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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319119

ABSTRACT

Background: Given that pregnant women are now included among those for receipt coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, it is important to ensure that information systems can be used (or available) for active safety surveillance, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to build consensus about the use of existing maternal and neonatal data collection systems in LMICs for COVID-19 vaccines active safety surveillance, a basic set of variables, and the suitability and feasibility of including pregnant women and LMIC research networks in COVID-19 vaccines pre-licensure activities.  Methods: A three-stage modified Delphi study was conducted over three months in 2020. An international multidisciplinary panel of 16 experts participated. Ratings distributions and consensus were assessed, and ratings’ rationale was analyzed.  Results: The panel recommended using maternal and neonatal data collection systems for active safety surveillance in LMICs (median 9;disagreement index [DI] -0.92), but there was no consensus (median 6;DI 1.79) on the feasibility of adapting these systems. A basic set of 14 maternal, neonatal, and vaccination-related variables. Out of 16 experts, 11 supported a basic set of 14 maternal, neonatal, and vaccination-related variables for active safety surveillance. Seven experts agreed on a broader set of 26 variables.The inclusion of pregnant women for COVID-19 vaccines research (median 8;DI -0.61) was found appropriate, although there was uncertainty on its feasibility in terms of decision-makers’ acceptability (median 7;DI 10.00) and regulatory requirements (median 6;DI 0.51). There was no consensus (median 6;DI 2.35) on the feasibility of including research networks in LMICs for conducting clinical trials amongst pregnant women. Conclusions: Although there was some uncertainty regarding feasibility, experts recommended using maternal and neonatal data collection systems and agreed on a common set of variables for COVID-19 vaccines active safety surveillance in LMICs.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 4705-4713, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510846

ABSTRACT

Pregnant persons are at increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19. The first COVID-19 vaccines in the U.S. were authorized for emergency use in December 2020 and pregnant persons were eligible and could get vaccinated despite scarce safety data in this population. To monitor the safety of COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, four surveillance systems are used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System is a national, passive system that captures reports of potential adverse events. V-safe is a novel, active system that uses text messaging and web-based surveys to provide health check-ins after vaccination; and enrolls eligible v-safe participants in the v-safe pregnancy registry. The Vaccine Safety Datalink is a collaboration between the CDC and nine integrated health care organizations which performs near-real time surveillance and traditional epidemiologic studies on pregnant vaccine recipients. The CDC is committed to timely and comprehensive monitoring of COVID-19 vaccine safety in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1355-1359, 2020 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389855

ABSTRACT

Pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), possibly related to changes in their immune system and respiratory physiology* (1). Further, adverse birth outcomes, such as preterm delivery and stillbirth, might be more common among pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (2,3). Information about SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy is rapidly growing; however, data on reasons for hospital admission, pregnancy-specific characteristics, and birth outcomes among pregnant women hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infections are limited. During March 1-May 30, 2020, as part of Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)† surveillance of COVID-19 hospitalizations, 105 hospitalized pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified, including 62 (59%) hospitalized for obstetric reasons (i.e., labor and delivery or another pregnancy-related indication) and 43 (41%) hospitalized for COVID-19 illness without an obstetric reason. Overall, 50 (81%) of 62 pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection who were admitted for obstetric reasons were asymptomatic. Among 43 pregnant women hospitalized for COVID-19, 13 (30%) required intensive care unit (ICU) admission, six (14%) required mechanical ventilation, and one died from COVID-19. Prepregnancy obesity was more common (44%) among pregnant women hospitalized for COVID-19 than that among asymptomatic pregnant women hospitalized for obstetric reasons (31%). Likewise, the rate of gestational diabetes (26%) among pregnant women hospitalized for COVID-19 was higher than it was among women hospitalized for obstetric reasons (8%). Preterm delivery occurred in 15% of pregnancies among 93 women who delivered, and stillbirths (fetal death at ≥20 weeks' gestation) occurred in 3%. Antenatal counseling emphasizing preventive measures (e.g., use of masks, frequent hand washing, and social distancing) might help prevent COVID-19 among pregnant women,§ especially those with prepregnancy obesity and gestational diabetes, which might reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Vaccine ; 39(28): 3666-3677, 2021 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230808

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a devastating impact on global health, and has resulted in an unprecedented, international collaborative effort to develop vaccines to control the outbreak, protect human lives, and avoid further social and economic disruption. Mass vaccination campaigns are underway in multiple countries and are expected worldwide once more vaccine becomes available. Some early candidate vaccines use novel platforms, such as mRNA encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles, and relatively new platforms, such as replication-deficient viral vectors. While these new vaccine platforms hold promise, limited safety data in humans are available. Serious health outcomes linked to vaccinations are rare, and some outcomes may occur incidentally in the vaccinated population. Knowledge of background incidence rates of these medical conditions is a critical component of vaccine safety monitoring to aid in the assessment of adverse events temporally associated with vaccination and to put these events into context with what would be expected due to chance alone. A list of 22 potential adverse events of special interest (AESI), including neurologic, autoimmune, and cardiovascular disorders, was compiled by subject matter experts at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The most recently available U.S. background rates for these medical conditions, overall and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity (when available), were sourced from reported statistics (data published by medical panels/ associations or federal government reports), and literature reviews in PubMed. This review provides estimates of background incidence rates for medical conditions that may be monitored or studied as AESI during safety surveillance and research for COVID-19 vaccines and other new vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccines/adverse effects
5.
N Engl J Med ; 384(24): 2273-2282, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many pregnant persons in the United States are receiving messenger RNA (mRNA) coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) vaccines, but data are limited on their safety in pregnancy. METHODS: From December 14, 2020, to February 28, 2021, we used data from the "v-safe after vaccination health checker" surveillance system, the v-safe pregnancy registry, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) to characterize the initial safety of mRNA Covid-19 vaccines in pregnant persons. RESULTS: A total of 35,691 v-safe participants 16 to 54 years of age identified as pregnant. Injection-site pain was reported more frequently among pregnant persons than among nonpregnant women, whereas headache, myalgia, chills, and fever were reported less frequently. Among 3958 participants enrolled in the v-safe pregnancy registry, 827 had a completed pregnancy, of which 115 (13.9%) resulted in a pregnancy loss and 712 (86.1%) resulted in a live birth (mostly among participants with vaccination in the third trimester). Adverse neonatal outcomes included preterm birth (in 9.4%) and small size for gestational age (in 3.2%); no neonatal deaths were reported. Although not directly comparable, calculated proportions of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in persons vaccinated against Covid-19 who had a completed pregnancy were similar to incidences reported in studies involving pregnant women that were conducted before the Covid-19 pandemic. Among 221 pregnancy-related adverse events reported to the VAERS, the most frequently reported event was spontaneous abortion (46 cases). CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary findings did not show obvious safety signals among pregnant persons who received mRNA Covid-19 vaccines. However, more longitudinal follow-up, including follow-up of large numbers of women vaccinated earlier in pregnancy, is necessary to inform maternal, pregnancy, and infant outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pregnancy , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Middle Aged , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Registries , United States/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Young Adult
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