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1.
Evidence Based Nursing ; 22:22, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193849
2.
Physics of Fluids ; 35(1), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2186668

ABSTRACT

The education sector has suffered a catastrophic setback due to the ongoing COVID pandemic, with classrooms being closed indefinitely. The current study aims to solve the existing dilemma by examining COVID transmission inside a classroom and providing long-term sustainable solutions. In this work, a standard 5 × 3 × 5 m3 classroom is considered where 24 students are seated, accompanied by a teacher. A computational fluid dynamics simulation based on OpenFOAM is performed using a Eulerian-Lagrangian framework. Based on the stochastic dose-response framework, we have evaluated the infection risk in the classroom for two distinct cases: (i) certain students are infected and (ii) the teacher is infected. If the teacher is infected, the probability of infection could reach 100% for certain students. When certain students are infected, the maximum infection risk for a susceptible person reaches 30%. The commonly used cloth mask proves to be ineffective in providing protection against infection transmission, reducing the maximum infection probability by approximately 26% only. Another commonly used solution in the form of shields installed on desks has also failed to provide adequate protection against infection, reducing the infection risk only by 50%. Furthermore, the shields serve as a source of fomite mode of infection. Screens suspended from the ceiling, which entrap droplets, have been proposed as a novel solution that reduces the infection risk by 90% and 95% compared to the no screen scenario besides being completely devoid of fomite infection mode. The manifestation of infection risk in the domain was investigated, and it was found out that in the case of screens the maximum infection risk reached the value of only 0.2 (20% infection probability) in 1325 s. © 2023 Author(s).

3.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research ; 14(11):722-735, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2147026

ABSTRACT

In the 1930's the corona virus was first identified as a highly contagious chicken respiratory virus. Two human coronaviruses were later identified, the human coronavirus 229E causing the flu and secondly the human coronavirus OC43. Others are also important as SARS-CoV. In late 2019 the outbreak of Pneumonia occurred in the Chinese city of Wuhan which was investigated as a result of the corona virus, renamed as 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization (WHO) and. now called as SARS-CoV-2. The WHO has identified the global health problem as an epidemic. Respiratory droplets produced during coughing and sneezing are the main means of transmission of COVID-19. Infection with COVID-19 in an infected person may remain undetected. Common symptoms of fever and dry cough are less common in the production of sputum, fatigue and in some cases may be dyspnoea or shortness of breath. The COVID-19 virus is a type of RNA virus, the outer envelope containing a lipid bilayer in which various proteins are synthesized such as membrane (M), envelope (E) and spike (S). Hand washing, coughing, social isolation, wearing a face mask in public, disinfection areas, and isolation are various ways to prevent the disease. The diagnosis of COVID-19 can be made on the basis of symptoms and confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. There are currently no antiretroviral drugs approved for COVID-19, only symptomatic and supportive treatment is used to treat people with this viral infection. Drugs that have been approved for the purpose of treating other viral infections are under investigation. Vaccination is an ultimate prevention and protection;few vaccines are given emergency approval and some are in progressive development phase in various countries to prevent this deadly pandemic. Copyright © 2022, Dr Yashwant Research Labs Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

5.
Lung India ; 39(SUPPL 1):S155, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857584

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has inflated the risks faced by healthcare workersand may increase their susceptibility to sleep and psychological problems. This cross-sectional observational study assessed the sleep and psychological problems due to the COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers of Employees State Insurance Corporation, an organized sector under the Ministry of Labour and Employment, India. Method: Logistic regression was used to evaluate factors associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, insomnia and perceived stress among 492 healthcare workers in Employees State Insurance Corporation hospitals and dispensaries in Delhi and the National Capital Territory Region, India. Results: Logistic regression determined that factors of workplace type and frequency of hand washing were associated with anxiety;workplace type, job profile, occupation, formal COVID-19 training and adequate personal protective equipment were predictors of perceived stress;job profile was a common predictor of depression and insomnia;workplace type and formal COVID-19 training were associated with depression and insomnia, respectively. Limitations: This study was limited to healthcare workers in Employees State Insurance Corporation of Delhi and NCR which limits its generalizability to other regions of India. Conclusions: Healthcare workers are exposed to increased risk in the execution of their duties and require support to secure their wellbeing. Policies, systems for early detection of sleep and psychological problems, training, preparedness and efficacy in crisis management are suggested to reduce and prevent the occurrence of these problems among HCWs.

