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1.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022302

ABSTRACT

Reports show that other ordinary childhood infections like measles or Influenza are likely to reemerge. The re-emergence of infectious diseases may happen due to the direct impact of the pandemic on the community because of decreased access to health and medical services, interrupted transport systems, weaknesses in the supply chain, flight restrictions, closings of the border, and international trade problems. The most prevalent cause [60.9%] for low vaccine uptake and coverage during the current pandemic was fear of exposure to the COVID-19 virus outside the home. The expectation and hope that the pattern of reduction in transmission and number of influenza cases will continue over the next flu season depend on continued adherence to nonpharmaceutical interventions and their long-term application. But there is always the fear and threat of increasing the spread of Influenza by reducing the movement restrictions and low adherence to protective health measures due to vaccination. So far, not much information has been published about the interaction between different infectious diseases in the background of the coronavirus pandemic and related interventions. The purpose of this article is to examine the general effects of the Covid-19 vaccination on the spread of Influenza in the coming seasons.

2.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809168

ABSTRACT

World is still struggling with widespread dissemination and many unanswered questions about Coronavirus disease-19(COVID-19). Global efforts introduced several candidate vaccines against causing COVID-19, mostly requires require 2 doses of injections and some with about 90-95% efficacy. All strategies against the spread of infection are placed on breaking the chain of virus transmission though protective public health measures and mass vaccination, as yet. The current situation emphasis on the global need for carefully designed policies to maximize vaccine access and uptake. The risk compensation theory states that a drop in perceived risk caused by access to prevention measures may lead to an increase in risky behaviors. The current pandemic has faced people to the sense of risk compensation and behavior change in response to a perceived risk level. Risk compensation phenomenon may significantly defeat the benefits of COVID-19 vaccination, especially if the vaccine is not very effective in real life or in high-risk populations. Acknowledging and be conscious of Peltzman risk compensation has crucial importance in counteracting and neutralizing the false complacency of community also lend more weight to public health efforts. The public health messages and practices should be clearly expressed, straightforward, reliable and applicable. It is important that as efforts made to encourage mass vaccination of population other NPIs needs to be re-established and implemented to ensuring strike the balance of learning to live with COVID-19 in parallel with daily activities and job tasks.

3.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(1): 15-23, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732598

ABSTRACT

Microbial coinfections can increase the morbidity and mortality rates of viral respiratory diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence of fungal coinfections in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, and Embase were searched without language restrictions to identify the related research on COVID-19 patients with fungal coinfections from December 1, 2019, to December 30, 2020. A random-effects model was used for analysis. The sample size included 2,246 patients from 8 studies. The pooled prevalence of fungal coinfections was 12.60%. The frequency of fungal subtype coinfections was 3.71% for Aspergillus, 2.39% for Candida, and 0.39% for other. The World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe and Regional Office for Southeast Asia had the highest (23.28%) and lowest (4.53%) estimated prevalence of fungal coinfection, respectively. Our findings showed a high prevalence of fungal coinfections in COVID-19 cases, which is a likely contributor to mortality in COVID-19 patients. Early identification of fungal pathogens in the laboratory for COVID-19 patients can lead to timely treatment and prevention of further damage by this hidden infection.

