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1.
Wireless Networks (United Kingdom) ; : 125-140, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013873

ABSTRACT

CoViD-19 has fundamentally changed how teaching and learning are done from K-12 schools to colleges and universities around the world, where many instructors have to deliver their lectures, tutorials, and even labs from their home, through the Internet. Due to the sudden and massive move to online teaching, a lot of challenges are encountered by education institutions, educators and support staff, and students and their parents. In this book chapter, we examine the challenges of “teaching from home” with the viewpoint of information technology (IT) education in general and computer network support in particular and offer some suggestions through our experience in 2020 and 2021 with input from IT support professionals, to create the much needed discussion among educators on this timely topic, which can be useful for 2021 and beyond. Online teaching may become a considerable mode of course delivery in the post-pandemic era, even without another similar event. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences ; 37(6):756-764, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1975500

ABSTRACT

The world is experiencing a great change with the combined impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. In the post-epidemic era, the world’s major economies have begun to plan their strategic adjustments, economic revival and transformation. Industry 5.0, as the EU’s new strategy to plan the “New Industrial Revolution” and promote industrial transformation in Europe, has raised wide attentions in the world and has become a hotspot of think tank research. Guided by the think tank double helix methodology, this study constructed a cognitive framework to study industrial strategy and its related complex system issues such as international relations, science and technology strategy, and economic and social development from systematic, subjective, scientific, global and practical perspectives, researched the feature, purpose and significance of Industry 5.0, as well as its impact, enlightenment and reference on the high-quality development of China’s manufacturing, and put forward the coping strategies. This study fully revealed the value and significance of think tank double helix methodology in expanding the research horizon of such issues. © 2022, Science Press. All rights reserved.

3.
International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation ; 16(3):349-376, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1974361

ABSTRACT

The past decades have witnessed great advances in the development of tools and resources for blended and virtual learning designs: the latter, in particular, have become a daily reality for many educational institutions during COVID-19. This study reports findings obtained from action research on a language enhancement workshop programme, a Chinese writing and translation workshop, which was carried out under the environment of blended and then virtual learning in AY2018/19 and AY2019/20, respectively. Through results obtained from the analysis of feedback gathered from participants of each workshop session, the study identified the challenges and merits associated with the two types of learning, as well as those of skill- and topic-based training. The study also addresses issues relating to the extracurricular training of learners from different backgrounds and discusses ways to better cope with a mixed-background educational setting in the future. Teachers need to be more creative and develop adaptable pedagogies. Institutional and technology support are equally important to better facilitate learners of different needs. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

4.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 43(6): 846-851, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903512

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant in Shangyu district, Shaoxing of Zhejiang province in 2021, and provide evidence for the improvement of COVID-19 control and prevention measures. Methods: The incidence data of COVID-19 in Shangyu from December 7 to 21, 2021 was obtained from Shangyu District Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The epidemiological characteristics of the cases, i.e. the population, time and space distributions, were analyzed, and the incubation period and time-varying reproduction numbers (Rt) were calculated. Results: From December 7 to 21, 2021, a total of 380 COVID-19 cases caused by 2019-nCoV Delta variant were detected in Shangyu, the median age of the cases was 52 years, M (Q1,Q3: 38, 61). The male to female ratio of the cases was 1∶1.25, and the cases were mainly workers (36.58%) and farmers (27.63%). The epidemic affected 9 townships (or community) of Shangyu, especially Caoe and Baiguan communities with the cases accounting for 57.10% and 31.53% respectively. The median incubation period of cases was 4.00 days, M (Q1,Q3: 3.00, 5.75). The basic reproduction number (R0) was 4.06, and the Rt was 5.62 in early phase of the outbreak (the highest) and continuously decreased to less than 1.00 within 10 days after the detection of the outbreak. The number of COVID-19 cases decreased to 0 within 14 days after the outbreak (December 7-21), and the main detection methods were screening in centralized isolation (55.53%) and home isolation (40.00%). The infection rates of close contacts and secondary close contacts were 2.06% and 0.46% respectively. Conclusion: The epidemic of COVID-19 in Shangyu characterized by short incubation period, large number of infected people, and case clustering, suggesting the strong transmission of Delta variant (B.1.617.2). Comprehensive prevention and control measures, such as management of close contacts and secondary close contacts, and high-risk area, are essential for the rapid control of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
12th IFIP TC 12 International Conference on Intelligent Information Processing, IIP 2022 ; 643 IFIP:30-41, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1898989

