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1.
The Wiley‐Blackwell Handbook of Childhood Social Development ; n/a(n/a):224-238, 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1750284

ABSTRACT

Summary In this chapter, the authors focus on disruptions to children's lives at home and at school (including early childhood care and education programs [ECCE] and primary schooling) as critical settings for healthy development. The Covid-19 pandemic has upended children's lives in myriad ways, including disruptions in the family system due to illness or death, financial instability tied to job loss, and educational disruptions as a result of closures of child care facilities and schools. In considering how the Covid-19 pandemic is shaping children's social development, the authors attend to how interactions with others and socialization processes within families and schools may buffer or exacerbate the pandemic's negative impact. Developmental scientists are well positioned to research how macro-level shocks such as the coronavirus pandemic affect children's developmental trajectories, and the life-course perspective can guide and inform that investigation. Introduction We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults with no prior history of cognitive impairment. Methods Searches in Medline/Web of Science/Embase from January 1, 2020, to December 13, 2021, were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.  A meta-analysis of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score comparing recovered COVID-19 and healthy controls was performed. Results Oof 6202 articles, 27 studies with 2049 individuals were included (mean age = 56.05 years, evaluation time ranged from the acute phase to 7 months post-infection). Impairment in executive functions, attention, and memory were found in post-COVID-19 patients.  The meta-analysis was performed with a subgroup of 290 individuals and showed a difference in MoCA score between post-COVID-19 patients versus controls (mean difference = ?0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?1.59, ?0.29;P = .0049). Discussion Patients recovered from COVID-19 have lower general cognition compared to healthy controls up to 7 months post-infection.

2.
Alzheimers Dement ; 18(5): 1047-1066, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748787

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cognitive effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in adults with no prior history of cognitive impairment. METHODS: Searches in Medline/Web of Science/Embase from January 1, 2020, to December 13, 2021, were performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.  A meta-analysis of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) total score comparing recovered COVID-19 and healthy controls was performed. RESULTS: Oof 6202 articles, 27 studies with 2049 individuals were included (mean age = 56.05 years, evaluation time ranged from the acute phase to 7 months post-infection). Impairment in executive functions, attention, and memory were found in post-COVID-19 patients.  The meta-analysis was performed with a subgroup of 290 individuals and showed a difference in MoCA score between post-COVID-19 patients versus controls (mean difference = -0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.59, -0.29; P = .0049). DISCUSSION: Patients recovered from COVID-19 have lower general cognition compared to healthy controls up to 7 months post-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Executive Function , Humans , Infant
5.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 32(7): 1189-1194, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139406

ABSTRACT

The early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic have focused on containing SARS-CoV-2 infection and identifying treatment strategies. While controlling this communicable disease is of utmost importance, the long-term effect on individuals with non-communicable diseases (NCD) is significant. Although certain NCDs appear to increase the severity of COVID-19 and mortality risk, SARS-CoV-2 infection in survivors with NCDs may also affect the progression of their pre-existing clinical conditions. Infection containment measures will have substantial short- and long-term consequences; social distancing and quarantine restrictions will reduce physical activity and increase other unhealthy lifestyles, thus increasing NCD risk factors and worsening clinical symptoms. Vitamin D levels might decrease and there might be a rise in mental health disorders. Many countries have made changes to routine management of NCD patients, e.g., cancelling non-urgent outpatient visits, which will have important implications for NCD management, diagnosis of new-onset NCDs, medication adherence, and NCD progression. We may have opportunities to learn from this unprecedented crisis on how to leverage healthcare technologies and improve procedures to optimize healthcare service provision. This article discusses how the COVID-19 outbreak and related infection control measures could hit the most frail individuals, worsening the condition of NCD patients, while further jeopardizing the sustainability of the healthcare systems. We suggest ways to define an integrated strategy that could involve both public institutional entities and the private sector to safeguard frail individuals and mitigate the impact of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Frail Elderly/psychology , Frailty/complications , Healthy Aging , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , Disease Outbreaks , Disease Progression , Europe/epidemiology , Frailty/psychology , Humans , Infection Control , Loneliness , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prevalence , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 624125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110353

