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1.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504867

ABSTRACT

AIM: To provide a contemporary analysis of incidence trends of infective endocarditis (IE) with its changing epidemiology over the past two decades in Europe. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester. Ovid EBM Reviews, Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for studies published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2020. All studies were independently reviewed by four referees and those that included a population-based incidence of IE in patients, irrespective of age, in Europe were included. Least squares regression was used to estimate pooled temporal trends in IE incidence. RESULTS: Of 9138 articles screened, 18 studies were included in the review. Elderly men predominated in all studies. IE incidence increased 4.1% per year (95% CI 1.8% to 6.4%) in the pooled regression analysis of eight studies that included comprehensive and consistent trends data. When trends data were weighted according to population size of individual countries, an increase in yearly incidence of 0.27 cases per 100 000 people was observed. Staphylococci and streptococci were the most common pathogens identified. The rate of surgical intervention ranged from 10.2% to 60.0%, and the rate of inpatient mortality ranged from 14.3% to 17.5%. In six studies that examined the rate of injection drug use, five of them reported a rate of less than 10%. CONCLUSION: Based on findings from our systematic review, IE incidence in Europe has doubled over the past two decades in Europe. Multiple factors are likely responsible for this striking increase. TRIAL REGISTERATION NUMBER: CRD42020191196.


Subject(s)
Endocarditis/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322781

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus causing COVID-19, has caused a global pandemic resulting in over 4 million deaths globally (data current as of 14 July 2021). E-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) is a type of acute lung injury of unclear pathogenesis. The two pathologies present with overlapping clinical symptoms, laboratory values and imaging, making them difficult to distinguish, especially in the setting of a global COVID-19 pandemic. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman treated for COVID-19 despite multiple negative SARS CoV-2 PCR tests and nucleocapsid antibody test. On further investigation, she endorsed use of E-cigarettes and was subsequently diagnosed with EVALI. The patient was treated with oral and intravenous steroids, resulting in significant improvement in her symptoms. This case highlights the challenge of diagnosing rarer aetiologies of respiratory distress during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Lung Injury , Vaping , Adult , Female , Humans , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaping/adverse effects
3.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(5): 1250-1261, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219872

ABSTRACT

The administration of spike monoclonal antibody treatment to patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 is very challenging. This article summarizes essential components and processes in establishing an effective spike monoclonal antibody infusion program. Rapid identification of a dedicated physical infrastructure was essential to circumvent the logistical challenges of caring for infectious patients while maintaining compliance with regulations and ensuring the safety of our personnel and other patients. Our partnerships and collaborations among multiple different specialties and disciplines enabled contributions from personnel with specific expertise in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, infection prevention and control, electronic health record (EHR) informatics, compliance, legal, medical ethics, engineering, administration, and other critical areas. Clear communication and a culture in which all roles are welcomed at the planning and operational tables are critical to the rapid development and refinement needed to adapt and thrive in providing this time-sensitive beneficial therapy. Our partnerships with leaders and providers outside our institutions, including those who care for underserved populations, have promoted equity in the access of monoclonal antibodies in our regions. Strong support from institutional leadership facilitated expedited action when needed, from a physical, personnel, and system infrastructure standpoint. Our ongoing real-time assessment and monitoring of our clinical program allowed us to improve and optimize our processes to ensure that the needs of our patients with COVID-19 in the outpatient setting are met.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Critical Pathways , Home Infusion Therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols , Critical Pathways/organization & administration , Critical Pathways/trends , Efficiency, Organizational , Home Infusion Therapy/methods , Home Infusion Therapy/standards , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Organizational Culture , Program Development/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States/epidemiology
4.
Infection ; 49(3): 401-410, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002187

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by a novel ß-coronavirus, belonging to the same subgenus as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) virus. Remdesivir, an investigational broad-spectrum antiviral agent has previously demonstrated in vitro activity against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and in vivo efficacy against other related coronaviruses in animal models. Its safety profile has been tested in a compassionate use setting for patients with COVID-19. The current therapeutic studies demonstrate clinical effectiveness of remdesivir in COVID-19 patients by shortening time to clinical recovery, and hospital stay. In this review, we critically analyze the current evidence of remdesivir against COVID-19 and dissect the aspects over its safety and efficacy. Based on existing data, remdesivir can be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19. Further large-scale, randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials are, however, awaited to validate these findings.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(11): 2382-2394, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912419

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of lenzilumab in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and risk factors for poor outcomes were treated with lenzilumab 600 mg intravenously for three doses through an emergency single-use investigational new drug application. Patient characteristics, clinical and laboratory outcomes, and adverse events were recorded. We also identified a cohort of patients matched to the lenzilumab patients for age, sex, and disease severity. Study dates were March 13, 2020, to June 18, 2020. All patients were followed through hospital discharge or death. RESULTS: Twelve patients were treated with lenzilumab; 27 patients comprised the matched control cohort (untreated). Clinical improvement, defined as improvement of at least 2 points on the 8-point ordinal clinical endpoints scale, was observed in 11 of 12 (91.7%) patients treated with lenzilumab and 22 of 27 (81.5%) untreated patients. The time to clinical improvement was significantly shorter for the lenzilumab-treated group compared with the untreated cohort with a median of 5 days versus 11 days (P=.006). Similarly, the proportion of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (oxygen saturation/fraction of inspired oxygen<315 mm Hg) was significantly reduced over time when treated with lenzilumab compared with untreated (P<.001). Significant improvement in inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6) and markers of disease severity (absolute lymphocyte count) were observed in patients who received lenzilumab, but not in untreated patients. Cytokine analysis showed a reduction in inflammatory myeloid cells 2 days after lenzilumab treatment. There were no treatment-emergent adverse events attributable to lenzilumab. CONCLUSION: In high-risk COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor neutralization with lenzilumab was safe and associated with faster improvement in clinical outcomes, including oxygenation, and greater reductions in inflammatory markers compared with a matched control cohort of patients hospitalized with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial to validate these findings is ongoing (NCT04351152).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Treatment Outcome
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