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1.
Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society ; 67(3):5656-5661, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2092177

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) began in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and quickly spread across the worldwide. It becomes a global pandemic and risk to the healthcare system of almost every nation around the world. In this study thirty natural compounds of 19 Indian herbal plants were used to analyze their binding with eight proteins associated with CO VID-19. Based on the molecular docking as well as ADMET analysis, isovitexin, glycyrrhizin, sitosterol, and piperine were identified as potential herbal medicine candidates. On comparing the binding affinity with Ivermectin, we have found that the inhibition potentials of the Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek), Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice), Tinospora cordifolia (giloy) and Piper nigrum (black pepper) are very promising with no side-effects.

2.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2089819

ABSTRACT

BackgroundWith the rapid increase in COVID-19 cases and the discovery of new viral variants within India over multiple waves, the expensive reagents and time-consuming sample pretreatment required for qPCR analysis have led to slower detection of the disease. The vast Indian population demands an inexpensive and competent sample preparation strategy for rapid detection of the disease facilitating early and efficient containment of the disease. MethodsIn this study, we have surveyed the spread of COVID-19 infection over Faridabad, Haryana, India for 6 months. We also devised a simple single-step method for total RNA extraction using a single tube and compared its efficacy with the commercially available RNA isolation kits. FindingsOur findings suggest that determining Ct values for samples subjected to the One Pot RNA extraction method was as efficient as the commercially available kits but delivers a subtle advantage in a way, by minimizing the cost, labor and sample preparation time. ConclusionThis novel crude RNA extraction method is stable and capable of operating in developing countries like India for low resource settings, without the use of expensive reagents and instruments. Additionally, this method can be further adapted to pooling samples strategies owing to its high sensitivity.

3.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(6):979-986, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057750

ABSTRACT

This study was done to assess the morphological changes in peripheral blood smears during COVID-19 infection .We aimed to examine the characteristics of the cells detected in the peripheral blood smear and bone marrow at the time of diagnosis in COVID-19 patients. Clinical features, laboratory data, peripheral blood smear of 35patients diagnosed with COVID-19 by PCR was evaluated at diagnosis. Peripheral smear samples of the patients were compared with the age and sex-matched 35 healthy controls. The relationship between the laboratory values of all patients and the duration of hospitalization was analyzed. Peripheral smear shows neutrophilic leucocytosis, lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia while Bone marrows were normocellular to hypercellular, most showing maturing trilineage hematopoiesis with myeloid left shift. In 09 out of 35 evaluable bone marrows, hemophagocytic histiocytes were identified.

4.
The Covid-19 Pandemic, India and the World: Economic and Social Policy Perspectives ; : 178-193, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055847

ABSTRACT

In this chapter, we argue that the economic devastation caused by the coronavirus pandemic has forced governments to attach a higher weight to social welfare over other political objectives in determining trade policies. We make this point by looking at the pandemic package announced by the Indian government during the initial stages of the coronavirus episode. We then analyse this argument in the context of an extended version of the protection for sale model to conjecture about the possible short-run and long-run implications of the pandemic on globalization and its reverse. In our framework, in the short run governments are free to choose unilateral tariff levels according to the changed circumstances. In the long run, these unilateral tariff levels are set by a process of bargaining with trading partners. Three factors emerge as important in determining the future course of globalization: the continued importance given to social welfare, the extent of labour intensity of the import-competing sector and the relative bargaining power of the country. In general, countries attaching more importance to social welfare will reduce tariffs and ease out of the de-globalization process if they have a relatively capital-intensive import-competing sector and low bargaining power in trade negotiations. However, countries with labour-intensive import-competing sectors and some bargaining power in trade negotiations may increase tariffs and further contribute to the de-globalization process. The analysis also gives some rationale to the Indian government’s self-reliance slogan during the announcement of the pandemic economic package and its relative inaction in actual policy front. © 2022 selection and editorial matter, Rajib Bhattacharyya, Ananya Ghosh Dastidar and Soumyen Sikdar;individual chapters, the contributors.

5.
Coronavirus Drug Discovery: Volume 1: SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment ; : 137-151, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048783

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by the novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The name coronavirus was derived from their crown-like spikes that exist on their exterior. Coronaviruses have been classified into four main subcategories, namely, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the beta subgrouping and is one of the seventh coronaviruses to date infecting humans. At present, no vaccine or specific therapeutic agents have been approved for the treatment. Therefore, in the absence of particular vaccines or therapeutic agents for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, “repurposed” FDA-approved drugs are in use to treat COVID-19 patients. This chapter selectively highlights the most current pharmacotherapeutic agents prescribed for the treatment of severe cases of COVID-19 patients. These agents include antiviral drugs, antibiotics, systemic corticosteroids, antiinflammatory drugs, and neuraminidase inhibitors including RNA synthesis inhibitors, convalescent plasma therapy, and traditional herbal medicines. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

