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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934126

ABSTRACT

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and John Cunningham polyomavirus (JCPyV) are widely distributed DNA viruses causing mainly asymptomatic infection, but also mild to very severe diseases, especially when these viruses reach the brain. Some drugs have been developed to inhibit HSV-1 replication in host cells, but their prolonged use may induce resistance phenomena. In contrast, to date, there is no cure for JCPyV. The search for alternative drugs that can reduce viral infections without undermining the host cell is moving toward antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of natural occurrence. These include amphibian AMPs belonging to the temporin family. Herein, we focus on temporin G (TG), showing that it strongly affects HSV-1 replication by acting either during the earliest stages of its life cycle or directly on the virion. Computational studies have revealed the ability of TG to interact with HSV-1 glycoprotein B. We also found that TG reduced JCPyV infection, probably affecting both the earliest phases of its life cycle and the viral particle, likely through an interaction with the viral capsid protein VP1. Overall, our results are promising for the development of short naturally occurring peptides as antiviral agents used to counteract diseases related to HSV-1 and JCPyV.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 1, Human , Amphibians , Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Peptides , Herpesvirus 1, Human/physiology , Virus Replication
2.
Lancet ; 400(10346): 97-103, 2022 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By April 13, 2022, more than 4 months after the approval of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) for children, less than 40% of 5-11-year-olds in Italy had been vaccinated against COVID-19. Estimating how effective vaccination is in 5-11-year-olds in the current epidemiological context dominated by the omicron variant (B.1.1.529) is important to inform public health bodies in defining vaccination policies and strategies. METHODS: In this retrospective population analysis, we assessed vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19, defined as an infection leading to hospitalisation or death, by linking the national COVID-19 surveillance system and the national vaccination registry. All Italian children aged 5-11 years without a previous diagnosis of infection were eligible for inclusion and were followed up from Jan 17 to April 13, 2022. All children with inconsistent vaccination data, diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection before the start date of the study or without information on the municipality of residence were excluded from the analysis. With unvaccinated children as the reference group, we estimated vaccine effectiveness in those who were partly vaccinated (one dose) and those who were fully vaccinated (two doses). FINDINGS: By April 13, 2022, 1 063 035 (35·8%) of the 2 965 918 children aged 5-11 years included in the study had received two doses of the vaccine, 134 386 (4·5%) children had received one dose only, and 1 768 497 (59·6%) were unvaccinated. During the study period, 766 756 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and 644 cases of severe COVID-19 (627 hospitalisations, 15 admissions to intensive care units, and two deaths) were notified. Overall, vaccine effectiveness in the fully vaccinated group was 29·4% (95% CI 28·5-30·2) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and 41·1% (22·2-55·4) against severe COVID-19, whereas vaccine effectiveness in the partly vaccinated group was 27·4% (26·4-28·4) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and 38·1% (20·9-51·5) against severe COVID-19. Vaccine effectiveness against infection peaked at 38·7% (37·7-39·7) at 0-14 days after full vaccination and decreased to 21·2% (19·7-22·7) at 43-84 days after full vaccination. INTERPRETATION: Vaccination against COVID-19 in children aged 5-11 years in Italy showed a lower effectiveness in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 than in individuals aged 12 years and older. Effectiveness against infection appears to decrease after completion of the current primary vaccination cycle. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATION: For the Italian translation of the summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 74, 2022 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised for COVID-19 may present with or acquire bacterial or fungal infections that can affect the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics of laboratory-confirmed infections in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We reviewed the hospital charts of a sample of patients deceased with COVID-19 from the Italian National COVID-19 Surveillance, who had laboratory-confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infections (BSI) or lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), evaluating the pathogens responsible for the infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility. RESULTS: Among 157 patients with infections hospitalised from February 2020 to April 2021, 28 (17.8%) had co-infections (≤ 48 h from admission) and 138 (87.9%) had secondary infections (> 48 h). Most infections were bacterial; LRTI were more frequent than BSI. The most common co-infection was pneumococcal LRTI. In secondary infections, Enterococci were the most frequently recovered pathogens in BSI (21.7% of patients), followed by Enterobacterales, mainly K. pneumoniae, while LRTI were mostly associated with Gram-negative bacteria, firstly Enterobacterales (27.4% of patients, K. pneumoniae 15.3%), followed by A. baumannii (19.1%). Fungal infections, both BSI and LRTI, were mostly due to C. albicans. Antibiotic resistance rates were extremely high in Gram-negative bacteria, with almost all A. baumannii isolates resistant to carbapenems (95.5%), and K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa showing carbapenem resistance rates of 59.5% and 34.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19, secondary infections are considerably more common than co-infections, and are mostly due to Gram-negative bacterial pathogens showing a very high rate of antibiotic resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Fungemia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteremia/complications , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/microbiology , Fungemia/complications , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/microbiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
5.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(7): 975-982, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778823

