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1.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686899

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D (VD) is a calcium- and phosphate-controlling hormone used to treat bone disorders; yet, several other effects are progressively emerging. VD deficiency is highly prevalent worldwide, with suboptimal exposure to sunlight listed among the leading causes: oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol or calcitriol is used. However, there is a scarcity of clinical studies investigating how quickly VD concentrations can increase after supplementation. In this pilot study, the commercial supplement ImmuD3 (by Erboristeria Magentina®) was chosen as the source of VD and 2000 IU/day was administered for one month to 21 healthy volunteers that had not taken any other VD supplements in the previous 30 days. Plasma VD levels were measured through liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after 7, 14, and 28 days of supplementation. We found that 95% of the participants had insufficient VD levels at baseline (<30 ng/mL; median 23.72 ng/mL; IQR 18.10-26.15), but after 28 days of supplementation, this percentage dropped to 62% (median 28.35 ng/mL; IQR 25.78-35.20). The median increase in VD level was 3.09 ng/mL (IQR 1.60-5.68) after 7 days and 8.85 ng/mL (IQR 2.85-13.97F) after 28 days. This study suggests the need for continuing VD supplementation and for measuring target level attainment.


Subject(s)
Bone Density Conservation Agents/blood , Cholecalciferol/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamins/blood , Adult , Aged , Bone Density Conservation Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Density Conservation Agents/therapeutic use , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Vitamin D Deficiency/therapy , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/therapeutic use , Young Adult
2.
Biomedicines ; 9(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480578

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a lipoglycopeptide approved for treatment of Gram-positive infections of skin and skin-associated structures (ABSSSI). Currently, off-label use at high dosages for osteoarticular infections deserves attention. This work aimed to study the long-term plasma pharmacokinetics of dalbavancin in outpatients with ABSSSI or osteoarticular infections, treated either with one or two 1500 mg doses of dalbavancin. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used to measure total dalbavancin concentrations in plasma samples. The results were analyzed through a non-compartmental analysis (NCA). Breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was used to calculate AUC/MIC and T > MIC parameters, adjusted by 93% protein binding. A total of 14 patients were enrolled, 11 with osteoarticular infection and 3 with ABSSSI. Long-term pharmacokinetics showed median T > MIC (0.125 mg/L) of 11.9 and 13.7 weeks for single and dual dose, respectively. Similarly, median AUC0-2w/MIC ratios of 20,590 and 31,366 were observed for single and dual dose regimens, respectively. No adverse events were observed, and treatment success was achieved in 12/14 patients. Failure was associated with the worst clinical conditions, bone infections, and single dose. The results of this study show that dalbavancin exposure exceeds previously suggested pharmacodynamic targets. Optimization of these targets is needed for the osteoarticular setting.

3.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463781

ABSTRACT

To date, vitamin D seems to have a significant role in affecting the prevention and immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that this pro-hormone has other several activities, such as affecting drug concentrations, since it regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYPs, but no data are available in the literature concerning the association among vitamin D levels, seasonality (which affects vitamin D concentrations) and EFV plasma levels. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels on EFV plasma concentrations in different seasons. We quantified 25(OH)D3 by using chemiluminescence immunoassay, whereas EFV plasma concentrations were quantified with the HPLC-PDA method. A total of 316 patients were enrolled in Turin and Rome. Overall, 25(OH)D3levels resulted in being inversely correlated with EFV concentrations. Some patients with EFV levels higher than 4000 ng/mL showed a deficient 25(OH)D3 concentration in Turin and Rome cohorts and together. EFV concentrations were different in patients without vitamin D supplementation, whereas, for vitamin D-administered individuals, no difference in EFV exposure was present. Concerning seasonality, EFV concentrations were associated with 25(OH)D3 deficiency only in winter and in spring, whereas a significant influence was highlighted for 25(OH)D3 stratification for deficient, insufficient and sufficient values in winter, spring and summer. A strong and inverse association between 25(OH)D3and EFV plasma concentrations was suggested. These data suggest that vitamin D is able to affect drug exposure in different seasons; thus, the achievement of the clinical outcome could be improved by also considering this pro-hormone.


Subject(s)
Alkynes/blood , Alkynes/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/blood , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes/blood , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Seasons , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(5)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227007

ABSTRACT

Recently, large-scale screening for COVID-19 has presented a major challenge, limiting timely countermeasures. Therefore, the application of suitable rapid serological tests could provide useful information, however, little evidence regarding their robustness is currently available. In this work, we evaluated and compared the analytical performance of a rapid lateral-flow test (LFA) and a fast semiquantitative fluorescent immunoassay (FIA) for anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, with the reverse transcriptase real-time PCR assay as the reference. In 222 patients, LFA showed poor sensitivity (55.9%) within two weeks from PCR, while later testing was more reliable (sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 93.1%). Moreover, in a subset of 100 patients, FIA showed high sensitivity (89.1%) and specificity (94.1%) after two weeks from PCR. The coupled application for the screening of 183 patients showed satisfactory concordance (K = 0.858). In conclusion, rapid serological tests were largely not useful for early diagnosis, but they showed good performance in later stages of infection. These could be useful for back-tracing and/or to identify potentially immune subjects.

5.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 75(7): 1772-1777, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Remdesivir has received significant attention for its potential application in the treatment of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2. Remdesivir has already been tested for Ebola virus disease treatment and found to have activity against SARS and MERS coronaviruses. The remdesivir core contains GS-441524, which interferes with RNA-dependent RNA polymerases alone. In non-human primates, following IV administration, remdesivir is rapidly distributed into PBMCs and converted within 2 h to the active nucleoside triphosphate form, while GS-441524 is detectable in plasma for up to 24 h. Nevertheless, remdesivir pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in humans are still unexplored, highlighting the need for a precise analytical method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification. OBJECTIVES: The validation of a reliable UHPLC-MS/MS method for remdesivir and GS-441524 quantification in human plasma. METHODS: Remdesivir and GS-441524 standards and quality controls were prepared in plasma from healthy donors. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation, followed by dilution and injection into the QSight 220 UHPLC-MS/MS system. Chromatographic separation was obtained through an Acquity HSS T3 1.8 µm, 2.1 × 50 mm column, with a gradient of water and acetonitrile with 0.05% formic acid. The method was validated using EMA and FDA guidelines. RESULTS: Analyte stability has been evaluated and described in detail. The method successfully fulfilled the validation process and it was demonstrated that, when possible, sample thermal inactivation could be a good choice in order to improve biosafety. CONCLUSIONS: This method represents a useful tool for studying remdesivir and GS-441524 clinical pharmacokinetics, particularly during the current COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Triphosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/drug therapy , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analysis , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Adenosine Triphosphate/blood , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/analysis , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
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