ABSTRACT

To this day, the prevention of coronavirus disease is still an arduous battle. Medical imaging technology has played an important role in the fight against the epidemic. This paper is to perform feature selection on the CT image feature sets used for COVID-19 detection to improve the speed and accuracy of detection. In this work, the population-based intelligent optimization algorithm Aquila optimizer is used for feature selection. This feature selection method uses an S-shaped transfer function to process continuous values and convert them into binary form. And when the performance of the updated solution is not good, a new mutation strategy is proposed to enhance the convergence effect of the solution. Through the verification of two CT image sets, the experimental results show that the use of the S-shaped transfer function and the proposed mutation strategy can effectively improve the effect of feature selection. The prediction accuracy of the features selected by this method on the two open datasets is 99.67% and 99.28%, respectively. © 2022, IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

6.
Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs ; 53(11):3557-3563, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1884661

ABSTRACT

Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are composed of eight traditional Chinese medicines, including Huzhang (Polygoni Cuspidati Rhizoma et Radix), Lianqiao (Forsythiae Fructus), Baijiangcao (Herba Patriniae), Chaihu (Bupleuri Radix), etc. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules has exactly effects such as dispelling wind and clearing heat, removing toxin and relieving sore-throat, which had been used in treatment of respiratory infectious diseases with symptom like fever, intolerating wind in clinic for a long time. Shufeng Jiedu Capsules are the recommended drugs for the "Influenza Diagnosis and Treatment Plan" (2020 version)issued by National Health Commission and "Diagnosis and Treatment of Pneumonia in COVID-19"(version 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9). Pharmacological mechanism and clinical application of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules weresummarized in this paper, in order to summarize characteristic and the post-marketing research path of Shufeng Jiedu Capsules, and provide ideas for more post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine products.

7.
Osteopathic Family Physician ; 13(6):9-16, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822746

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telemedicine is an emerging field in which physicians can interact electronically with patients to improve health. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of telemedicine has grown exponentially. As physicians work to provide equally high-quality care for their patients remotely, their experiences must be considered. Methods: This study utilized an online anonymous survey of physicians to assess their satisfaction, comfort level and student involvement when using telemedicine for patient care. Results: Overall, physicians’ experiences with the integration of telemedicine into their practices varied based on gender, the presence of medical students, age and prior experience with telemedicine. Physicians are more comfortable with telemedicine now than they had been prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, and physicians who had prior experience were less likely to find it stressful to incorporate. Physicians in both the youngest (30–39 years old) and oldest (60 and older) categories reported the highest levels of satisfaction with telemedicine. Female physicians indicated they will be more likely to incorporate more telemedicine into practice in the future, beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the specialties surveyed, family physicians report the lowest levels of comfort and satisfaction with telemedicine. Conclusion: Physician respondents of this survey provided valuable data on the perceptions of the widespread incorporation of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research can follow which physicians choose to keep telemedicine integrated into their practices and how the demand for these virtual visits may change in the coming months.

8.
Chinese Journal of Disease Control and Prevention ; 26(2):193-199, 2022.
Article in Chinese | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1822639

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the willingness and influencing factors with novel coronavirus vaccines(COVID-19 vaccines) among college students in Shanghai. Methods From February 23 to March 15, 2021, a web based questionnaire survey was conducted among students from four colleges to analyze the willingness rate of COVID-19 vaccines. Multivariate Logistic regression was used to analyze influencing factors of the willingness to receive vaccines. Results Of 4 462 subjects, 78.04% were willing to receive COVID-19 vaccines. Logistic regression analysis showed that students from the technology university and the vocational school had higher willingness to vaccinate (OR=1.53, 1.50), compared with those from medical college. Respondents did not agree that vaccines are important for protecting health (OR=0.11) and did not agree that all vaccines marketed through National Medical Products Administration are safe (OR=0.42) were less willing to be vaccinated. Those who had no one nearby to vaccinate against COVID-19 were less willing to be vaccinated (OR=0.68). The main reasons for refusing or hesitating to be vaccinated were concerned about the safety(73.88%) and efficacy(55.61%) of the vaccine. Further investigation showed that 37.86%, 48.27% and 35.31% of respondents who had previously chosen not to vaccinate or were unsure about vaccinating against COVID-19 were willing to vaccinate if recommended by the government, doctors, relatives and friends, respectively. Conclusion The willingness rate of COVID-19 vaccination among college students was high in Shanghai. The relevant departments should do a good job in the coordination of vaccination so that the vaccination work can be carried out effectively.

