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Biomedicine-Taiwan ; 12(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2026733


In the era of Covid 19 and mass vaccination programs, the anti-vaccination movement across the world is currently at an all-time high. Much of this anti-vaccination sentiment could be attributed to the alleged side effects that are perpetuated across social media from anti-vaccination groups. Fear mongering and misinformation being peddled by people with no scientific training to terrorise people into staying unvaccinated is not just causing people to remain susceptible to viral outbreaks, but could also be causing more side effects seen in the vaccination process. This brief review will offer data that may demonstrate that misinformation perpetuated by the anti-vaccination movement may be causing more deaths and side effects from any vaccine. A mini review of published literature has been conducted and found that mental stress clearly causes vasoconstriction and arterial constriction of the blood vessels. Therefore, if subjects are panicked, concerned, stressed or scared of the vaccination, their arteries will constrict and become smaller in and around the time of receiving the vaccine. This biological mechanism (the constriction of veins, arteries and vessels under mental stress) is the most likely cause for where there has been blood clots, strokes, heart attacks, dizziness, fainting, blurred vision, loss of smell and taste that may have been experienced shortly after vaccine administration. The extreme mental stress of the patient could most likely be attributed to the fear mongering and scare tactics used by various anti-vaccination groups. This paper does not aim to rule in or out every side effect seen, but it is highly likely that many apparent side effects seen shortly after a subject has received a vaccine could be the result of restricted or congested blood flow from blood vessel or arterial constriction caused by emotional distress or placebo based on fear around vaccines.

Handb. Exp. Pharmacol. ; 275:V-X, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1929369
Alcoholism-Clinical and Experimental Research ; 46:208A-208A, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1894013
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-986189


Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused colleges of pharmacy to abruptly change teaching strategies mid-semester in Spring 2020 due to campus closure and transition to remote learning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of pandemic-induced remote learning on student skill acquisition in a third year pharmacy student (P3) Pharmacists' Patient Care Process (PPCP) capstone course. Methods: Student performance on weekly quizzes and mid-term and final practical examinations were evaluated before and after implementation of remote learning in 2020 and were compared with a previous class in 2019. Paired and anonymous student perceptions of their skill development were also compared within the same semester and between years. Independent sample and paired Student's t tests were used to compare means, the Pearson correlation was used to identify associations between continuous variables, and nonparametric tests were used to compare ordinal data. Results: In 2020, student performance was significantly higher on quizzes at the end of the semester after implementation of remote learning compared with pre-remote learning (8.2 ± 1.6 vs 7.7 ± 1.8 points, P <.05). Students performed significantly worse on the final examination compared with the mid-term examination (21.2 ± 5.4 vs 23.4 ± 5.3 points, P <.05) in 2020. Students also performed significantly worse on the final examination in 2020 compared with 2019 (21.3 ± 5.4 vs 23.1 ± 5.4, P <.01). In both 2019 and 2020, students rated their ability to meet course objectives higher at the end of the semester compared with the beginning of the semester (P <.05). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic-related changes in course delivery, participation, and assessment had a mixed effect on development of a systematic process for patient work-up skills using the PPCP. Students progressed throughout the semester on early PPCP patient work-up skills, but performance decreased when higher level skills or later PPCP steps were assessed and was lower compared with a previous offering of the course.