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1.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(6):979-986, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057750

ABSTRACT

This study was done to assess the morphological changes in peripheral blood smears during COVID-19 infection .We aimed to examine the characteristics of the cells detected in the peripheral blood smear and bone marrow at the time of diagnosis in COVID-19 patients. Clinical features, laboratory data, peripheral blood smear of 35patients diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR was evaluated at diagnosis. Peripheral smear samples of the patients were compared with the age and sex-matched 35 healthy controls. The relationship between the laboratory values of all patients and the duration of hospitalization was analyzed. Peripheral smear shows neutrophilic leucocytosis, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia while Bone marrows were normocellular to hypercellular, most showing maturing trilineage hematopoiesis with myeloid left shift. In 09 out of 35 evaluable bone marrows, hemophagocytic histiocytes were identified.

2.
Cases on Emerging Market Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic ; : 40-58, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024470

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, several disruptions were reported, activities got halted, and the focus of marketing shifted towards social media due to engagements of the clients towards various available platforms. The use of the internet and social media increased during and after the pandemic. Digital communications attracted customers towards contactless access and the availability of required services. Interactions among various stakeholders including companies, suppliers, and customers increased during these times for hassle-free and uninterrupted services. A paradigm shift was observed in advertising patterns, customer relationship management, service management, and digital tools and media engagements during the pandemic. A strategic shift, observed during the pandemic, has been explored and covered in this chapter. A theoretical framework of hassle-free uses of digital tools in the pandemic has also been developed and included using various social media platforms. © 2022, IGI Global.

3.
2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering, ICACITE 2022 ; : 1003-1006, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992620

ABSTRACT

This is a paper on disease prediction using machine learning through a python graphical user interface application. The motivation behind this application is the pandemic (Covid- Situation) faced by the whole world and also the idea to robotize the current manual framework of initial diagnosis by the assistance of mechanized supplies and undeniable PC programming so that their important information/data can be put away for a more drawn out period and also for a more useful purpose. This paper introduces the field of diseases prediction, the treatment for the disease, and consulting with the doctors nearby through efficient programming using machine learning. It describes the need for a system of an online artificial doctor, which will not only help them in predicting and understanding the diseases, but it will also advise them of certain medicines that are necessary for controlling or curing those diseases. © 2022 IEEE.

4.
Dental Research Journal ; 19:43, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1970496

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the past year, patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 presented with severe gustatory dysfunction, the prevalence of which varies among different populations. Furthermore, there have been sporadic reports of oral ulceration observed in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients due to varied reasons. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterize the presence of gustatory disorders, oral ulceration, and other oral changes in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, a total of 402 participants who were detected COVID-19 positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were included. Their demographic and clinical data were recorded through hospital records. The participants were interviewed either in person or on the telephone to record any change in taste and/or changes within the oral cavity. t-test for independent means was used to compare mean age, while other characteristics were compared by Chi-square test and Z-score test. P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Out of the total sample of 402 individuals, 262 were male and 140 were female. The prevalence of gustatory dysfunction and oral ulceration was 43.53% and 15.67%, respectively, in the studied sample. Significantly more females had gustatory dysfunction than males and older subjects more commonly than younger. The symptom of loss/change of taste and oral ulceration were more probable to occur together. In addition, the tongue was the most common site for ulceration in our studied sample. Conclusion: Loss of taste is a common symptom of COVID-19 patients, whereas oral ulceration is not so commonly reported. However, the presence of both these symptoms could impair the quality of life of patients and hamper adequate nutritional uptake.

5.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-3, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed: to evaluate the association between coronavirus disease 2019 infection and olfactory and taste dysfunction in patients presenting to the out-patient department with influenza-like illness, who underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for coronavirus; and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of olfactory and taste dysfunction and other symptoms in these patients. METHODS: Patients presenting with influenza-like illness to the study centre in September 2020 were included in the study. The symptoms of patients who tested positive for coronavirus on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing were compared to those with negative test results. RESULTS: During the study period, 909 patients, aged 12-70 years, presented with influenza-like illness; of these, 316 (34.8 per cent) tested positive for coronavirus. Only the symptoms of olfactory and taste dysfunction were statistically more significant in patients testing positive for coronavirus than those testing negative. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, patients presenting to the out-patient department with sudden loss of sense of smell or taste may be considered as positive for coronavirus disease 2019, until proven otherwise.