6.
International Journal of Logistics Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1713864

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The Covid-19 pandemic exposed the fragility of global supply chains. Attempts to deepen our understanding of the effects of the pandemic on global supply chains mostly offer anecdotal evidences and lack theory grounded research. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework to help explain supply chain disruption management. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper and uses a theory building approach. It develops a conceptual framework adapted from coping theory in psychology to explain supply chain disruption management. To refine the framework, the authors independently reviewed extant supply chain disruption management literature. The authors then studied the frameworks on stress theory in psychology. Following the review of both streams of literatures, the authors developed an initial draft of the conceptual model. This draft was then iteratively refined through extensive discussions among the authors. Findings: Coping theory can help revise supply chain disruption management with an alternative lens that has not been applied before in this domain. The proposed conceptual framework is generic and can be applied to disruption management strategies for any organization in any industry. Originality/value: The conceptual framework proposed in this paper offers a new theoretical lens to supply chain disruption management discourse. It contributes to the operational understanding of supply chain disruption management. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

7.
Journal of Diabetology ; 12(3):350-356, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1689967

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetes is a common co-morbid condition that influences morbidity and mortality in patients with COVID-19 and has been a focus of intense research. However, a systematic assessment of global diabetes research concerning COVID-19 is unavailable. Aim: We aimed to provide a bibliometric assessment of research output on diabetes concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Publications on diabetes in relation to COVID-19 were retrieved from the Scopus database and analyzed using appropriate bibliometric indicators. Results: The publications indexed till January 6, 2021 numbered 762. The share of the top 10 of the 82 countries was 90.6%. The USA, China, India, Italy, and the UK were the most productive countries, with publication share ranging from 11.4% to 17.8%. Brazil, China, Germany, Australia, France, and India registered higher publication impact. The average citations per paper were 7.3, and 19.4% of the publications were funded. The share of publications on type 2 diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and gestational diabetes was 23.2%, 16.5%, and 4.1%, respectively. Diabetic complications, clinical studies, and epidemiology were the most researched aspects of diabetes concerning COVID-19, with 47.9%, 23.3%, and 14.0% share, respectively. Publications on pathophysiology numbered only 93 (12.2%). The most productive organizations were Tongji Medical College, China, Huazhong University, China, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, India, and INSERM, France. Obesity and Cholesterol Foundation, India, Imperial College, UK, and The Central Hospital of Wuhan, China were the most impactful organizations. R. Pal, A. Ceriello, and B. Cariou were the most productive authors, whereas A. Misra, R. Gupta, and A.K. Singh were the most impactful. The most active journals were Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, and Diabetes Care. Conclusion: Extensive high-quality research has been conducted on diabetes in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic in developed and developing countries. There is a need to focus on pathophysiological studies to elucidate further the underlying mechanisms that predispose COVID-19-affected diabetes patients to severe disease and death. Our scientometric assessment may help understand the research gaps and guide future research in this field.

8.
Open Dermatology Journal ; 15(1):59-65, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1599066

ABSTRACT

Background: Due to the prevailing coronavirus crisis, the use of sanitizers has become an urgent need of today to take preventive care as we step out for various reasons. Many brands and varieties of sanitizers are available in the market today. Objective: The present study has been undertaken to develop and analyse the effects of an Ayurvedic preparation to overcome all the ill effects exerted on the skin by the chemical-based sanitizers. As there are very bad long-lasting effects on skin after continuous use of synthetically derived sanitizers. This pandemic situation has forced all of us for using sanitizers at least 10 times a day, especially for children and the Geriatric population. Material and Methods: Formulation was developed with the help of natural ingredients and then it was evaluated on the safety and efficacy standards to make sure about the credibility of the designed preparation. The benefits of using this formulation were observed during the health camps organised by Diabport health care at various parks in Kanpur. The texture of the skin was improved and apart from this. This was assessed with the help of a questionnaire (KAP) which was developed and validated. Results: The herbal based sanitizer, derived from Ayurvedic principles, was found to be quite effective against germs, microbes and it was beneficial for the care of hands also. Hands were soft and irritation free when the herbal sanitizers were applied for optimum time. We have observed that those patients who have history of high sugar level are more prone of developing rashes due to excessive usage of sanitizers. Diabetic dermopathy was also relieved. The population which used this formulation showed sign of improvement in both the texture of skin as well as decreased number of rashes. Conclusion: Herbal-based sanitizers are the need of the hour to combat the danger of corona, keeping the hands mild and soft. More focus on them should be encouraged on a large scale.

