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1.
Molecules ; 27(18):5923, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2033063

ABSTRACT

We synthesized a set of small molecules using a molecular hybridization approach with good yields. The antiviral properties of the synthesized conjugates against the SAR-CoV-2 virus were investigated and their cytotoxicity was also determined. Among all the synthesized conjugates, compound 9f showed potential against SARS-CoV-2 and low cytotoxicity. The conjugates' selectivity indexes (SIs) were determined to correlate the antiviral properties and cytotoxicity. The observed biological data were further validated using computational studies.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13880, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991664

ABSTRACT

A series of 1″-(alkylsulfonyl)-dispiro[indoline-3,2'-pyrrolidine-3',3″-piperidine]-2,4″-diones 6a‒o has been synthesized through regioselective multi-component azomethine dipolar cycloaddition reaction of 1-(alkylsulfonyl)-3,5-bis(ylidene)-piperidin-4-ones 3a‒h. X-ray diffraction studies (6b‒d,h) confirmed the structures. The majority of the synthesized analogs reveal promising antiproliferation properties against a variety of human cancer cell lines (MCF7, HCT116, A431 and PaCa2) with good selectivity index towards normal cell (RPE1). Some of the synthesized agents exhibit potent inhibitory properties against the tested cell lines with higher efficacies than the standard references (sunitinib and 5-fluorouracil). Compound 6m is the most potent. Multi-targeted inhibitory properties against EGFR and VEGFR-2 have been observed for the synthesized agents. Flow cytometry supports the antiproliferation properties and shows the tested agents as apoptosis and necrosis forming. Vero cell viral infection model demonstrates the anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties of the synthesized agents. Compound 6f is the most promising (about 3.3 and 4.8 times the potency of the standard references, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine). QSAR models explain and support the observed biological properties.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Spiro Compounds , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Indoles , Molecular Structure , SARS-CoV-2 , Spiro Compounds/chemistry , Spiro Compounds/pharmacology
3.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580398

ABSTRACT

We report the discovery of several highly potent small molecules with low-nM potency against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV; lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50: 13 nM), SARS-CoV-2 (IC50: 23 nM), and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV; IC50: 76 nM) in pseudovirus-based assays with excellent selectivity index (SI) values (>5000), demonstrating potential pan-coronavirus inhibitory activities. Some compounds showed 100% inhibition against the cytopathic effects (CPE; IC100) of an authentic SARS-CoV-2 (US_WA-1/2020) variant at 1.25 µM. The most active inhibitors also potently inhibited variants of concern (VOCs), including the UK (B.1.1.7) and South African (B.1.351) variants and the Delta variant (B.1.617.2) originally identified in India in pseudovirus-based assay. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis with one potent inhibitor confirmed that it binds to the prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein trimer. These small-molecule inhibitors prevented virus-mediated cell-cell fusion. The absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data for one of the most active inhibitors, NBCoV1, demonstrated drug-like properties. An in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) study of NBCoV1 in rats demonstrated an excellent half-life (t1/2) of 11.3 h, a mean resident time (MRT) of 14.2 h, and oral bioavailability. We expect these lead inhibitors to facilitate the further development of preclinical and clinical candidates.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Biological Availability , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/drug effects , HIV Fusion Inhibitors/chemistry , HIV Fusion Inhibitors/pharmacokinetics , HIV Fusion Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Protein Binding , Rats , Small Molecule Libraries/chemistry , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacokinetics , Small Molecule Libraries/pharmacology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors
4.
ChemMedChem ; 16(22): 3418-3427, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525425

ABSTRACT

Currently, limited therapeutic options are available for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We have developed a set of pyrazine-based small molecules. A series of pyrazine conjugates was synthesized by microwave-assisted click chemistry and benzotriazole chemistry. All the synthesized conjugates were screened against the SAR-CoV-2 virus and their cytotoxicity was determined. Computational studies were carried out to validate the biological data. Some of the pyrazine-triazole conjugates (5 d-g) and (S)-N-(1-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-phenylethyl)pyrazine-2-carboxamide 12 i show significant potency against SARS-CoV-2 among the synthesized conjugates. The selectivity index (SI) of potent conjugates indicates significant efficacy compared to the reference drug (Favipiravir).