6.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337412

ABSTRACT

The underlying factors contributing to the evolution of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses during COVID-19 infection remain unidentified. To address this, we characterized innate and adaptive immune responses with metabolomic profiling longitudinally at three different time points (0-3, 7-9, and 14-16 days post-COVID-19 positivity) from young mildly symptomatic active COVID-19 patients infected with the ancestral virus in mid-2020. We observed that anti-RBD IgG and viral neutralization are significantly reduced against the Delta variant compared to the ancestral strain. In contrast, compared to the ancestral strain, T cell responses remain preserved against the delta and omicron variants. We determined innate immune responses during the early stage of active infection in response to TLR 3/7/8 mediated activation in PBMCs and serum metabolomic profiling. Correlation analysis indicated PBMCs-derived proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-23, and the abundance of plasma metabolites, pyroglutamate, itaconate, and azelaic acid, were predictive of a robust SARS-CoV-2-specific Th1 response at a later stage (two weeks after PCR positivity). These observations may contribute to designing effective vaccines and adjuvants that promote innate immune responses and metabolites to induce long-lasting anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific T cells response.

7.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-336130

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting unvaccinated, vaccinated and previously-infected individuals due to its ability to evade neutralization by antibodies. With three sub-lineages of Omicron emerging in the last four months, there is inadequate information on the quantitative antibody response generated upon natural infection with Omicron variant and whether these antibodies offer cross-protection against other sub-lineages of Omicron variant. We show that both binding and neutralizing antibodies wane by >50% in six months in study participants with hybrid immunity. Omicron infection in a subset of individuals led to a significant increase in binding and neutralizing antibodies to BA.1 and BA.2 sub-lineages of Omicron. The levels of neutralizing antibodies were higher against the Delta variant as compared to the Omicron sub-lineages. These data suggest that Omicron infection elicits neutralizing antibodies that can cross-react with other sub-lineages of Omicron and other variants of concern in people with hybrid immunity.

8.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(SUPPL 2):19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1798722

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The museum of human Anatomy plays a prominent role in exploring the structural organization of the human body. However, in the current pandemic era, it has been observed that the entry to Anatomy museum was restricted. The students rarely visit the museum and prefer to browse the internet for learning videos and explanations of the dissected human specimens. Aim: The present project was undertaken to develop the Anatomy museum as an innovative online educational tool through the digitalization of human body specimens. Materials and Methods: High-resolution pictures of 100 core specimens were captured, categorized according to the organ systems, and stored in a database along with the relevant explanation and voiceovers. A database of the digitalized anatomy exhibits and the online management platform was then built as a website. The website was made accessible to the student community and the public. Results: The efforts of digitalizing the human specimens of the Anatomy Museum were well appreciated and encouraged by the students and the public alike. The reflections recorded from the students were subjected to thematic analysis and theme were identified. Conclusion: The study concludes by stating that the digitalized human Anatomy museum is an excellent educational tool for teaching and learning Anatomy. The students from various streams of Health and Allied Sciences will be immensely benefitted from the digitalized Anatomy Museum, especially in these pandemic times.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320171

