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2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318317

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread all over the world causing a global pandemic and representing a great medical challenge. Nowadays, there is limited knowledge on the rate of co-infections with other respiratory pathogens, with viral co-infection being the most representative agents. Co-infection with Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been described both in adults and pediatrics whereas only 2 cases of Chlamydia pneumoniae have been reported in a large US study so far. In the present report, we describe a series of 7 patients where co-infection with C. pneumoniae (n=5) or M. pneumoniae (n=2) and SARS-CoV-2 was detected in a large teaching hospital in Rome. An extensive review of the updated literature regarding the co-infection between SARS-CoV-2 and these atypical pathogens is also performed.

3.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601783

ABSTRACT

Aims Cardiovascular sequelae in COVID-19 survivors remain largely unclear and can potentially go unrecognized. Reports on follow-up focused on cardiovascular evaluation after hospital discharge are currently scarce. Aim of this prospective study was to assess cardiovascular sequelae in previously hospitalized COVID-19 survivors. Methods and results The study was conducted at ‘Sapienza’ University of Rome—Policlinico ‘Umberto I’. After 2 months from discharge, n = 230 COVID-19 survivors underwent a follow-up visit at a dedicated ‘post-COVID Outpatient Clinic’. A cardiovascular evaluation including electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography was performed. Further tests were requested when clinically indicated. Medical history, symptoms, arterial-blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography, and treatment of both in-hospital and follow-up evaluation were recorded. A 1-year telephone follow-up was performed. A total of 36 (16%) COVID-19 survivors showed persistence or delayed onset of cardiovascular disease at 2-months follow-up visit. Persistent condition was recorded in 62% of survivors who experienced an in-hospital cardiovascular disease. Delayed cardiovascular involvement included: myocarditis, pericarditis, ventricular disfunction, new onset of systemic hypertension and arrhythmias. At 1-year telephone follow-up, 105 (45%) survivors reported persistent symptoms, with dyspnoea and fatigue being the most frequent. 60% of survivors showed persistent chest CT abnormalities and among those 28% complained of persistent cardiopulmonary symptoms at long term follow-up. Conclusions Our preliminary data showed persistent or delayed onset of cardiovascular involvement (16%) at short-term follow-up and persistent symptoms (45%) at long-term follow-up. These findings suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 235-242, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in COVID-19 and has impact on clinical course. Data on CVD prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and sequelae in survivors is limited. Aim of this prospective study carried out on consecutive unselected COVID-19 population, was to assess: 1) CVD occurrence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 2) persistence or new onset of CVD at one-month and one-year follow-up. METHODS: Over 30 days n = 152 COVID-19 patients underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography were integrated by further tests when indicated. Medical history, arterial blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography and treatment were recorded. CVD was defined as the occurrence of a new condition during the hospitalization for COVID-19. Survivors attended a one-month follow-up visit and a one-year telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (28%) experienced a wide spectrum of CVD with acute myocarditis being the most frequent. Death occurred in 32 patients (21%) and more frequently in patients who developed CVD (p = 0.032). After adjustment for confounders, CVD was independently associated with death occurrence. At one-month follow-up visit, 7 patients (9%) presented persistent or delayed CVD. At one-year telephone follow-up, 57 patients (48%) reported persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular evaluation in COVID-19 patients is crucial since the occurrence of CVD in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common (28%), requires specific treatment and increases the risk of in-hospital mortality. Persistence or delayed presentation of CVD at 1-month (9%) and persistent symptoms at 1-year follow-up (48%) suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Eur J Intern Med ; 92: 48-54, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272399

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Up to fifteen percent of patients with novel pandemic coronavirus disease (Covid-19) have acute respiratory failure (ARF). Ratio between arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), P/F, is currently used as a marker of ARF severity in Covid-19. P/F does not reflect the respiratory efforts made by patients to maintain arterial blood oxygenation, such as tachypnea and hyperpnea, leading to hypocapnia. Standard PaO2, the value of PaO2 adjusted for arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) of the subject, better reflects the pathophysiology of hypoxemic ARF. We hypothesized that the ratio between standard PaO2 over FiO2 (STP/F) better predicts Covid-19 ARF severity compared to P/F. METHODS: Aim of this pilot prospectic observational study was to observe differences between STP/F and P/F in predicting outcome failure, defined as need of invasive mechanical ventilation and/or deaths in Covid-19 ARF. Accuracy was calculated using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and areas under the ROC curve (AUROC) were compared. RESULTS: 349 consecutive subjects admitted to our respiratory wards due to Covid-19 ARF were enrolled. STP/F was accurate to predict mortality and superior to P/F with, respectively, AUROC 0.710 versus 0.688, p = 0.012.Both STP/F and PF were accurate to predict outcome failure (AUROC respectively of 0.747 and 0.742, p = 0.590). DISCUSSION: This is the first study assessing the role of STP/F in describing severity of ARF in Covid-19. According to results, STP/F is accurate and superior to P/F in predicting in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Oxygen , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 610300, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005638

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, not encountered before by humans. The wide spectrum of clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 illness suggests that individual immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 play a crucial role in determining the clinical course after first infection. Immunological studies have focused on patients with moderate to severe disease, demonstrating excessive inflammation in tissues and organ damage. In order to understand the basis of the protective immune response in COVID-19, we performed a longitudinal follow-up, flow-cytometric and serological analysis of innate and adaptive immunity in 64 adults with a spectrum of clinical presentations: 28 healthy SARS-CoV-2-negative contacts of COVID-19 cases; 20 asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2-infected cases; eight patients with Mild COVID-19 disease and eight cases of Severe COVID-19 disease. Our data show that high frequency of NK cells and early and transient increase of specific IgA, IgM and, to a lower extent, IgG are associated with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. By contrast, monocyte expansion and high and persistent levels of IgA and IgG, produced relatively late in the course of the infection, characterize severe disease. Modest increase of monocytes and different kinetics of antibodies are detected in mild COVID-19. The importance of innate NK cells and the short-lived antibody response of asymptomatic individuals and patients with mild disease suggest that only severe COVID-19 may result in protective memory established by the adaptive immune response.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Severity of Illness Index
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 325, 2020 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999732

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), lockdown periods have changed the way that people and communities live, work and interact. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes an uncommon but important presentation of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) in a previously healthy male, who decided to live in the basement of his house when Italy entered a nationwide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic. As high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest on admission showed diffuse miliary nodules, a miliary tuberculosis was initially suspected. However, further investigations provided a diagnosis of unusual presentation of ABPA. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the importance of maintaining awareness of Aspergillus-associated respiratory disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially because lifestyle changes associated with home isolation carry an increased risk of exposure to mold spores present in some indoor environments.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Miliary/diagnosis , Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(2)2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656301

ABSTRACT

False-negative cases of #COVID19 are being increasingly reported. Laboratory diagnosis through RT-PCR testing alone lacks adequate sensitivity to be recommended as the only valid criterion to confirm COVID-19 diagnosis. https://bit.ly/2BLFnEe.

11.
Eur Respir Rev ; 29(155)2020 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-37723

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization has recently defined the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection a pandemic. The infection, that may cause a potentially very severe respiratory disease, now called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has airborne transmission via droplets. The rate of transmission is quite high, higher than common influenza. Healthcare workers are at high risk of contracting the infection particularly when applying respiratory devices such as oxygen cannulas or noninvasive ventilation. The aim of this article is to provide evidence-based recommendations for the correct use of "respiratory devices" in the COVID-19 emergency and protect healthcare workers from contracting the SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Hyperbaric Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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