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Consolidated information on the effectiveness of COVID-19 booster vaccination in Europe are scarce. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We assessed the effectiveness of a booster dose of an mRNA vaccine against any SARS-CoV-2 infection (symptomatic or asymptomatic) and severe COVID-19 (hospitalization or death) after over two months from administration among priority target groups (n = 18,524,568) during predominant circulation of the Delta variant in Italy (July-December 2021). RESULTS: Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against SARS-CoV-2 infection and, to a lesser extent, against severe COVID-19, among people ≥60 years and other high-risk groups (i.e. healthcare workers, residents in long-term-care facilities, and persons with comorbidities or immunocompromised), peaked in the time-interval 3-13 weeks (VE against infection = 67.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 62.5-71.3; VE against severe disease = 89.5%, 95% CI: 86.1-92.0) and then declined, waning 26 weeks after full primary vaccination (VE against infection = 12.2%, 95% CI: -4.7-26.4; VE against severe disease = 65.3%, 95% CI: 50.3-75.8). After 3-10 weeks from the administration of a booster dose, VE against infection and severe disease increased to 76.1% (95% CI: 70.4-80.7) and 93.0% (95% CI: 90.2-95.0), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the ongoing vaccination campaign in Italy, where the administration of a booster dose four months after completion of primary vaccination is recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
6.
BMJ ; 376: e069052, 2022 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759321

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe covid-19 at different time after vaccination. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Italy, 27 December 2020 to 7 November 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 33 250 344 people aged ≥16 years who received a first dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine and did not have a previous diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe covid-19 (admission to hospital or death). Data were divided by weekly time intervals after vaccination. Incidence rate ratios at different time intervals were estimated by multilevel negative binomial models with robust variance estimator. Sex, age group, brand of vaccine, priority risk category, and regional weekly incidence in the general population were included as covariates. Geographic region was included as a random effect. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was calculated as (1-IRR)×100, where IRR=incidence rate ratio, with the time interval 0-14 days after the first dose of vaccine as the reference. RESULTS: During the epidemic phase when the delta variant was the predominant strain of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection significantly decreased (P<0.001) from 82% (95% confidence interval 80% to 84%) at 3-4 weeks after the second dose of vaccine to 33% (27% to 39%) at 27-30 weeks after the second dose. In the same time intervals, vaccine effectiveness against severe covid-19 also decreased (P<0.001), although to a lesser extent, from 96% (95% to 97%) to 80% (76% to 83%). High risk people (vaccine effectiveness -6%, -28% to 12%), those aged ≥80 years (11%, -15% to 31%), and those aged 60-79 years (2%, -11% to 14%) did not seem to be protected against infection at 27-30 weeks after the second dose of vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the vaccination campaigns targeting high risk people, those aged ≥60 years, and healthcare workers to receive a booster dose of vaccine six months after the primary vaccination cycle. The results also suggest that timing the booster dose earlier than six months after the primary vaccination cycle and extending the offer of the booster dose to the wider eligible population might be warranted.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , /administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327217

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern Omicron was first detected in Italy in November 2021. Data from three genomic surveys conducted in Italy between December 2021 and January 2022 suggest that Omicron became dominant in less than one month (prevalence on January 3: 78.6%-83.8%) with a doubling time of 2.7-3.1 days. The mean net reproduction number rose from about 1.15 in absence of Omicron to a peak of 1.83 for symptomatic cases and 1.33 for hospitalized cases, while it remained stable for critical cases.

8.
Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology ; 11, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1639808

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus infection induces oxidative stress in host cells by decreasing the intracellular content of glutathione (GSH) and increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) level. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is responsible for the production of reducing equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) that is used to regenerate the reduced form of GSH, thus restoring redox homeostasis. Cells deficient in G6PD display elevated levels of ROS and an increased susceptibility to viral infection, although the consequences of G6PD modulation during viral infection remain to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that influenza virus infection decreases G6PD expression and activity, resulting in an increase in oxidative stress and virus replication. Moreover, the down regulation of G6PD correlated with a decrease in the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a key transcription factor that regulates the expression of the antioxidant response gene network. Also down-regulated in influenza virus infected cells was sirtuin 2 (SIRT2), a NADPH-dependent deacetylase involved in the regulation of G6PD activity. Acetylation of G6PD increased during influenza virus infection in a manner that was strictly dependent on SIRT2 expression. Furthermore, the use of a pharmacological activator of SIRT2 rescued GSH production and NRF2 expression, leading to decreased influenza virus replication. Overall, these data identify a novel strategy used by influenza virus to induce oxidative stress and to favor its replication in host cells. These observations furthermore suggest that manipulation of metabolic and oxidative stress pathways could define new therapeutic strategies to interfere with influenza virus infection.