9.
Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome-Clinical Research & Reviews ; 15(5):2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1498787
10.
Economic and Political Weekly ; 56(28):19-22, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1326351

ABSTRACT

This article draws on a recent survey conducted in peri-urban Bhopal to provide an estimate of the willingness to pay for the vaccines. The findings indicate the need for higher subsidisation through expansion of the budgetary provisioning and integrating this with willingness to pay. © 2021 Economic and Political Weekly. All rights reserved.

11.
Br J Dermatol ; 185(4): 859-861, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304081

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
12.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 45(1): 53-68, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283827

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To provide a precise summary and collate the hitherto available clinical evidence on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched using appropriate keywords till June 8, 2021, to identify observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting adverse clinical outcomes (ICU admission and/or mortality) in COVID-19 patients receiving vitamin D supplementation vs. those not receiving the same. Both prior use and use of vitamin D after COVID-19 diagnosis were considered. Unadjusted/adjusted pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated (PROSPERO registration number CRD42021248488). RESULTS: We identified 13 studies (10 observational, 3 RCTs) pooling data retrieved from 2933 COVID-19 patients. Pooled analysis of unadjusted data showed that vitamin D use in COVID-19 was significantly associated with reduced ICU admission/mortality (OR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20, 0.81, p = 0.01, I2 = 66%, random-effects model). Similarly, on pooling adjusted risk estimates, vitamin D was also found to reduce the risk of adverse outcomes (pooled OR 0.27, 95% CI: 0.08, 0.91, p = 0.03, I2 = 80%, random-effects model). Subgroup analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation was associated with improved clinical outcomes only in patients receiving the drug post-COVID-19 diagnosis and not in those who had received vitamin D before diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D supplementation might be associated with improved clinical outcomes, especially when administered after the diagnosis of COVID-19. However, issues regarding the appropriate dose, duration, and mode of administration of vitamin D remain unanswered and need further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Odds Ratio , Vitamin D/adverse effects , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
13.
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases ; 5(4):184-193, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1273590

ABSTRACT

Aims: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is approved for use as an oral anti-diabetic drug (OAD) in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM);however, robust data are lacking. The present meta-analysis was conducted to provide precise effect estimates regarding the efficacy and safety of HCQ in patients with T2DM. Methods: PubMed/Cochrane Library and grey literature were systematically searched till August 25, 2020, to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with duration =12 weeks, evaluating the efficacy and safety of HCQ (400 mg/day) in patients with T2DM and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) =7.0%-7.5% already on a combination of metformin/sulfonylurea compared to either placebo or another OAD. Results: We identified eight eligible RCTs, pooling data retrieved from 1763 patients with T2DM. HCQ resulted in significant decrease in HbA1c by 0.88% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.01 to - 0.75) compared to placebo and by 0.32% (95% CI: -0.37 to -0.26) compared to an OAD. Besides, there were significant reductions in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, body weight, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein. A small but significant increase in high-density lipoprotein was also noted. An increase in the risk of any episode of symptomatic hypoglycemia (whether documented or not) was observed (risk ratio = 1.34 [95% CI: 1.10-1.63]). No other safety issues were identified. Conclusions: The meta-analysis suggests that HCQ, used as an add-on drug in patients with T2DM exerts significant beneficial effects on glycemic control, body weight, and lipid profile, however, increasing the risk for symptomatic hypoglycemia. HCQ might be useful amid the ongoing pandemic, as the drug has also been found to be beneficial in COVID-19.