9.
IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA) ; : 14018-14024, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799297

ABSTRACT

Human activities are hugely restricted by COVID-19, recently. Robots that can conduct inter-floor navigation attract much public attention since they can substitute human workers to conduct the service work. However, current robots either depend on human assistance or elevator retrofitting, and fully autonomous inter-floor navigation is still not available. As the very first step of inter-floor navigation, elevator button segmentation and recognition hold an important position. Therefore, we release the first large-scale publicly available elevator panel dataset in this work, containing 3,718 panel images with 35,100 button labels, to facilitate more powerful algorithms on autonomous elevator operation. Together with the dataset, a number of deep learning based implementations for button segmentation and recognition are also released to benchmark future methods in the community. The dataset is available at https://github.com/zhudelong/elevator_button_recognition

10.
Yingyong Kexue Xuebao/Journal of Applied Sciences ; 40(2):338-348, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1792325

ABSTRACT

The sudden COVID-19 pandemic has led to unprecedented impact on China's economic and social development, especially on consumer economy. Payment is the most closely related economic activity regarding consumers, the data of which can accurately capture the characteristic of the consumer economy. Given the point of view, this paper makes an in-depth exploration in the research direction of payment data. Based on the transaction data from China UnionPay, this paper quantifies the impact of the epidemic on consumer economy and makes a comparative analysis of different provinces and industries. The paper quantitatively reveals that the epidemic progress significantly affects the consumer confidence and the development of consumer economy. According to our analysis, it is unwise to restart work resumption when the epidemic is still not under effective control. From the perspective of payment, this paper profoundly tells about the story of how China fights against the epidemic and puts forward relevant suggestions for the follow-up epidemic prevention and control as well as the comprehensive economic recovery policies. © 2022, Editorial Office of Journal of Applied Sciences. All right reserved.

11.
2021 3rd International Conference on E-Business and E-Commerce Engineering, EBEE 2021 ; : 149-157, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789025

ABSTRACT

China is the world's largest consumer and importer of pork. In the context of COVID-19, countries have implemented strict import inspection and quarantine standards, and pork imports are facing more complicated customs clearance procedures, resulting in a sharp increase in customs risks. Pork, as a basic livelihood product, has always been a sensitive topic on the Internet. Their public opinions often have an important impact on customs policies and are one of the important sources of customs risks. Based on Internet text big data mining and LDA-GRA analysis method, this paper classifies online public opinion on pork import during the COVID-19 pandemic into different topics, and conducts correlation analysis on public opinion text and customs policy, investigates the correlation between online public opinion, customs policy and customs risk, as well as its correlation strength. The results show that the online public opinion of pork import has a significant impact on the implementation of the customs policy, and causes a variety of potential customs risks of pork import. Pork import-related enterprises should strengthen public opinion monitoring to reduce losses caused by customs risks. © 2021 ACM.

12.
Journal of Environmental Sciences (China) ; 125:603-615, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1783484

ABSTRACT

Wuhan Tianhe International Airport (WUH) was suspended to contain the spread of COVID-19, while Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport (SHA) saw a tremendous flight reduction. Closure of a major international airport is extremely rare and thus represents a unique opportunity to straightforwardly observe the impact of airport emissions on local air quality. In this study, a series of statistical tools were applied to analyze the variations in air pollutant levels in the vicinity of WUH and SHA. The results of bivariate polar plots show that airport SHA and WUH are a major source of nitrogen oxides. NOx, NO2 and NO diminished by 55.8%, 44.1%, 76.9%, and 40.4%, 33.3% and 59.4% during the COVID-19 lockdown compared to those in the same period of 2018 and 2019, under a reduction in aircraft activities by 58.6% and 61.4%. The concentration of NO2, SO2 and PM2.5 decreased by 77.3%, 8.2%, 29.5%, right after the closure of airport WUH on 23 January 2020. The average concentrations of NO, NO2 and NOx scatter plots at downwind of SHA after the lockdown were 78.0%, 47.9%, 57.4% and 62.3%, 34.8%, 41.8% lower than those during the same period in 2018 and 2019. However, a significant increase in O3 levels by 50.0% and 25.9% at WUH and SHA was observed, respectively. These results evidently show decreased nitrogen oxides concentrations in the airport vicinity due to reduced aircraft activities, while amplified O3 pollution due to a lower titration by NO under strong reduction in NOx emissions. © 2022