ABSTRACT

Background: The highly contagious Co rona vi rus d isease (COVID-19) pandemic affected nearly all nations across the world. It was emerged as most swiftly affected disease across the world and more than 2934 lakhs population suffered in four months of the time period as on date April 26, 2020. Its first epicenter was at Wuhan city of China during the month of December 2019. Currently, the most affected people and new epicenter of Coronavirus is at the United States of America (USA). Various nation’s administration including the India government called for the regional and local lockdown. We predicted the confirmed COVID-19 cases for next May-2020 month, map the magnitude of COVID-19 disease for Indian states and model the paucity of COVID-19 disease with statistical confirmatory data analysis model for declining rate for the cases represented for the Indian proportion of population. Method: The ARIMA model used to predict for next short-term cases, based moving average of past confirmed cases. The restriction of COVID-19 pandemic disease analyzed with predicted cases for month May 2020 data at 95 percent confidence is more than 2.5 lakh cases. Results: The confirmatory data analysis model for the time estimation for the paucity of cases it takes in between six to eighteen months of time frame. The Confirmatory model which considers recovery rate, social, economic and government policy. To complete recovery from the COVID-19 cases it takes on an average more than next ten months. Conclusion: The disease impacts also depend upon administrative and local people support for self-quarantine and other measures. The India nation Gross Domestic Product (GDP) based on more than 17% of its agriculture production, due to longer affect of the disease and extended lockdown period it will be severely affected. However, all the economic activities with full of its intensity takes-up after complete paucity of COVID-19 disease spread. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2;Lockdown;GDP;Nobel-Corona;Confirmatory data model

10.
Indian Journal of Community Health ; 33(3):430-434, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1623060

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care workers (HCWs) are more likely to be at high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to their direct and/or indirect participation in treatment facilities. Here, we aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of ivermectin pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in HCWs. Materials and Methods: In this observational study HCWs who were directly/indirectly involved in the medication of COVID-19 patients were selected. The study questionnaire included demographic data;knowledge, attitudes, practices, and associated adverse drug reactions (ADR) after using ivermectin as pre-exposure prophylaxis in COVID-19.

11.
Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine ; 27:196-203, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576352

ABSTRACT

Context center dot SARS-CoV-2 is a global public-health concern. Interventions to prevent infection are urgently needed. The anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of neem make it a potential agent for COVID-19 prophylaxis. Objective center dot The study intended to evaluate the prophylactic effects of neem capsules for persons at high risk of COVID-19 infection due to contact with COVID-19 positive patients. Design center dot The research team designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, paralleldesign study. Setting center dot The study was conducted at a single center in India. Participants center dot Participants were 190 healthcare workers at the hospital or relatives of patients with COVID-19 infection. Intervention center dot Of the 190 participants, 95 were in the intervention group and 95 in the control group. Participants received 50 mg of a proprietary, patent-pending, neem-leaf extract or a placebo orally in capsules, twice a day for 28 days. Outcome Measures center dot The number of individuals positive for COVID-19 between baseline and follow-up on day 56 was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included an evaluation of neem's safety and its effects on quality of life (QOL) and changes in biomarkers. Results center dot The mean age of participants was 36.97 years, and 68.42% were male. Total 13 subjects tested positive during the study. All were asymptomatic. Of the 154 participants who completed the study per-protocol, 11 tested positive, 3 in the intervention group and 8 in the control group. The probability of COVID-19 infection in participants receiving the intervention was 0.45 times that of participants receiving the placebo, a relative risk of 0.45, with the effectiveness of the intervention being around 55%. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in both groups were minimal and were of grade 1 or 2 in severity. Biomarkers and QOL remained stable in both groups. Conclusions center dot The study found a reduced risk of COVID-19 infection in participants receiving neem capsules, which demonstrates its potential as a prophylactic treatment for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. The findings warrant further investigation in clinical trials.

12.
International Journal of Finance & Economics ; : 13, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1559601

ABSTRACT

This study has collected information of 145 countries to predict the effect of cases per million (CPM), tests per million (TPM), and proportion of people aged 65 and above (PAO) on the number of deaths per million DPM at the country and continent level. In addition, it evaluates the economic cost of tests, deaths, COVID-19 cases in terms of reduction in GDP growth rate across the countries. This paper uses a different econometrics model, including analysis of variance (ANOVA), regression, and multinomial regression model. The robust regression model with M and MM-estimation was also used due to leverage and residuals in country wise GDP database. A significant difference was found in deaths per million (DPM), TPM, number of COVID-19 cases (CPM), and percentage of people aged 65 and above (PAO) across continents. The DPM is negatively associated with TPM, and it was relatively more effective in reducing DPM in Africa (0.32%) as compared to Asia (0.25%) and Europe (0.28). The results show that a 1% increase in the elderly population causes a 0.62% increase in DPM in Africa, while it caused a 2.31% increase in Europe. The study will be helpful in ascertaining the impact of these indicators in this pandemic and help in policy formation and decision-making strategies to fight the COVID19 pandemic.

