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2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317743

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major threat to human health, which impairs the functionality of several organs. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is indeed highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients’access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for a fast and non-invasive specimens’collection, which can be repeated multiple times. Methods: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free-light chains (FLC k and λ) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. Results: We found that each biomarkers differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. The performance ranking of these markers, shows that λFLC level (p=1.4e-8) is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups, with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI) and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). Conclusion: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This is more strengthened in consideration that λFLC half-life (approximately 6 hours) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days): thus λFLC appears displaying the potential to effectively monitor patients fluctuation in real-time.

3.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224056

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which impairs the functionality of several organs, represents a major threat to human health. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients' access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for the fast and non-invasive collection of specimens and can be repeated multiple times. METHODS: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free light chains (kFLC and λFLC) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. RESULTS: We found that each biomarker differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. A Receiving Operator Curve analysis shows that λFLC level is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups (AUC = 0.96), with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI), and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). CONCLUSION: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This hypothesis is strengthened by the consideration that the λFLC half-life (approximately 6 h) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days), thus confirming the potential of λFLC for effectively monitoring patients' fluctuation in real-time.

4.
Head Neck ; 42(7): 1466-1470, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457435

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For the EARs NOSE AND THROAT (ENT) surgeon, there are many challenges that show-up in the clinical management of a patient affected by a head and neck cancer during COVID-19 pandemic, especially in the postoperative period. METHODS: During the acute COVID-19 emergency phase in Italy, we analyzed the management of a patient affected by a head and neck cancer. We reported several clinical data about the hospitalization period, pointing out the difficulties encountered both from clinical and management point of view. RESULTS: During pandemic, we admitted 27 oncological patients at our ENT Department. Delays in surgical procedures, complications of hospitalizations, need for radiological studies, and possible transfer to other hospital ward, due to suspect SARS-CoV-2 infection, were registered. CONCLUSIONS: The changes in the whole health care system during the COVID-19 pandemic have impacted the management of patients with head and neck cancer, generating several clinical challenges for the ENT surgeon.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Head and Neck Neoplasms/epidemiology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Databases, Factual , Disease Management , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, University , Humans , Italy , Male , Medical Oncology/trends , Middle Aged , Otolaryngology/trends , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Selection , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Surgical Oncology/trends , Time-to-Treatment
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