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrazines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amides/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Structure , Pyrazines/chemical synthesis , Pyrazines/metabolism , Pyrazines/toxicity , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Vero Cells
5.
Bioorg Chem ; 117: 105466, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499653

ABSTRACT

Series of piperidone-salicylate conjugates were synthesized through the reaction of 3E,5E-bis(arylidene)-4-piperidones with the appropriate acid chloride of acetylsalicylate in the presence of triethylamine. All the synthesized conjugates reveal antiproliferative properties against A431 (squamous skin) cancer cell line with potency higher than that of 5-fluorouracil. Many of the synthesized agents also exhibit promising antiproliferative properties against HCT116 (colon) cancer cell line, of which 5o and 5c are the most effective with 12.9, 9.8 folds potency compared with Sunitinib. Promising activity is also shown against MCF7 (breast) cancer cell line with 1.19, 1.12 folds relative to 5-fluorouracil. PI-flow cytometry of compound 5c supports the arrest of cell cycle at G1-phase. However, compound 5o and Sunitinib arrest the cell cycle at S-phase. The synthesized conjugates can be considered as multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors due to the promising properties against VEGFR-2 and EGFR in MCF7 and HCT116. CDOCKER studies support the EGFR inhibitory properties. Compounds 5p and 5i possessing thienylidene heterocycle are anti-SARS-CoV-2 with high therapeutic indices. Many of the synthesized agents show enhanced COX-1/2 properties than aspirin with better selectivity index towards COX-2 relative to COX-1. The possible applicability of the potent candidates discovered as antitumor and anti-SARS-CoV-2 is supported by the safe profile against normal (non-cancer, RPE1 and VERO-E6) cells.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Aspirin/chemistry , Curcumin/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 1/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 1/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Drug Design , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/antagonists & inhibitors , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
6.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480883

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are among the most complex medical problems and have been a major threat to the economy and global health. Several epidemics and pandemics have occurred due to viruses, which has led to a significant increase in mortality and morbidity rates. Natural products have always been an inspiration and source for new drug development because of their various uses. Among all-natural sources, plant sources are the most dominant for the discovery of new therapeutic agents due to their chemical and structural diversity. Despite the traditional use and potential source for drug development, natural products have gained little attention from large pharmaceutical industries. Several plant extracts and isolated compounds have been extensively studied and explored for antiviral properties against different strains of viruses. In this review, we have compiled antiviral plant extracts and natural products isolated from plants reported since 2015.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , Drug Development , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/isolation & purification , Drug Discovery , Flavivirus/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Humans , Molecular Structure , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Simplexvirus/drug effects
7.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105131, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293593

ABSTRACT

Sets of 3-alkenyl-2-oxindoles (6,10,13) were synthesized in a facile synthetic pathway through acid dehydration (EtOH/HCl) of the corresponding 3-hydroxy-2-oxoindolines (5,9,12). Single crystal (10a,c) and powder (12a,26f) X-ray studies supported the structures. Compounds 6c and 10b are the most effective agents synthesized (about 3.4, 3.3 folds, respectively) against PaCa2 (pancreatic) cancer cell line relative to the standard reference used (Sunitinib). Additionally, compound 10b reveals antiproliferative properties against MCF7 (breast) cancer cell with IC50 close to that of Sunitinib. CAM testing reveals that compounds 6 and 10 demonstrated qualitative and quantitative decreases in blood vessel count and diameter with efficacy comparable to that of Sunitinib, supporting their anti-angiogenic properties. Kinase inhibitory properties support their multi-targeted inhibitory activities against VEGFR-2 and c-kit in similar behavior to that of Sunitinib. Cell cycle analysis studies utilizing MCF7 exhibit that compound 6b arrests the cell cycle at G1/S phase while, 10b reveals accumulation of the tested cell at S phase. Compounds 6a and 10b reveal potent antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2 with high selectivity index relative to the standards (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine). Safe profile of the potent synthesized agents, against normal cells (VERO-E6, RPE1), support the possible development of better hits based on the attained observations.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Oxindoles/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Chick Embryo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Oxindoles/pharmacology , Vero Cells
8.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105117, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283943

ABSTRACT

At present therapeutic options for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) are very limited. We designed and synthesized three sets of small molecules using quinoline scaffolds. A series of quinoline conjugates (10a-l, 11a-c, and 12a-e) by incorporating 1,2,3-triazole were synthesized via a modified microwave-assisted click chemistry technique. Among the synthesized conjugates, 4-((1-(2-chlorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy)-6-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (10g) and 6-fluoro-4-(2-(1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)ethoxy)-2-(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (12c) show high potency against SARS-CoV-2. The selectivity index (SI) of compounds 10g and 12c also indicates the significant efficacy compared to the reference drugs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , COVID-19/drug therapy , Quinolines/chemical synthesis , Triazoles/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Click Chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quinolines/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2 , Triazoles/chemistry
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