13.
Computer Systems Science and Engineering ; 41(3):959-974, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2 virus or COVID-19) disease was declared pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 has already affected more than 211 nations. In such a bleak scenario, it becomes imperative to analyze and identify those regions in Saudi Arabia that are at high risk. A preemptive study done in the context of predicting the possible COVID-19 hotspots would facilitate in the implementation of prompt and targeted countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2, thus saving many lives. Working towards this intent, the present study adopts a decision making based methodology of simulation named Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multi criteria decision making approach, for assessing the risk of COVID-19 in different regions of Saudi Arabia. AHP gives the ability to measure the risks numerically. Moreover, numerical assessments are always effective and easy to understand. Hence, this research endeavour employs Fuzzy based computational method of decision making for its empirical analysis. Findings in the proposed paper suggest that Riyadh and Makkah are the most susceptible regions, implying that if sustained and focused preventive measures are not introduced at the right juncture, the two cities could be the worst afflicted with the infection. The results obtained through Fuzzy based computational method of decision making are highly corroborative and would be very useful for categorizing and assessing the current COVID-19 situation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. More specifically, identifying the cities that are likely to be COVID-19 hotspots would help the country's health and medical fraternity to reinforce intensive containment strategies to counter the ills of the pandemic in such regions. © 2022 CRL Publishing. All rights reserved.

14.
Main Group Chemistry ; 20(3):295-315, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1485015

ABSTRACT

Studies have shown that hydrazides and thier derivatives are used for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes. At present, the whole world is suffering for COVID-19 virus. There are some vaccines or medicines available to treat this disease all over the world. Today the one fourth of the world's population is under lockdown condition. In this scenario, scientists from the whole world are doing different types of research on this disease. Being a molecular modeller, this inspires us to design new types of species (may be drugs) which may be capable for COVID-19 Protease. In the present effort, we have performed docking studies of title compounds with COVID-19 protein (6LU7) for anti-COVID-19 activity. A comparative quantum chemical calculations of molecular geometries (bond lengths and bond angles) of 4-Hydroxy Benzo Hydrazide (4HBH) and its newly designed derivatve [(E)-N′-((1H-Pyrrol-2-YL)Methylene) -4-Hydroxy Benzo Hydrazide and its isomers (I, II and III)] in the ground state have also been carried out due to its biological importance and compared with the similer type of compound found in literature i.e. benzohydrazide. The optimized geometry and wavenumber of the vibrational bands of the molecules have been calculated by density functional theory (DFT) using Becke's three-parameters hybrid functional (B3LYP/CAM-B3LYP) with 6-311G (d, p) as the basis set. Vibrational wavenumbers are compared with the observed FT-IR and FTRaman spectra of 4-Hydroxy Benzo Hydrazide. TDDFT calculations are also done on the same level of theory and a theoretical UV-vis spectrum of title molecules are also drawn. HOMO-LUMO analysis has been done to describe the way the molecule interacts with other species. Natural bond orbitals (NBO) analysis has been carried out to inspect the intra- and inter- molecular hydrogen-bonding, conjugative and hyper conjugative interactions and their second order stabilization energy. Nonlinear optical (NLO) analysis has been performed to study the non-linear optical properties of the molecule by computing the first hyperpolarizability. The variation of thermodynamic properties with temperature has been studied. QATIM analysis shows that hydrogen bonding occurs in 4HBH, isomer II and III respectively. © 2021 - IOS Press. All rights reserved.

