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Advanced Materials Interfaces ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2231089


Antiviral compounds are important for generating sterile surfaces. Here, two extremely short peptides, DOPA-Phe-NH2 and DOPA-Phe(4F)-NH2 that can self-assemble into spherical nanoparticles with antiviral activity are presented. The peptide assemblies possess excellent antiviral activity against bacteriophage T4 with antiviral minimal inhibitory concentrations of 125 and 62.5 µg mL−1, for DOPA-Phe-NH2 and DOPA-Phe(4F)-NH2, respectively. When the peptide assemblies are applied on a glass substrate by drop-casting, they deactivate more than 99.9% of bacteriophage T4 and Canine coronavirus. Importantly, the peptide assemblies have low toxicity toward mammalian cells. Overall, the findings can provide a novel strategy for the design and development of antiviral coatings for a decreased risk of viral infections. © 2023 The Authors. Advanced Materials Interfaces published by Wiley-VCH GmbH.

Asian Education and Development Studies ; 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-857755


Purpose: This article aims to provide a timely examination of and reflection on the impact of COVID-19 on the neo-liberal paradigm that has been prevalent in international higher education (HE) for two decades since the late 1990s. Design/methodology/approach: Methodologically, this paper deploys conceptual mapping as an analytical tool to explore and examine the global news updates that provide timely (i.e. early 2020) record of the fast-moving pandemic. Findings: It unfolds four pairs of contradictions occurring in the Western universities during the pandemic outbreak, i.e. HE as cross-border services vs border control, the state's shrinking public funding vs universities under financial threat, increased reliance on foreign students' tuition fee vs decreased international enrolment and the user-pays philosophy vs the rising force of user says. Research limitations/implications: It is argued that the pending crises facing Western universities are not merely financial issues;they reveal the shortcomings that are inherent in business model of HE driven by economic globalisation but triggered by coronavirus pandemic to erupt. The pandemic should be temporary, but its spill-over effects may alter the overarching landscape of the international HE relations, which is part and parcel of the changing geopolitical order featured as de-globalisation. Practical implications: The paper has practical implications for acting on international HE in the time of coronavirus pandemic. They mainly consider four aspects: (1) travel distance as new determinant of study abroad, (2) the renewed significance of a state's role in policymaking and financial undertaking, (3) shortcomings in market mechanism and (4) East Asia as an emerging regional hub of study abroad. Social implications: This paper is expected to leverage three lessons learned from the upending situation. First, it is conceptually misleading to define international HE as a form of market-led “transnational service” and cross-border tradeable product undermining a state's control. Second, a state's supervising model needs to be reviewed, to embrace the renewed relationship between a state and universities in the new context of global pandemic. Third, the global landscape of international HE may be altered. Originality/value: This conceptual paper provides a timely critique of the neo-liberal paradigm in HE and shedding light on the changing global landscape of international HE along with the changing geopolitical relations reshuffled by COVID-19 and its spill-over effects. © 2020, Emerald Publishing Limited.