4.
Iran J Med Sci ; 47(1): 2-14, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727330

ABSTRACT

Background: There are reports of ocular tropism due to respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Various studies have shown ocular manifestation in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. We aimed to identify ophthalmic manifestations in COVID-19 patients and establish an association between ocular symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted for publications from December 2019 to April 2021. The search included MeSH terms such as SARS-CoV-2 and ocular manifestations. The pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using binomial distribution and random effects. The meta-regression method was used to examine factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. Results: Of the 412 retrieved articles, 23 studies with a total of 3,650 COVID-19 patients were analyzed. The PPE for any ocular manifestations was 23.77% (95% CI: 15.73-31.81). The most prevalent symptom was dry eyes with a PPE of 13.66% (95% CI: 5.01-25.51). The PPE with 95% CI for conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/conjunctivitis, and ocular pain was 13.41% (4.65-25.51), 9.14% (6.13-12.15), and 10.34% (4.90-15.78), respectively. Only two studies reported ocular discomfort and diplopia. The results of meta-regression analysis showed that age and sample size had no significant effect on the prevalence of any ocular manifestations. There was no significant publication bias in our meta-analysis. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ocular manifestations in COVID-19 patients. The most common symptoms are dry eyes, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/conjunctivitis, ocular pain, irritation/itching/burning sensation, and foreign body sensation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Eye Diseases/epidemiology , Eye Diseases/virology , Humans , Prevalence
5.
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences ; 47(1):1-14, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1608011

ABSTRACT

Background: There are reports of ocular tropism due to respiratory viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Various studies have shown ocular manifestation in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. We aimed to identify ophthalmic manifestations in COVID-19 patients and establish an association between ocular symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: A systematic search of Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library was conducted for publications from December 2019 to April 2021. The search included MeSH terms such as SARS-CoV-2 and ocular manifestations. The pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using binomial distribution and random effects. The meta-regression method was used to examine factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. Results: Of the 412 retrieved articles, 23 studies with a total of 3,650 COVID-19 patients were analyzed. The PPE for any ocular manifestations was 23.77% (95% CI: 15.73-31.81). The most prevalent symptom was dry eyes with a PPE of 13.66% (95% CI: 5.01-25.51). The PPE with 95% CI for conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/conjunctivitis, and ocular pain was 13.41% (4.65-25.51), 9.14% (6.13-12.15), and 10.34% (4.90-15.78), respectively. Only two studies reported ocular discomfort and diplopia. The results of meta-regression analysis showed that age and sample size had no significant effect on the prevalence of any ocular manifestations. There was no significant publication bias in our meta-analysis. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ocular manifestations in COVID-19 patients. The most common symptoms are dry eyes, conjunctival hyperemia, conjunctival congestion/ conjunctivitis, ocular pain, irritation/itching/burning sensation, and foreign body sensation. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences is the property of Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Journal of Nephropathology ; 11(1):1-6, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1605753

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical symptoms of SARSCoV-2 infection in HD patients. Patients and Methods: This is a single-center study conducted at HD center, in Ilam, Iran. The study was included 87 HD patients to be tested. SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed with confirmed test by rRT-PCR (real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) assay. Results: Around 35.63% of HD patients were diagnosed as COVID-19 infection;most of them were male (74.4%). Dyspnea (58.1%) and cough (45.2%) were the most common symptoms among HD cases with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Diabetes (16.1%) and hypertension (19.4%) were the most coexisting medical illnesses. About 12.9% of patients needed ICU care. Additionally, 16.1% of our patients died, which all of them were male. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of COVID-19 among our HD group, accompanied by mild symptoms. The HD population is probably among the most sensitive and high-risk groups for COVID-19 because of advanced age, comorbidities disease, low-immune function and frequent required visits, and patient overload in HD centers. Preventive measures should be taken in order to minimize the virus transmission in dialysis centers. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Journal of Nephropathology is the property of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