13.
Achdout, H.; Aimon, A.; Bar-David, E.; Barr, H.; Ben-Shmuel, A.; Bennett, J.; Bilenko, V. A.; Bilenko, V. A.; Boby, M. L.; Borden, B.; Bowman, G. R.; Brun, J.; Bvnbs, S.; Calmiano, M.; Carbery, A.; Carney, D.; Cattermole, E.; Chang, E.; Chernyshenko, E.; Chodera, J. D.; Clyde, A.; Coffland, J. E.; Cohen, G.; Cole, J.; Contini, A.; Cox, L.; Cvitkovic, M.; Dias, A.; Donckers, K.; Dotson, D. L.; Douangamath, A.; Duberstein, S.; Dudgeon, T.; Dunnett, L.; Eastman, P. K.; Erez, N.; Eyermann, C. J.; Fairhead, M.; Fate, G.; Fearon, D.; Fedorov, O.; Ferla, M.; Fernandes, R. S.; Ferrins, L.; Foster, R.; Foster, H.; Gabizon, R.; Garcia-Sastre, A.; Gawriljuk, V. O.; Gehrtz, P.; Gileadi, C.; Giroud, C.; Glass, W. G.; Glen, R.; Glinert, I.; Godoy, A. S.; Gorichko, M.; Gorrie-Stone, T.; Griffen, E. J.; Hart, S. H.; Heer, J.; Henry, M.; Hill, M.; Horrell, S.; Huliak, V. D.; Hurley, M. F. D.; Israely, T.; Jajack, A.; Jansen, J.; Jnoff, E.; Jochmans, D.; John, T.; De Jonghe, S.; Kantsadi, A. L.; Kenny, P. W.; Kiappes, J. L.; Kinakh, S. O.; Koekemoer, L.; Kovar, B.; Krojer, T.; Lee, A.; Lefker, B. A.; Levy, H.; Logvinenko, I. G.; London, N.; Lukacik, P.; Macdonald, H. B.; MacLean, B.; Malla, T. R.; Matviiuk, T.; McCorkindale, W.; McGovern, B. L.; Melamed, S.; Melnykov, K. P.; Michurin, O.; Mikolajek, H.; Milne, B. F.; Morris, A.; Morris, G. M.; Morwitzer, M. J.; Moustakas, D.; Nakamura, A. M.; Neto, J. B.; Neyts, J.; Nguyen, L.; Noske, G. D.; Oleinikovas, V.; Oliva, G.; Overheul, G. J.; Owen, D.; Pai, R.; Pan, J.; Paran, N.; Perry, B.; Pingle, M.; Pinjari, J.; Politi, B.; Powell, A.; Psenak, V.; Puni, R.; Rangel, V. L.; Reddi, R. N.; Reid, S. P.; Resnick, E.; Ripka, E. G.; Robinson, M. C.; Robinson, R. P.; Rodriguez-Guerra, J.; Rosales, R.; Rufa, D.; Saar, K.; Saikatendu, K. S.; Schofield, C.; Shafeev, M.; Shaikh, A.; Shi, J.; Shurrush, K.; Singh, S.; Sittner, A.; Skyner, R.; Smalley, A.; Smeets, B.; Smilova, M. D.; Solmesky, L. J.; Spencer, J.; Strain-Damerell, C.; Swamy, V.; Tamir, H.; Tennant, R.; Thompson, W.; Thompson, A.; Tomasio, S.; Tsurupa, I. S.; Tumber, A.; Vakonakis, I.; Van Rij, R. P.; Vangeel, L.; Varghese, F. S.; Vaschetto, M.; Vitner, E. B.; Voelz, V.; Volkamer, A.; Von Delft, F. f, Von Delft, A.; Walsh, M.; Ward, W.; Weatherall, C.; Weiss, S.; White, K. M.; Wild, C. F.; Wittmann, M.; Wright, N.; Yahalom-Ronen, Y.; Zaidmann, D.; Zidane, H.; Zitzmann, N..
Embase; 2020.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-330569