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aimed to describe how the first phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected older persons from the general Finnish population who are at risk of developing or have cognitive impairment, specifically, to describe whether participants experienced a change in risk factors that are relevant for the prevention of cognitive decline including diet, physical activity, access to medical care, socially and cognitively stimulating activities, and emotional health and well-being. Method: A postal survey was sent in June 2020 to 859 participants from the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER), an ongoing longitudinal study. The survey was developed to assess the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and related infection-control measures on daily life, specifically commitment to distancing measures, access to health care and social services, daily activities, and changes in cognitive and social activities. Results: By September 2020, 613 (71%) participants responded (mean age = 77.7 years, 32% lived alone, and 80% had at least one chronic condition). Three quarters adopted some distancing practices during the first months of the pandemic. Older participants were more likely to practice total isolation than younger ones (29 vs. 19%; p = 0.003). Non-acute health-care visits were canceled for 5% of the participants who needed appointments, but cancellations in dental health care (43%), home aid (30%), and rehabilitative services (53%) were more common. Pandemic-related changes were reported in social engagements, for example, less contact with friends (55%) and family (31%), or less frequent attendance in cultural events (38%) or associations (25%), although remote contact with others increased for 40%. Feelings of loneliness increased for 21%, particularly those who were older (p = 0.023) or living alone (p < 0.001). Physical activity reduced for 34%, but dietary habits remained stable or improved. Pandemic-related changes in lifestyle and activities were more evident among those living alone. Conclusions: Finnish older persons generally reported less negative changes in lifestyles and behaviors during the pandemic than expected. Older people and those living alone seemed more susceptible to negative changes. It is important to compare how coping strategies may compare with other European countries to identify factors that may help older individuals to maintain healthy lifestyles during future waves of COVID-19.

