls [RR-1.26; 95%CI-0.85,1.8]. SLE with COVID-19 had a higher risk of hospitalisation [RR-1.28; 95% CI 1.14-1.44], ICU admission [RR-1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.83], mechanical ventilation [RR- 1.58 95% CI 1.07-2.33], stroke [RR-2.18; 95% CI 1.32,3.60], VTE [RR-2.22; 95% CI 1.57-03.12] and sepsis [RR-1.37; 95% CI 1.06-1.78].Individuals with SLE who contracted COVID-19 had higher mortality, hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, AKI, VTE and sepsis (p < 0.001) compared to SLE without COVID-19. Males with SLE had a higher risk of AKI [RR-2.05; 95% CI 1.27-3.31] than females. Lupus nephritis was associated with higher risk of hospitalisation [RR-1.36; 95% CI 1.05-1.76], AKI [RR-2.32; 95% CI 1.50-3.59] and sepsis [RR-2.07; 95% CI-1.12-3.83]. CONCLUSION: The mortality of individuals with SLE due to COVID-19 is comparable to the general population but with higher risks of hospitalisation, ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, stroke, VTE and sepsis. The presence of nephritis increases the risk of AKI, thus probably increasing hospitalisation and sepsis.
Subject(s)COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/pathology , Lupus Nephritis/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
Purpose To assess national internet search trends/public interest in refractive diseases and treatments during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A Google Trends search for refractive terms was performed during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Refractive terms were divided into disease and treatment terms. Relative search volume (RSV) indices were assessed in the United States from the initial lockdown period (March 1 - June 28), summer reopening period (July 5 - November 1), and winter case surge/vaccine rollout period (November 8 - February 28). A t-test of two independent samples assuming unequal variances was utilized in comparing the pandemic year to pooled data of overlapping weeks between 2016-2019. Results The majority of disease and treatment terms showed a significant decrease in RSV during the initial lockdown period (p<0.05). There was a significant increase in RSV for cataract, astigmatism, cataract surgery, and photorefractive keratotomy (PRK) (p<0.05), accompanied by a significant decrease in RSV for contact lens during the summer reopening period. There was a significant increase in RSV for cataract, astigmatism, glasses, and PRK, accompanied by a significant decrease in RSV for hyperopia, keratoconus, contact lens, and LASIK during the winter case surge/vaccine rollout period. Conclusion There was a significant decrease in the public interest in refractive diseases and treatments during the lockdown period, accompanied by an increase in interest later in the year. Decreased public interest can lead to delays in care, poorer health literacy, and potentially worse outcomes. Strategies to enhance public interest and care during the pandemic may prove to be beneficial.