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a stark reminder that a barren global antiviral pipeline has grave humanitarian consequences. Future pandemics could be prevented by accessible, easily deployable broad-spectrum oral antivirals and open knowledge bases that derisk and accelerate novel antiviral discovery and development. Here, we report the results of the COVID Moonshot, a fully open-science structure-enabled drug discovery campaign targeting the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. We discovered a novel chemical scaffold that is differentiated to current clinical candidates in terms of toxicity and pharmacokinetics liabilities, and developed it into orally-bioavailable inhibitors with clinical potential. Our approach leverages crowdsourcing, high throughput structural biology, machine learning, and exascale molecular simulations. In the process, we generated a detailed map of the structural plasticity of the main protease, extensive structure-activity relationships for multiple chemotypes, and a wealth of biochemical activity data. In a first for a structure-based drug discovery campaign, all compound designs (>18,000 designs), crystallographic data (>500 ligand-bound X-ray structures), assay data (>10,000 measurements), and synthesized molecules (>2,400 compounds) for this campaign were shared rapidly and openly, creating a rich open and IP-free knowledgebase for future anti-coronavirus drug discovery.

14.
7th IEEE International Conference on Network Intelligence and Digital Content, IC-NIDC 2021 ; : 133-137, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1699527

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is still severe nowadays, and plentiful COVID-19 patients need careful rehabilitation. The 6-minute walking test (6MWT) is a common clinical trial that requires the patient to walk as far as possible in a corridor for 6 minutes, significantly indicating patients' cardiopulmonary disease conditions and rehabilitation. A traditional 6MWT provides the 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) as the primary result for clinical analysis. In this paper, we propose Physio6, a sensor-based monitoring system for 6MWT, which monitors one patient's various physiological signals and indicates her/his condition during the test. The system also provides the functions of early warning based on physiological signal monitoring and automatically or manually recording the adverse events, such as hypoxia or dyspnea. Moreover, Physio6 is able to communicate with the existing systems in hospitals, and to generate a comprehensive report that summarizes the performance of the patient in the current 6MWT and even in the past ones. Our system has been deployed in four hospitals. Compared with the conventional distance-based measurement, our preliminary validation reveals that the extracted physiological parameters are promisingly valuable for clinical decision-making. System quality and device comfort are also confirmed by questionnaires. The potential of leveraging this system to perform the remote 6MWT at home/in communities as a solution of COVID-19 patient rehabilitation monitoring is also discussed. © 2021 IEEE.

15.
Frontiers in Optics and Photonics ; : 241-252, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1674037

ABSTRACT

Dr. Deborah Birx, the White House Coronavirus Task Force coordinator, told NBC News on "Meet the Press" that "[T]he U.S. needs a 'breakthrough' in coronavirus testing to help screen Americans and get a more accurate picture of the virus' spread." We have been involved with biopathogen detection since the 2001 anthrax attacks and were the first to detect anthrax in real-time. A variation on the laser spectroscopic techniques we developed for the rapid detection of anthrax can be applied to detect the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus). In addition to detecting a single virus, this technique allows us to read its surface protein structure. In particular, we have been conducting research based on a variety of quantum optical approaches aimed at improving our ability to detect Corona Virus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) viral infection. Indeed, the detection of a small concentration of antibodies, after an infection has passed, is a challenging problem. Likewise, the early detection of disease, even before a detectible antibody population has been established, is very important. Our team is researching both aspects of this problem. The paper is written to stimulate the interest ofboth physical and biological scientists in this important problem. It is thus written as a combination of tutorial (review) and future work (preview). We join Prof. Federico Capasso and Editor Dennis Couwenberg in expressing our appreciation to all those working so heroically on all aspects of the COVTD-19 problem. And we thank Drs. Capasso and Couwenberg for their invitation to write this paper. © 2021 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston. All rights reserved.

16.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; : 6, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1586066

ABSTRACT

While there have been many studies of SARS-CoV2 contamination in hospital patients' rooms, less is known about the virus' presence in nonhealthcare environments, which is where most transmission takes place. We investigated virus contamination in university dormitories housing students who were in quarantine or isolation. We collected surface swab samples and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters from 24 rooms that had been occupied by students who tested positive for COVID-19, and we measured viral RNA by the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We detected viral RNA on or in 15/21 (71.4%) HVAC filters, 71/125 (56.8%) surface samples, and 4/6 (66.7%) bathroom exhaust grilles in the two dormitories combined. Viral RNA was present in all five types of surface samples, including sink handles, sink countertops, floors near the sink, door handles, and thermostat panels. Viral RNA levels on surfaces varied widely, from 10 to >10(4) gene copies per swabbed area of similar to 10 cm x 10 cm. Additionally, we tested the infectivity of samples with a Ct value lower than 33, and none of them were positive. This information will be valuable for assessing the risk of airborne and fomite transmission of COVID-19.

