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Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961006


BACKGROUND: Acceleration of negative respiratory conversion of SARS-CoV-2 in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might reduce viral transmission. Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir is a new antiviral agent recently approved for treatment of COVID-19 that has the potential to facilitate negative conversion. METHODS: A cohort of hospitalized adult patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who had a high-risk for progression to severe disease were studied. These patients presented with COVID-19 symptoms between March 5 and April 5, 2022. The time from positive to negative upper respiratory RT-PCR conversion was assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression with the adjustment for patients baseline demographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: There were 258 patients treated with nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and 224 non-treated patients who had mild-to-moderate COVID-19. The median (interquartile range) time for patients who converted from positive to negative RT-PCR was 10 days (7-12 days) in patients treated ≤5 days after symptom onset and 17 days (12-21 days) in non-treated patients, respectively. The proportions of patients with a negative conversion at day 15 were 89.7% and 42.0% in treated patients and non-treated patients, corresponding to a hazard ratio of 4.33 (95% CI, 3.31-5.65). Adjustment for baseline differences between the groups had little effect on the association. Subgroup analysis on treated patients suggests that time to negative conversion did not vary with the patients' baseline characteristics. CONCLUSION: This cohort study of high-risk patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 found an association between nirmatrelvir/ritonavir treatment and accelerated negative RT-PCR respiratory SARS-CoV-2 conversion that might reduce the risk of viral shedding and disease transmission.

Front Physiol ; 12: 630038, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259363


BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a systemic infection involving multiple systems, and may cause autonomic dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To assess autonomic function and relate the findings to the severity and outcomes in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to the 21st COVID-19 Department of the east campus of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from February 6 to March 7, 2020. Clinical data were collected. Heart rate variability (HRV), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), D-dimer, and lymphocytes and subsets counts were analysed at two time points: nucleic-acid test positive and negative. Psychological symptoms were assessed after discharge. RESULTS: All patients were divided into a mild group (13) and a severe group (21). The latter was further divided into two categories according to the trend of HRV. Severe patients had a significantly lower standard deviation of the RR intervals (SDNN) (P < 0.001), standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals (SDANN) (P < 0.001), and a higher ratio of low- to high-frequency power (LF/HF) (P = 0.016). Linear correlations were shown among SDNN, SDANN, LF/HF, and laboratory indices (P < 0.05). Immune function, D-dimer, and NT-proBNP showed a consistent trend with HRV in severe patients (P < 0.05), and severe patients without improved HRV parameters needed a longer time to clear the virus and recover (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: HRV was associated with the severity of COVID-19. The changing trend of HRV was related to the prognosis, indicating that HRV measurements can be used as a non-invasive predictor for clinical outcome.