7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e25652, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A reduction in the number of face-to-face medical examinations conducted for patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to health care professionals quickly adopting different strategies to communicate with and monitor their patients. Such strategies include the increased use of digital health tools. However, patient preferences, privacy concerns, a lack of regulations, overregulation, and insufficient evidence on the efficacy of digital health tools may have hampered the potential positive benefits of using such tools to manage NCDs. OBJECTIVE: This viewpoint aims to discuss the views of an advisory board of patient and caregiver association members. Specifically, we aim to present this advisory board's view on the role of digital health tools in managing patients with NCDs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify future directions based on patients' perspectives. METHODS: As an initiative under the NCD Partnership (PARTners in Ncds Engage foR building Strategies to improve Healthy ageing In Patients) model of Upjohn, a web-based advisory board of patient and caregiver advocates was held on July 28, 2020, to bring together key stakeholders from public and private sectors. RESULTS: The following key themes emerged: (1) technology developers should understand that the goals of patients may differ from those of health care professionals and other stakeholders; (2) patients, health care professionals, caregivers, and other end users need to be involved in the development of digital health tools at the earliest phase possible, to guarantee usability, efficacy, and adoption; (3) digital health tools must be better tailored to people with complex conditions, such as multimorbidity, older age, and cognitive or sensory impairment; and (4) some patients do not want or are unable to use digital health care tools, so adequate alternatives should always be available. CONCLUSIONS: There was consensus that public-private partnership models, such as the Upjohn NCD Partnership, can be effective models that foster innovation by integrating multiple perspectives (eg, patients' perspectives) into the design, development, and implementation of digital and nondigital health tools, with the main overall objective of improving the life of patients with NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Disease Management , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(1): e25652, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A reduction in the number of face-to-face medical examinations conducted for patients with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic has led to health care professionals quickly adopting different strategies to communicate with and monitor their patients. Such strategies include the increased use of digital health tools. However, patient preferences, privacy concerns, a lack of regulations, overregulation, and insufficient evidence on the efficacy of digital health tools may have hampered the potential positive benefits of using such tools to manage NCDs. OBJECTIVE: This viewpoint aims to discuss the views of an advisory board of patient and caregiver association members. Specifically, we aim to present this advisory board's view on the role of digital health tools in managing patients with NCDs during and after the COVID-19 pandemic, and to identify future directions based on patients' perspectives. METHODS: As an initiative under the NCD Partnership (PARTners in Ncds Engage foR building Strategies to improve Healthy ageing In Patients) model of Upjohn, a web-based advisory board of patient and caregiver advocates was held on July 28, 2020, to bring together key stakeholders from public and private sectors. RESULTS: The following key themes emerged: (1) technology developers should understand that the goals of patients may differ from those of health care professionals and other stakeholders; (2) patients, health care professionals, caregivers, and other end users need to be involved in the development of digital health tools at the earliest phase possible, to guarantee usability, efficacy, and adoption; (3) digital health tools must be better tailored to people with complex conditions, such as multimorbidity, older age, and cognitive or sensory impairment; and (4) some patients do not want or are unable to use digital health care tools, so adequate alternatives should always be available. CONCLUSIONS: There was consensus that public-private partnership models, such as the Upjohn NCD Partnership, can be effective models that foster innovation by integrating multiple perspectives (eg, patients' perspectives) into the design, development, and implementation of digital and nondigital health tools, with the main overall objective of improving the life of patients with NCDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Disease Management , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Patient Satisfaction/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Privacy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 33(1): 193-199, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-986828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data obtained during the initial wave of the COVID-19 epidemic showed that persons dying with COVID-19 were typically older men with multiple chronic conditions. No studies have assessed if the characteristics of patients dying with COVID-19 have changed in the second phase of the epidemic, when the initial wave subsided. The aim of the present study was to compare characteristics of patients dying with COVID-19 in Italy in the first 'peak' phase of the epidemic and in its second phase. METHODS: Medical charts of patients with COVID-19 who died while in hospital in Italy were reviewed to extract information on pre-existing comorbidities, in-hospital complications, and disease trajectories. The course of the epidemic was classified in two 3-month periods: March-May 2020 and June-August 2020. FINDINGS: Overall, in the Italian population, 34,191 COVID-19 deaths occurred in March-May 2020 and 1,404 in June-August 2020. Patients dying in March-May were significantly younger (80.1 ± 10.6 vs. 82.8 ± 11.1 years, p < 0.001) and less frequently female (41.9% vs. 61.8%, p < 0.001) than those dying in June-August. The medical charts of 3533 patients who died with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in March-May 2020 (10.3% of all deaths occurring in this period) and 203 patients who died in June-August 2020 (14.5% of all deaths occurring in this period) were analysed. Patients who died in March-May 2020, compared to those who died in June-August 2020, had significantly lower rates of multiple comorbidities (3 or more comorbidities: 61.8% vs 74.5%, p = 0.001) and superinfections (15.2% vs. 52.5%, p < 0.001). Treatment patterns also substantially differed in the two study periods, with patients dying in March-May 2020 being less likely to be treated with steroids (41.7% vs. 69.3%, p < 0.001) and more likely to receive antivirals (59.3% vs. 41.4%, p < 0.001). Survival time also largely differed, with patients dying in March-May 2020 showing a shorter time from symptoms onset to death (mean interval: 15.0 vs. 46.6 days, p < 0.001). The differences observed between the two periods remained significant in a multivariate analysis. INTERPRETATION: The clinical characteristics of patients dying with COVID-19 in Italy, their treatment and symptom-to-death survival time have significantly changed overtime. This is probably due to an improved organization and delivery of care and to a better knowledge of disease treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 599844, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983689

ABSTRACT

Background: In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many countries made changes to the routine management of patients with non-communicable diseases, including neurocognitive disorders. Therefore, many "so-called" non-urgent elective procedures and outpatient appointments have been canceled or postponed, possibly impacting negatively on health and well-being of patients in the short- and long-term. Aim: Here, we aimed at describing numbers and types of outpatient appointments canceled as a result of government's restrictive measures in our memory clinic. Methods: The scheduled appointments at the memory clinic of the Santa Lucia Foundation IRCCS, Rome, Italy, are recorded in a comprehensive dataset under strict administrative control. Here, we compared appointments (first-time and follow-up) that were canceled from January to April 2020 with those of the corresponding months in 2019. Results: We observed a substantial decrease in appointments during 2020. The majority of scheduled appointments were follow-up, and about a quarter were first-time appointments. We estimated that 66.7% and 77.4% of patients missed out respectively their first and follow-up appointments in our memory clinic due to government's restrictive measures in March-April 2020. Conclusions: A large number of patients with neurocognitive disorders missed crucial appointments due to government's restrictive measures, and many experienced a delay in initial diagnosis and initiation of treatment. This has relevant impact on their treatment and consequently has (is still having and potentially will have) an increase on the healthcare service burden of clinics. Furthermore, as a second wave of COVID-19 affects Europe, and with winter approaching, it is a compelling priority to ensure easy and rapid access to appropriate assessment, care and treatment in the event of a new outbreak and potential subsequent lockdowns, with particular attention to the development of specific healthcare technologies customized to older persons with cognitive impairment.