9.
J Photochem Photobiol ; 8: 100082, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568867

ABSTRACT

Difficulty in controlling SARS-CoV-2 transmission made the ability to inactivate viruses in aerosols and fomites to be an important and attractive risk reduction measure. Evidence that light frequencies have the ability to inhibit microorganisms has already been reported by many studies which, however, focused on ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths, which are known to induce potential injury in humans. In the present study, the effect on suspensions of SARS-CoV-2 of a Light Emitting Diode (LED) device capable of radiating frequencies in the non-hazardous visible light spectrum (VIS) was investigated. In order to evaluate the efficiency of viral inactivation, plaque assay and western blot of viral proteins were performed. The observed results showed a significant reduction in infectious particles that had been exposed to the LED irradiation of visible light. Furthermore, the analysis of the intracellular expression of viral proteins confirmed the inactivating effect of this irradiation technology. This in vitro study revealed for the first time the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 through LED irradiation with multiple wavelengths of the visible spectrum. However additional and more in-depth studies can aim to demonstrate the data obtained during these experiments in different matrices, in mutable environmental conditions and on other respiratory viruses such as the influenza virus. The type of LED technology can decisively contribute on reducing virus transmission through the continuous sanitation of common environments without risks for humans and animals.

10.
Biomedicines ; 9(11)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523868

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols have been widely studied for their antiviral effect against respiratory virus infections. Among these, resveratrol (RV) has been demonstrated to inhibit influenza virus replication and more recently, it has been tested together with pterostilbene against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In the present work, we evaluated the antiviral activity of polydatin, an RV precursor, and a mixture of polyphenols and other micronutrients, named A5+, against influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections. To this end, we infected Vero E6 cells and analyzed the replication of both respiratory viruses in terms of viral proteins synthesis and viral titration. We demonstrated that A5+ showed a higher efficacy in inhibiting both influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 infections compared to polydatin treatment alone. Indeed, post infection treatment significantly decreased viral proteins expression and viral release, probably by interfering with any step of virus replicative cycle. Intriguingly, A5+ treatment strongly reduced IL-6 cytokine production in influenza virus-infected cells, suggesting its potential anti-inflammatory properties during the infection. Overall, these results demonstrate the synergic and innovative antiviral efficacy of A5+ mixture, although further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying its inhibitory effect.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 671813, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359201

ABSTRACT

The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been recently demonstrated in the sputum or saliva, suggesting how the shedding of viral RNA outlasts the end of symptoms. Recent data from transcriptome analysis show that the oral cavity mucosa harbors high levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2), highlighting its role as a double-edged sword for SARS-CoV-2 body entrance or interpersonal transmission. Here, we studied the oral microbiota structure and inflammatory profile of 26 naive severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 15 controls by 16S rRNA V2 automated targeted sequencing and magnetic bead-based multiplex immunoassays, respectively. A significant diminution in species richness was observed in COVID-19 patients, along with a marked difference in beta-diversity. Species such as Prevotella salivae and Veillonella infantium were distinctive for COVID-19 patients, while Neisseria perflava and Rothia mucilaginosa were predominant in controls. Interestingly, these two groups of oral species oppositely clustered within the bacterial network, defining two distinct Species Interacting Groups (SIGs). COVID-19-related pro-inflammatory cytokines were found in both oral and serum samples, along with a specific bacterial consortium able to counteract them. We introduced a new parameter, named CytoCOV, able to predict COVID-19 susceptibility for an unknown subject at 71% of power with an Area Under Curve (AUC) equal to 0.995. This pilot study evidenced a distinctive oral microbiota composition in COVID-19 subjects, with a definite structural network in relation to secreted cytokines. Our results would be usable in clinics against COVID-19, using bacterial consortia as biomarkers or to reduce local inflammation.

12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299437

ABSTRACT

Host-directed therapy using drugs that target cellular pathways required for virus lifecycle or its clearance might represent an effective approach for treating infectious diseases. Changes in redox homeostasis, including intracellular glutathione (GSH) depletion, are one of the key events that favor virus replication and contribute to the pathogenesis of virus-induced disease. Redox homeostasis has an important role in maintaining an appropriate Th1/Th2 balance, which is necessary to mount an effective immune response against viral infection and to avoid excessive inflammatory responses. It is known that excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by viral infection activates nuclear factor (NF)-kB, which orchestrates the expression of viral and host genes involved in the viral replication and inflammatory response. Moreover, redox-regulated protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) chaperones have an essential role in catalyzing formation of disulfide bonds in viral proteins. This review aims at describing the role of GSH in modulating redox sensitive pathways, in particular that mediated by NF-kB, and PDI activity. The second part of the review discusses the effectiveness of GSH-boosting molecules as broad-spectrum antivirals acting in a multifaceted way that includes the modulation of immune and inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
Glutathione/metabolism , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Replication/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Protein Disulfide-Isomerases/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(6)2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148303