17.
Acs Applied Nano Materials ; 4(12):12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1586050

ABSTRACT

Using surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization, temperature-responsive block polymers were functionalized on the surface of silica nanocapsules (SNCs) by a "grafting from" technique. Favipiravir, a potential medicine candidate for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), was encapsulated in polymer-coated SNCs and further incorporated into welldefined films by layer-by-layer self-assembly. The multilayer films composed of polymer-coated SNCs and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) homopolymers exhibited swelling/deswelling behaviors under the trigger of a temperature stimulus. For the first time, the impact of steric hindrance on the assembling behavior, swelling/ deswelling transition, and delivering capacity of nanocapsule-based multilayer films was investigated. SNCs with coronae of higher steric hindrance resulted in a larger layering distance during film growth. Moreover, the difference in the sustained release rates of the drug indicated their diverse diffusion coefficients and intermolecular interactions within the multilayer films, due to the presence of a methyl spacer at the amino group of nanocapsule coronae and weaker ionic pairing between SNC coronae and PMAA homopolymers. The profile of drug release from the films was dependent on the temperature value of the surrounding environment. At 37 and 40 degrees C, the films were able to efficiently entrap favipiravir, with as low as 50% released in 80 days, whereas a faster favipiravir release was triggered by exposure to a lower temperature value at 25 degrees C. This work demonstrates the first proof-of-concept platform of temperature-responsive SNC-incorporated multilayered films with a well-defined internal structure and a sustained release profile for on-demand in vitro drug delivery.

18.
Cmes-Computer Modeling in Engineering & Sciences ; 130(2):841-854, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1579256

ABSTRACT

This study aims to improve control schemes for COVID-19 by a numerical model with estimation of parameters. We established a multi-level and multi-objective nonlinear SEIDR model to simulate the virus transmission. The early spread in Japan was adopted as a case study. The first 96 days since the infection were divided into five stages with parameters estimated. Then, we analyzed the trend of the parameter value, age structure ratio, and the defined PCR test index (standardization of the scale of PCR tests). It was discovered that the self-healing rate and confirmed rate were linear with the age structure ratio and the PCR test index using the stepwise regression method. The transmission rates were related to the age structure ratio, PCR test index, and isolation efficiency. Both isolation measures and PCR test medical screening can effectively reduce the number of infected cases based on the simulation results. However, the strategy of increasing PCR test medical screening would encountered a bottleneck effect on the virus control when the index reached 0.3. The effectiveness of the policy would decrease and the basic reproduction number reached the extreme value at 0.6. This study gave a feasible combination for isolation and PCR test by simulation. The isolation intensity could be adjusted to compensate the insufficiency of PCR test to control the pandemic.

20.
Complexity ; 2021, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1484099

ABSTRACT

With the increasing trend of globalization, large-scale and diffuse population flow have become vital carriers characterizing users' spatial behaviors. Network analysis provides a new perspective to uncover the topology and evolution of the population flow and understand its influence on regional development. By gathering the Autonavi migration index during the Spring Festival travel rush (SFTR) in 2019, 2020, and 2021, the population flow networks among 31 cities of urban agglomeration in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River were constructed to analyze spatiotemporal dynamic characteristics and explore the structure resilience. Results show that although the changing trends of population flow during the 40-day SFTR of 2019, 2020, and 2021 are consistent, the population floating scale in 2020 and 2021 shows remarkable abnormalities before and after the Spring Festival due to the need for prevention and control of COVID-19. The intensity of population floating of the regional urban network in 2020 was the weakest, and Changsha became the focus of most population flow, while Wuhan was the most advantageous city in 2019 and 2021. As the third core city in the regional network, the siphon effect of Nanchang was still weak. A situation of tripartite confrontation in the region is formed. However, the higher intensity of population flow in 2021 increased the instability of the regional urban network, potentially exposing the region to higher risks and pressures. Therefore, it is necessary to pay more attention to the peripheral cities to improve regional resilience. © 2021 Shimei Wei and Jinghu Pan.

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