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Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108095, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377734


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays are relevant in managing the COVID-19 pandemic, providing valuable data on the immunization status of the population. However, current serology tests are highly variable, due to their different characteristics and to the lack of reference materials. The aim of the World Health Organization (WHO) first International Standard (IS) for anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin is to harmonize humoral immune response assessment after natural infection or vaccination, and recommend reporting the results for binding activity in Binding Antibody Units (BAU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study analyzed six commercial quantitative anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-protein assays in a head-to-head comparison, using the manufacturers' conversion factors for the WHO IS to obtain BAU/mL values. RESULTS: Our data showed good alignment up to 1000 BAU/mL, then began to disperse, exhibiting some discrepancies. Moreover, correlations among methods varied with Cohen's Kappa ranging from 0.580 to 1.00, with the lowest agreement values for kits using different target antigens or different antibody isotypes, making it clear that the laboratory report should include this information. Values expressed as BAU/ml showed a reduced between-assays variability compared to AU/ml (median coefficients of variation 0.38 and 0.68, respectively; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: On the basis of these data at present anti-SARS CoV-2 serological assays' results are not interchangeable, and, more importantly, individual immune monitoring should be performed with the same method.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , World Health Organization
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1436-1442, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196450


During coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the early diagnosis of patients is a priority. Serological assays, in particular immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), have today several applications but the interpretation of their results remains an open challenge. Given the emerging role of the IgA isotype in the COVID-19 diagnostics, we aimed to identify the SARS-CoV-2 IgA antibodies in a COVID-19 population seronegative for IgM. A total of 30 patients hospitalized in San Giovanni di Dio Hospital (Florence, Italy) for COVID-19, seronegative for IgM antibodies, have been studied for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. They all had a positive oro/nasopharyngeal swab reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction result. Assays used were a chemiluminescent assay measuring SARS-CoV-2 specific IgM and IgG (S + N) and an ELISA, measuring specific IgG (S1) and IgA antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. Among the 30 patients, eight were positive for IgA, seven were positive for IgG (N + S), and two for IgG (S1), at the first point (5-7 days from the onset of symptoms). The IgA antibodies mean values at the second (9-13 days) and third (21-25 days) time points were even more than twice as high as IgG assays. The agreement between the two IgG assays was moderate (Cohen's K = 0.59; SE = 0.13). The inclusion of the IgA antibodies determination among serological tests of the COVID-19 diagnostic is recommended. IgA antibodies may help to close the serological gap of the COVID-19. Variations among anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG assays should be considered in the interpretation of results.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin A/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Luminescent Measurements , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity
ERJ Open Res ; 6(2)2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-655987


Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) stimulates pro-thrombotic changes. This, combined with its tropism for endothelium and lung structures, may explain its association with thrombotic events, reduction of pulmonary gas exchange, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a composite end-point (intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, death). This study aims to highlight the correlation between elevated D-dimer (an indirect thrombosis marker) and the increased rate of poor prognosis-associated conditions, and to introduce D-dimer-labelled anticoagulant administration as a potentially useful tool to prevent complications and positively influence coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) course. Methods: An online database search (PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane) was performed between 13 March and 10 April 2020. The most relevant keywords were "D-dimer", "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "thrombosis" and "ARDS". Selection was independently conducted by three reviewers. References and previews of accepted articles were evaluated. Data inclusion/extraction inaccuracy was limited by the work of three reviewers. Selection bias reduction was addressed by thoughtfully designing the search protocol. Quality assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The systematic review protocol was not registered because we anticipated the very limited available evidence on the topic and due to the urgency of the study. Results: 16 studies were evaluated. Good-quality criteria were reached in 13 out of 16 studies. D-dimer was increased and significantly higher in COVID-19 patients compared with healthy controls, in COVID-19 patients with severe disease or a composite end-point compared with non-severe disease, in ARDS compared with non-ARDS patients and in deceased ARDS patients compared with ARDS patients who survived (all p<0.001). COVID-19 patients treated with anticoagulants demonstrated lower mortality compared with those not treated (p=0.017). Conclusions: Correlations exist between COVID-19 infection, severe elevation of D-dimer levels, and increase in the rate of complications and composite end-point. The appropriateness of early and continuous D-dimer monitoring and labelled anticoagulation as management tools for COVID-19 disease deserves accurate investigation, to prevent complications and reduce interventions.