15.
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences ; 91(5):410-415, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1431434

ABSTRACT

A study was conducted among 570 farmers spread across 57 districts (out of 75) of Uttar Pradesh from 10 April to 10 May 2020 by telephonic contact using the pre-structured interview schedule to assess the impact of CoVID 19 lockdown on the investment and profitability of major bovines of the state namely cattle and buffalo each with 460 data points. Different indicators for research variables namely investment pattern and profitability were measured by asking direct questions to the randomly selected 10 farmers from each district during the lockdown period and their experiences during last year (2019). The collected data were subjected for descriptive analysis - average, percentage, rank, standard deviation (SI)) and coefficient of variation (CV), and also to the paired t-test to see the significance of difference, if any. Findings of the study showed that all the investments indicators like feed and fodder price, treatment cost, animal handling charges and total cost of milk production of cattle and buffalo enhanced significantly during the lockdown. The magnitude varied as per the nature of the cost components. The price variation was observed across the sample respondents and district. Similarly, for profitability indicators, there was reduction in the magnitude of milk sale (13-15%), selling price of milk (4-5%) and B:C ratio (5.2 -7.3%) significantly owing to lockdown. The perceptions of KVK experts from across the selected districts were also analyzed. During this period. KVKs of the state also disseminated various advisories, instructions. crop and enterprise-specific recommendations.

16.
Epidemiology and Infection ; 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1392740

ABSTRACT

We report a familial cluster of 24 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. The index case had a travel history &spent twenty four days in the house before being tested and was asymptomatic. Physical overcrowding in the house provided a favourable environment for intra-cluster infection transmission. Restriction of movement of family members due to countrywide lockdown limited the spread in community. Among the infected, only 4 individuals developed symptoms. The complete genome sequences of SARS-CoV-2 was retrieved using next-generation sequencing from eight clinical samples which demonstrated a 99.99% similarity with reference to Wuhan strain and the phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a distinct cluster, lying in the B.6.6 pangolin lineage.

17.
Iranian Journal of Neonatology ; 12(3):53-57, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1374731

ABSTRACT

Background: Mother-to-child transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a matter of great concern in post-partum wards and neonatal units. With little prior experience of this novel infection, there are contradictory findings in the literature regarding breastfeeding and rooming-in for newborns of mothers with COVID-19 disease. To assess the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in neonates who were fed expressed breast milk of COVID-19 positive mothers. Methods: This prospective study included 16 neonates born to COVID-19 positive mothers. The neonates were nursed in a neonatal unit separate from their mother. Expressed breast milk was fed by health care givers ensuring proper safety measures. Nasal and throat swabs of neonates were tested twice for SARS CoV-2, firstly, at 48 h of life and secondly, before discharge. Results: Pneumonia was present in 3 (20%) mothers, and C-reactive protein was raised in 9 (60 %) mothers. Birth weight was low in 8 (50%) neonates. Respiratory distress syndrome and meconium aspiration syndrome were present in two and one newborns, respectively. Nasal and throat swabs of all 16 newborns tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection twice, at 48 h of life and before discharge. Conclusion: Expressed breast milk feeding can be considered safe in neonates born to COVID-19 positive mothers. Even sick mothers with COVID-19 can continue to express breast milk after ensuring proper safety measures.

18.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 15(7):48-51, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1344537

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been a major cause of apprehension, morbidity, and mortality in 2020. It had been postulated that associated co-morbid conditions in COVID-19 patients increase the severity of COVID-19 which leads to six times more chances of hospitalisation than patients without co-morbid condition. Mortality is also 12 times higher in such patients. Aim: To find out the association between co-morbidities and mortalities due to COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted in a tertiary teaching institute of North India which was designated Level 3 (L-3) facility for treatment of COVID-19 patients. All 109 COVID-19 patients confirmed by Reverse Transcriptase - Polymerase Chain Reaction(RT-PCR), admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) from 1st July 2020 to 30th November 2020 formed the sample of the study. Data were taken regarding past history, clinical histories and examinations and ICU care and treatments. Based on their final outcome at the end of ICU care, patients were divided into 2 groups-group 1 (Non-survivor or Expired) and group 2 (Survived) and intergroup differences were studied. results: COVID-19 infection was about three times more common in males. Severe category of COVID-19 patients had higher mortality (59.2 % of severe category expired during hospital course, 1.7% patients expired in moderate category group). Most common co-morbidities were hypertension (n=48, 46.8%) and diabetes (n=51, 44%). Multivariate analysis showed that co-morbidities in the form of chronic liver disease (OR -0.127(0.024-0.681, p-value 0.016)) and post tubercular sequel (OR 0.036(0.003-0.442, p-value 0.009)) were less likely to occur in COVID-19 patients who survived, thus making these co-morbidities significant contributor to the adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. More number of co-morbidities in a patient were associated with higher chance of mortality and this trend was significant statistically (p-value<0.001). conclusion: Patients with multiple co-morbidities, chronic liver disease and post tubercular sequel were associated with higher mortality in COVID-19 patients.