14.
International Journal of Noncommunicable Diseases ; 5(3):99-101, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1273589
16.
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care ; 10(1):4-9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1143687

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus affects almost all the organ systems of the body leading to multisystemic morbidities and typical complications hitherto unheard of in seasonal "flu" or SARS-CoV-1 epidemic. Acute life-threatening complications range from unabated pneumonia and respiratory failure to "cytokine release syndrome" or "cytokine storm," cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidities leading to multiorgan failure, followed by death. The prepathogenesis, pathogenesis, and the clinico-demographic characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection have shown a wide variation across different populations, geographical regions, race, and ethnicities. While there are some commonalities, there continues to be a lack of consensus on several aspects of this infection such as its natural history, infectivity, transmission, and its mutagenic strains. Further, newer aspects of the disease have continued to emerge with passing time since its first appearance in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. The initial case descriptions varied from asymptomatic to mild illness requiring minimal monitoring and support to severe COVID-19 disease requiring admission to intensive care facilities and a higher morbidity and mortality. Only subsequently it was recognized that even after the clinical recovery from illness, the infection may persist for a longer time, with continuing damage to some organ systems and sequelae that compromise the quality of life. These have been called the long-term complications or "chronic COVID" infection, and they may be noted even months after recovery from the acute form of disease. While thus far the global efforts have been rightfully directed at combating the acute illness in the pandemic and maximizing recovery, it is possible that we may soon be faced with the challenge of a "secondary pandemic" with a significant burden of chronic COVID and sequelae. This will be a strain on the palliative care, rehabilitative care, and domiciliary care network essentially supported by the primary health-care providers or first-contact physicians worldwide. This approach is in alignment with an emphasis that the WHO placed on the third clinical outcome indicator "functioning" in addition to the two indicators "cure" and "death." The present review discusses the pathophysiology, clinical aspects, and implications of long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection. It is expected to help in sensitizing the health-care workers and policymakers for preparing adequately and timely for dealing with these effects.

17.
US Endocrinology ; 16(2):66-67, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1090118

ABSTRACT

Serum cortisol is a measure of underlying disease severity. The more severe the disease, the higher the circulating cortisol levels and the greater the chances of poor prognosis/mortality. Not surprisingly, a recent study found that higher serum cortisol was associated with poor prognosis in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Nevertheless, the study did not take into consideration the confounding effect of COVID-19 severity;hence, the results could not be regarded as being fully adjusted. Besides, guiding glucocorticoid therapy based on serum cortisol levels is an impractical proposition, and to date is not backed by robust evidence. Therefore, routine measurement of serum cortisol in patients with COVID-19 is a futile endeavor and should not be encouraged. © Touch Medical Media 2020

18.
J Endocrinol Invest ; 44(3): 639-640, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002197
19.
Indian Pediatrics ; 24:24, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615768

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Preliminary data on coexistence of secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome (HLH) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in critically ill children with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are emerging. Herein, we summarize the available literature and fill-in the gaps in this regard. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We have performed a literature search for articles in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar databases till May 12, 2020, with following keywords: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "HLH", "HScore", "coagulopathy", "D-dimer", "cytokine storm", "children" and "pediatrics" with interposition of Boolean operator "AND". RESULTS: Children presenting with moderate-severe COVID-19 and Kawasaki disease shock-like syndrome exhibit peripheral blood picture analogous to HLH. HScore, a validated tool to diagnose HLH, has been suggested to screen severe COVID-19 patients for cytokine storm. However, HScore faces certain limitations in this scenario. It may be more pragmatic to use 'high D-dimer' ( 3 micro g/mL) instead of 'low fibrinogen' to facilitate early detection of cytokine storm. COVID-19 associated coagulopathy resembles hypercoagulable form of DIC with bleeding being rarely reported. Although the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) interim guidance recommends low molecular weight heparin in all hospitalized patients, data is lacking in population below 14 years of age. However, in the presence of life-threatening thromboembolic event or symptomatic acro-ischemia, unfractionated heparin (UFH) should be used with caution. CONCLUSION: HScore can be used as a complement to clinical decision for initiating immunosuppression. Children with moderate-to-severe COVID-19, especially those with documented thrombocytopenia or chilblains, should be regularly monitored for coagulopathy.

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