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BMJ Open ; 12(11): e063919, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119454


ObjectiveTwo COVID-19 outbreaks occurred in Henan province in early 2022-one was a Delta variant outbreak and the other was an Omicron variant outbreak. COVID-19 vaccines used at the time of the outbreak were inactivated, 91.8%; protein subunit, 7.5%; and adenovirus5-vectored, 0.7% vaccines. The outbreaks provided an opportunity to evaluate variant-specific breakthrough infection rates and relative protective effectiveness of homologous inactivated COVID-19 vaccine booster doses against symptomatic infection and pneumonia. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study METHODS: We evaluated relative vaccine effectiveness (rVE) with a retrospective cohort study of close contacts of infected individuals using a time-dependent Cox regression model. Demographic and epidemiologic data were obtained from the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; clinical and laboratory data were obtained from COVID-19-designated hospitals. Vaccination histories were obtained from the national COVID-19 vaccination dataset. All data were linked by national identification number. RESULTS: Among 784 SARS-CoV-2 infections, 379 (48.3%) were caused by Delta and 405 (51.7%) were caused by Omicron, with breakthrough rates of 9.9% and 17.8%, respectively. Breakthrough rates among boosted individuals were 8.1% and 4.9%. Compared with subjects who received primary vaccination series ≥180 days before infection, Cox regression modelling showed that homologous inactivated booster vaccination was statistically significantly associated with protection from symptomatic infection caused by Omicron (rVE 59%; 95% CI 13% to 80%) and pneumonia caused by Delta (rVE 62%; 95% CI 34% to 77%) and Omicron (rVE 87%; 95% CI 3% to 98%). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination in China provided good protection against symptomatic COVID-19 and COVID-19 pneumonia caused by Delta and Omicron variants. Protection declined 6 months after primary series vaccination but was restored by homologous inactivated booster doses given 6 months after the primary series.

COVID-19 , United States , Humans , Vaccines, Inactivated , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Retrospective Studies , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2
Ocean Coast Manag ; 229: 106338, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004391


A container shipping network connects coastal countries with each other and facilitates most of the world merchandise trade. Reliable maritime connectivity ensures the availability of commodities and economic growth. The global spread of COVID-19 has led to port failures and service cancellations, resulting in decreased connectivity level of container ports. To mitigate the impact of the pandemic, a graph theory approach is proposed to strength the container shipping network connectivity by considering topology and the possibility of opening new shipping links between ports. It is designed to maximize network connectivity with limited addable routes. The network connectivity is measured by algebraic connectivity, and the possibility of opening new shipping links is estimated by an extended gravity model. A heuristic algorithm based on Fiedler vector is introduced to obtain the optimal solutions. The performance of the proposed model and algorithm are verified by testing on a real-world container shipping network based on the Alphaliner database. Experimental results illustrate that the presented model is efficient and effective for strengthening the connectivity. Policy makers can refer to the suggested optimal shipping links to facilitate better shipping network connectivity in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1950-1958, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937611


Using a three-prefecture, two-variant COVID-19 outbreak in Henan province in January 2022, we evaluated the associations of primary and booster immunization with China-produced COVID-19 vaccines and COVID-19 pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 viral load among persons infected by Delta or Omicron variant. We obtained demographic, clinical, vaccination, and multiple Ct values of infections ≥3 years of age. Vaccination status was either primary series ≥180 days prior to infection; primary series <180 days prior to infection, or booster dose recipient. We used logistic regression to determine odds ratios (OR) of Delta and Omicron COVID-19 pneumonia by vaccination status. We analysed minimum Ct values by vaccination status, age, and variant. Of 826 eligible cases, 405 were Delta and 421 were Omicron cases; 48.9% of Delta and 19.0% of Omicron cases had COVID-19 pneumonia. Compared with full primary vaccination ≥180 days before infection, the aOR of pneumonia was 0.48 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days and 0.18 among booster recipients among these Delta infections. Among Omicron infections, the corresponding aOR was 0.34 among those completing primary vaccination <180 days. There were too few (ten) Omicron cases among booster dose recipients to calculate a reliable OR. There were no differences in minimum Ct values by vaccination status among the 356 Delta cases or 70 Omicron cases. COVID-19 pneumonia was less common among Omicron cases than Delta cases. Full primary vaccination reduced pneumonia effectively for 6 months; boosting six months after primary vaccination resulted in further reduction. We recommend accelerating the pace of booster dose administration.

COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load