19.
J Environ Manage ; 290: 112668, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198881

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread globally and has severely impacted public health and the economy. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and the usage of personal protective equipment are considered the most vital tools in controlling the primary transmission of the virus. Converging evidence indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its persistence over several days, which may create secondary transmission of the virus via waterborne and wastewater pathways. Although, researchers have started focusing on this mode of virus transmission, limited knowledge and societal unawareness of the transmission through wastewater may lead to significant increases in the number of positive cases. To emphasize the severe issue of virus transmission through wastewater and create societal awareness, we present a state of the art critical review on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the potential remedial strategies to effectively control the viral spread and safeguard society. For low-income countries with high population densities, it is suggested to identify the virus in large scale municipal wastewater plants before following up with one-to-one testing for effective control of the secondary transmission. Ultrafiltration is an effective method for wastewater treatment and usually more than 4 logs of virus removal are achieved while safeguarding good protein permeability. Decentralized wastewater treatment facilities using solar-assisted disinfestation methods are most economical and can be effectively used in hospitals, isolation wards, and medical centers for reducing the risk of transmission from high local concentration sites, especially in tropical countries with abundant solar energy. Disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, and peracetic acid have shown potential in terms of virucidal properties. Biological wastewater treatment using micro-algae will be highly effective in removal of virus and can be incorporated into membrane bio-reaction to achieve excellent virus removal rate. Though promising results have been shown by initial research for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using physical, chemical and biological based treatment methods, there is a pressing need for extensive investigation of COVID-19 specific disinfectants with appropriate concentrations, their environmental implications, and regular monitoring of transmission. Effective wastewater treatment methods with high virus removal capacity and low treatment costs should be selected to control the virus spread and safeguard society from this deadly virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Water Purification , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
20.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1197968

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: SARS-CoV-2 is a global public-health concern. Interventions to prevent infection are urgently needed. The anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of neem make it a potential agent for COVID-19 prophylaxis. OBJECTIVE: The study intended to evaluate the prophylactic effects of neem capsules for persons at high risk of COVID-19 infection due to contact with COVID-19 positive patients. DESIGN: The research team designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study. SETTING: The study was conducted at a single center in India. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were 190 healthcare workers at the hospital or relatives of patients with COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTION: Of the 190 participants, 95 were in the intervention group and 95 in the control group. Participants received 50 mg of a proprietary, patent-pending, neem-leaf extract or a placebo orally in capsules, twice a day for 28 days. OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of individuals positive for COVID-19 between baseline and follow-up on day 56 was the primary outcome measure. Secondary measures included an evaluation of neem's safety and its effects on quality of life (QOL) and changes in biomarkers. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 36.97 years, and 68.42% were male. Total 13 subjects tested positive during the study. All were asymptomatic. Of the 154 participants who completed the study per-protocol, 11 tested positive, 3 in the intervention group and 8 in the control group. The probability of COVID-19 infection in participants receiving the intervention was 0.45 times that of participants receiving the placebo, a relative risk of 0.45, with the effectiveness of the intervention being around 55%. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in both groups were minimal and were of grade 1 or 2 in severity. Biomarkers and QOL remained stable in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The study found a reduced risk of COVID-19 infection in participants receiving neem capsules, which demonstrates its potential as a prophylactic treatment for the prevention of COVID-19 infection. The findings warrant further investigation in clinical trials.

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