7.
J Clin Lab Anal ; 36(1): e24151, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To provide information about pathogens' coinfection prevalence with SARS-CoV-2 could be a real help to save patients' lives. This study aims to evaluate the pathogens' coinfection prevalence among COVID-19 patients. METHOD: In order to find all of the relevant articles, we used systematic search approach. Research-based databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Scopus, without language restrictions, were searched to identify the relevant bacterial, fungal, and viral coinfections among COVID-19 cases from December 1, 2019, to August 23, 2021. In order to dig deeper, other scientific repositories such as Medrxiv were probed. RESULTS: A total of 13,023 studies were found through systematic search. After thorough analysis, only 64 studies with 61,547 patients were included in the study. The most common causative agents of coinfection among COVID-19 patients were bacteria (pooled prevalence: 20.97%; 95% CI: 15.95-26.46; I2 : 99.9%) and less frequent were virus coinfections (pooled prevalence: 12.58%; 95% CI: 7.31-18.96; I2 : 98.7%). The pooled prevalence of fungal coinfections was also 12.60% (95% CI: 7.84-17.36; I2 : 98.3%). Meta-regression analysis showed that the age sample size and WHO geographic region did not influenced heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: We identified a high prevalence of pathogenic microorganism coinfection among COVID-19 patients. Because of this rate of coinfection empirical use of antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral treatment are advisable specifically at the early stage of COVID-19 infection. We also suggest running simultaneously diagnostic tests to identify other microbiological agents' coinfection with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Mycoses/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Humans , Prevalence
8.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5313832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coinfections have a potential role in increased morbidity and mortality rates during pandemics. Our investigation is aimed at evaluating the viral coinfection prevalence in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We systematically searched scientific databases, including Medline, Scopus, WOS, and Embase, from December 1, 2019, to December 30, 2020. Preprint servers such as medRxiv were also scanned to find other related preprint papers. All types of studies evaluating the viral coinfection prevalence in COVID-19 patients were considered. We applied the random effects model to pool all of the related studies. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies including 10484 patients were identified. The viral coinfection estimated pooled prevalence was 12.58%; 95% CI: 7.31 to 18.96). Blood viruses (pooled prevalence: 12.48%; 95% CI: 8.57 to 16.93) had the most frequent viral coinfection, and respiratory viruses (pooled prevalence: 4.32%; 95% CI: 2.78 to 6.15) had less frequent viral coinfection. The herpesvirus pooled prevalence was 11.71% (95% CI: 3.02 to 24.80). Also, the maximum and minimum of viral coinfection pooled prevalence were in AMRO and EMRO with 15.63% (95% CI: 3.78 to 33.31) and 7.05% (95% CI: 3.84 to 11.07), respectively. CONCLUSION: The lowest rate of coinfection belonged to respiratory viruses. Blood-borne viruses had the highest coinfection rate. Our results provide important data about the prevalence of blood-borne viruses among COVID-19 patients which can be critical when it comes to their treatment procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/pathogenicity
9.
Hosp Top ; : 1-8, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373504

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The possibility of surface transmission in hospitals with high density of COVID- 19 patients is unneglectable. The aim of this study is to determine the extent of surface contamination in coronavirus central hospital of Ilam province in western Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 205 samples were taken from environmental surfaces in hospital. SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected by Real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS: 121 out of 205 (50.02%) samples were positive. The most contaminated objects were toilet sites (5/5,100% ICU; 5/5, 100% isolation wards). CONCLUSION: High surface contamination with SARS-CoV-2 proposes the surface as a potential route of transmission.

10.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 141324, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684422

ABSTRACT

On December 31, 2019, the novel human coronavirus (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China and swiftly spread in all nations and territories around the globe. There is much debate about the major route of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmissions. So, more evidence is required to determine the potential pathway of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 including airborne transmission. Therefore, we examined the potential aerosol transmission of the virus through hospital wards indoor air by confirmed COVID-19 patients on May 7, 2020. In order to capture airborne SARS-CoV-2, the liquid impinger biosampler was used to take fourteen air samples in different wards of the indoor air of the hospital. The specific primer and probe real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to detect viral genomes of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in positive air samples. Accordingly, we found two positive air samples (in the ICU) out of 14 ones taken from different wards with confirmed COVID-19 patients. The results revealed the possibility of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 though more studies are required to determine the role of actual mechanisms such as cough, sneeze, normal breathing and speaking in the emission of airborne size carrier aerosols. Likewise, more quantitative analyses are needed to estimate airborne viability of SARS-CoV-2 in the carrier aerosols.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution, Indoor , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
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