6.
Green Sustainable Process for Chemical and Environmental Engineering and Science: Biomedical Application of Biosurfactant in Medical Sector ; : 439-450, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048773

ABSTRACT

The world is facing one of its largest Pandemics ever, “The COVID-19”! The giant leaps taken in medicine and research have bowed down before a teeny tiny virus. This has conveyed to mankind that the armamentariums we possess against viruses are futile. Most of the drugs provide symptomatic relief only with few unswervingly being able to destroy the virus. Nonetheless, the scientific community is on the overtime for new boulevards of research and ways to defeat this threat. Biosurfactants (BSs) were stumbled upon as a plausible gold mine! In fact, its antimicrobial and antiadhesive properties have been well accepted. It is now postulated to be of aid in preventing the spread of viruses, that is, as a disinfecting agent, as an antiviral by curing symptoms occurring in the incubation period, killing directly the virus-infected cells and also as a drug delivery system. This chapter aims to provide an insight into what BSs are and their enormous potentials in dealing with Respiratory viruses especially the severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

7.
Biomedicine (India) ; 42(4):746-751, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2044398

ABSTRACT

Introduction and Aim: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are always at a risks of contacting infection due to their frequent exposure to infected individuals. Knowledge regarding various infection control practices especially in this pandemic era is mandatory to safeguard the HCWs. An interventional study was carried out to assess the level of knowledge of Infection control practices and standard precautions with especial reference to COVID-19 among the health care workers of a tertiary care teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 202, undergraduate students (UGs), post graduate students (PGs) and non-teaching staff (NTS) participated in this study. A pre-test self-structured questionnaire regarding infection control practices and standard precautions with especial reference to COVID-19 was distributed to all the participants. The study participants were then trained by faculty of Microbiology and infection control team vigorously. The post-training questionnaire was subsequently given to the same group of subjects. The data from before and after training was evaluated and compared. Results: On post-training evaluation after intervention, there was a significant increase in knowledge of various infection control practices among HCWs, as seen by comparing the results of the post-test questionnaire to its pre-test counterpart, because the HCWs' doubts were cleared in the education sessions. Conclusion: The knowledge regarding the various infection control practices among the HCWs is short lived and significant increase was observed on post training. The health care settings should make a policy to carry out mandatory rotational repeated trainings by the Infection control team for all the groups of HCWs for better compliance.

8.
Cases on Emerging Market Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic ; : 40-58, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024470

ABSTRACT

During COVID-19, several disruptions were reported, activities got halted, and the focus of marketing shifted towards social media due to engagements of the clients towards various available platforms. The use of the internet and social media increased during and after the pandemic. Digital communications attracted customers towards contactless access and the availability of required services. Interactions among various stakeholders including companies, suppliers, and customers increased during these times for hassle-free and uninterrupted services. A paradigm shift was observed in advertising patterns, customer relationship management, service management, and digital tools and media engagements during the pandemic. A strategic shift, observed during the pandemic, has been explored and covered in this chapter. A theoretical framework of hassle-free uses of digital tools in the pandemic has also been developed and included using various social media platforms. © 2022, IGI Global.

9.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018957

ABSTRACT

The recent SARS-COV-2 virus, also known as COVID-19, badly affected the world’s healthcare system due to limited medical resources for a large number of infected human beings. Quarantine helps in breaking the spread of the virus for such communicable diseases. This work proposes a non-wearable/contactless system for human location and activity recognition using ubiquitous wireless signals. The proposed method utilizes the Channel State Information (CSI) of the wireless signals recorded through a low-cost device for estimating the location and activity of the person under quarantine. We propose to utilize a Siamese architecture with combined one-dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks (1D-CNN) and Bi-directional long-short term memory (Bi-LSTM) networks. The proposed method provides high accuracy for the joint task and is validated on two real-world testbeds. First, using the designed low-cost CSI recording hardware, and second, on a public dataset for joint activity and location estimation. The HAR results outperform state-of-the-art machine and deep learning methods, and localization results are comparable with the existing methods. IEEE

10.
22nd International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2022 ; : 199-200, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018787

ABSTRACT

As the hands-on engineering education got severely affected by the lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the present study discusses how to adopt the Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach to teach complex engineering concepts in this tough time. In this paper, we have discussed the design of a gamified problem statement (using a robotic simulation environment called CoppeliaSim) which was used to teach complex engineering concepts like image processing, control systems, path planning, etc to undergraduate students by a pioneering initiative in engineering education. The study was implemented on 469 teams (1876 students) and explores how the use of a simulation environment impacts the overall performance of teams in completing the assigned problem statement. In addition to this, we have demonstrated the use of a leaderboard to increase learner engagement and motivation in completing the problem statement. Our work is useful to anyone seeking to use PBL to teach and/or learn complex engineering concepts. © 2022 IEEE.