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is without any doubt the worst pandemic we have faced since the H1N1 virus outbreak. Even if vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 infection is becoming increasingly available, a more feasible approach for COVID-19 prevention and therapy is still needed. Evidence of a pathological link between metabolic diseases and severe forms of COVID-19 has stimulated critical reflection and new considerations. In particular, an abnormal immune response observed in certain patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection suggested possible common predisposing risk factors with autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Correct supplementation with dietary factors may be key to preventing and counteracting both the underlying metabolic impairment and the complications of COVID-19. A set of agents may inhibit the cytokine storm and hypercoagulability that characterize severe COVID-19 infection: vitamin D3, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols like pterostilbene, polydatin and honokiol, which can activate anti-inflammatory and antioxidant sirtuins pathways, quercetin, vitamin C, zinc, melatonin, lactoferrin and glutathione. These agents could be highly beneficial for subjects who have altered immune responses. In this review, we discuss the antiviral and metabolic effects of these dietary factors and propose their combination for potential applications in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Rigorous studies will be fundamental for validating preventive and therapeutic protocols that could be of assistance to mitigate disease progression following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/diet therapy , COVID-19/diet therapy , Diet , Metabolic Diseases/diet therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diet therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Disease Progression , Humans , Metabolic Diseases/complications , Thrombophilia/diet therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology
14.
J Virol Methods ; 287: 114008, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-907063

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the etiologic agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although other diagnostic methods have been introduced, detection of viral genes on oro- and nasopharyngeal swabs by reverse-transcription real time-PCR (rRT-PCR) assays is still the gold standard. Efficient viral RNA extraction is a prerequisite for downstream performance of rRT-PCR assays. Currently, several automatic methods that include RNA extraction are available. However, due to the growing demand, a shortage in kit supplies could be experienced in several labs. For these reasons, the use of different commercial or in-house protocols for RNA extraction may increase the possibility to analyze high number of samples. Herein, we compared the efficiency of RNA extraction of three different commercial kits and an in-house extraction protocol using synthetic ssRNA standards of SARS-CoV-2 as well as in oro-nasopharyngeal swabs from six COVID-19-positive patients. It was concluded that tested commercial kits can be used with some modifications for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 genome by rRT-PCR approaches, although with some differences in RNA yields. Conversely, EXTRAzol reagent was the less efficient due to the phase separation principle at the basis of RNA extraction. Overall, this study offers alternative suitable methods to manually extract RNA that can be taken into account for SARS-CoV-2 detection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Genes, Viral/genetics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
15.
J Neurovirol ; 26(3): 311-323, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599674

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China, has been associated to a novel coronavirus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the SARS-CoV-2 infection a global pandemic. Soon after, the number of cases soared dramatically, spreading across China and worldwide. Italy has had 12,462 confirmed cases according to the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) as of March 11, and after the "lockdown" of the entire territory, by May 4, 209,254 cases of COVID-19 and 26,892 associated deaths have been reported. We performed a review to describe, in particular, the origin and the diffusion of COVID-19 in Italy, underlying how the geographical circulation has been heterogeneous and the importance of pathophysiology in the involvement of cardiovascular and neurological clinical manifestations.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Geography , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/mortality , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/diagnosis , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/mortality , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574726

ABSTRACT

Viruses use cell machinery to replicate their genome and produce viral proteins. For this reason, several intracellular factors, including the redox state, might directly or indirectly affect the progression and outcome of viral infection. In physiological conditions, the redox balance between oxidant and antioxidant species is maintained by enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems, and it finely regulates several cell functions. Different viruses break this equilibrium and induce an oxidative stress that in turn facilitates specific steps of the virus lifecycle and activates an inflammatory response. In this context, many studies highlighted the importance of redox-sensitive pathways as novel cell-based targets for therapies aimed at blocking both viral replication and virus-induced inflammation. In the review, we discuss the most recent findings in this field. In particular, we describe the effects of natural or synthetic redox-modulating molecules in inhibiting DNA or RNA virus replication as well as inflammatory pathways. The importance of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 is also discussed. Most of the data reported here are on influenza virus infection. We believe that this approach could be usefully applied to fight other acute respiratory viral infections characterized by a strong inflammatory response, like COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Glutathione/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/pathology , Virus Replication/drug effects
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