11.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 599851, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961663

ABSTRACT

Background: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, many non-urgent outpatient services in Italy were closed due to the Government-enforced lockdown period. So far, little is known about what effect the pandemic, quarantine measures, and reductions in medical services had on people with cognitive impairment and their caregivers. Objectives: To develop two versions (i.e., patients and informants/caregivers) of a survey designed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic during the first Italian lockdown period (11 March -4 May 2020) on Memory Clinic outpatients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia, and their caregivers. Design: Psychiatrists, neuropsychologists, and epidemiologists developed two versions: one for patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and other cognitive disorders, the other for their relatives and/or caregivers. Each version of the survey includes five sections: (a) socio-demographic information and access to technology devices; (b) individual COVID-19 protection methods; (c) knowledge about COVID-19; (d) the effect of COVID-19 on daily life; and (e) the effect of COVID-19 on emotional state. Conclusion: Until an effective vaccine is developed it is likely that future waves of COVID-19 will result in shielding of vulnerable older adults. We believe that this instrument will be useful as a tool to collect information and help clinicians to promptly respond to changes in patients' cognitive, psychiatric, and somatic health needs, and to help for future planning in possible subsequent quarantine periods.

12.
Urol Int ; 104(7-8): 510-522, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592075

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak is a huge health, social and economic issue and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Bladder cancer, on the contrary, is a well-known disease burdened by a high rate of affected patients and risk of recurrence, progression and death. SUMMARY: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV) often involves mild clinical symptoms but in some cases, it can lead to pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction. Factors associated with developing a more severe disease are increased age, obesity, smoking and chronic underlying comorbidities (including diabetes mellitus). High-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) progression and worse prognosis are also characterized by a higher incidence in patients with risk factors similar to COVID-19. Immune system response and inflammation have been found as a common hallmark of both diseases. Most severe cases of COVID-19 and high-risk NMIBC patients at higher recurrence and progression risk are characterized by innate and adaptive immune activation followed by inflammation and cytokine/chemokine storm (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-6, IL-8). Alterations in neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets accompany the systemic inflammatory response to cancer and infections. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio for example have been recognized as factors related to poor prognosis for many solid tumors, including bladder cancer, and their role has been found important even for the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Key Messages: All these mechanisms should be further analyzed in order to find new therapeutic agents and new strategies to block infection and cancer progression. Further than commonly used therapies, controlling cytokine production and inflammatory response is a promising field.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/physiopathology , Aging , Betacoronavirus , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Cellular Senescence , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Obesity/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prevalence , Prognosis , Recurrence , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms/complications
13.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(9): 1796-1800, 2020 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548664

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aim of the present study is to describe characteristics of COVID-19-related deaths and to compare the clinical phenotype and course of COVID-19-related deaths occurring in adults (<65 years) and older adults (≥65 years). METHOD: Medical charts of 3,032 patients dying with COVID-19 in Italy (368 aged < 65 years and 2,664 aged ≥65 years) were revised to extract information on demographics, preexisting comorbidities, and in-hospital complications leading to death. RESULTS: Older adults (≥65 years) presented with a higher number of comorbidities compared to those aged <65 years (3.3 ± 1.9 vs 2.5 ± 1.8, p < .001). Prevalence of ischemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dementia, COPD, and chronic renal failure was higher in older patients (≥65 years), while obesity, chronic liver disease, and HIV infection were more common in younger adults (<65 years); 10.9% of younger patients (<65 years) had no comorbidities, compared to 3.2% of older patients (≥65 years). The younger adults had a higher rate of non-respiratory complications than older patients, including acute renal failure (30.0% vs 20.6%), acute cardiac injury (13.5% vs 10.3%), and superinfections (30.9% vs 9.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals dying with COVID-19 present with high levels of comorbidities, irrespective of age group, but a small proportion of deaths occur in healthy adults with no preexisting conditions. Non-respiratory complications are common, suggesting that the treatment of respiratory conditions needs to be combined with strategies to prevent and mitigate the effects of non-respiratory complications.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Coronavirus Infections , Dementia , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Age Factors , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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