11.
Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery ; 14:A47-A48, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005437

ABSTRACT

Background The mechanisms and outcomes in COVID-19- associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. Objectives The purpose of this study is to describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. Methods We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted COVID-19 patients with concomitant acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a MT between January 2018 to December 2020.Results: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO, 194 had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs. 71.2;p<0.001), and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs. 54, 14.2%;p =0.001). mTICI 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs. 252, 67.2%;p < 0.001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as mRS 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs.132, 66.7%;p =0.004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving mTICI 3 (OR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2 -0.7;p<0.001), and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4 - 4.5;p=0.002). Conclusion COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. COVID-19 patients with LVO patients were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates. (Figure Presented).

12.
2nd International Conference on Advance Computing and Innovative Technologies in Engineering, ICACITE 2022 ; : 1003-1006, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992620

ABSTRACT

This is a paper on disease prediction using machine learning through a python graphical user interface application. The motivation behind this application is the pandemic (Covid- Situation) faced by the whole world and also the idea to robotize the current manual framework of initial diagnosis by the assistance of mechanized supplies and undeniable PC programming so that their important information/data can be put away for a more drawn out period and also for a more useful purpose. This paper introduces the field of diseases prediction, the treatment for the disease, and consulting with the doctors nearby through efficient programming using machine learning. It describes the need for a system of an online artificial doctor, which will not only help them in predicting and understanding the diseases, but it will also advise them of certain medicines that are necessary for controlling or curing those diseases. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 39(1):51-55, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1988392

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, a novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) began its journey around the world. Since then, many efforts are being carried out to contain the virus. Knowledge and attitude of people should be directed towards strict preventive practices in order to halt the spread of the virus. Medical students, as frontline healthcare workers, are more susceptible to be infected by the virus. The aim of the current cross-sectional study is to assess the knowledge, practice and attitude of 2nd year medical students from medical college in tribal part of Gujarat, India, regarding dead body management of covid-19 patients. Methods: A self-designed questionnaire consisting of 19 questions was developed and given to the students. The knowledge, attitude, and practice of the participants were investigated. Results: A total of 235 medical students completed the questionnaire. Out of the total participants (n=235), 133(56.6%) were male and 102(43.4%) were female. 88.9% of students knew the fact that covid-19 dead body is infective, 94.5% students are aware about specific guidelines for dead body management of covid-19 patients, 40% students have no knowledge about Medico-legal Autopsy of COVID 19 case will be conducted strictly by avoiding any invasive surgical procedures. Conclusion: We found a high level of COVID-19 related knowledge and self-reported preventive behaviors and moderate risk perception among 2nd year medical students, which is easily available on social media, internet and printed media. But they are very poor in specific knowledge which is given in Dead body management guidelines.

14.
Oxford : Oxford University Press on behalf of the National Academy of Sciences ; 1(3):pgac100, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973239

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and serial testing strategies for a disease depend principally on its incubation period and infectiousness profile. In the context of COVID-19, these primary public health tools must be modulated with successive SARS CoV-2 variants of concern that dominate transmission. Our analysis shows that (1) vaccination status of an individual makes little difference to the determination of the appropriate quarantine duration of an infected case, whereas vaccination coverage of the population can have a substantial effect on this duration, (2) successive variants can challenge disease control efforts by their earlier and increased transmission in the disease time course relative to prior variants, and (3) sufficient vaccine boosting of a population substantially aids the suppression of local transmission through frequent serial testing. For instance, with Omicron, increasing immunity through vaccination and boosters-for instance with 100% of the population is fully immunized and at least 24% having received a third dose-can reduce quarantine durations by up to 2 d, as well as substantially aid in the repression of outbreaks through serial testing. Our analysis highlights the paramount importance of maintaining high population immunity, preferably by booster uptake, and the role of quarantine and testing to control the spread of SARS CoV-2.

15.
Dental Research Journal ; 19:43, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1970496

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the past year, patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 presented with severe gustatory dysfunction, the prevalence of which varies among different populations. Furthermore, there have been sporadic reports of oral ulceration observed in coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) patients due to varied reasons. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterize the presence of gustatory disorders, oral ulceration, and other oral changes in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional observational study, a total of 402 participants who were detected COVID-19 positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were included. Their demographic and clinical data were recorded through hospital records. The participants were interviewed either in person or on the telephone to record any change in taste and/or changes within the oral cavity. t-test for independent means was used to compare mean age, while other characteristics were compared by Chi-square test and Z-score test. P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Out of the total sample of 402 individuals, 262 were male and 140 were female. The prevalence of gustatory dysfunction and oral ulceration was 43.53% and 15.67%, respectively, in the studied sample. Significantly more females had gustatory dysfunction than males and older subjects more commonly than younger. The symptom of loss/change of taste and oral ulceration were more probable to occur together. In addition, the tongue was the most common site for ulceration in our studied sample. Conclusion: Loss of taste is a common symptom of COVID-19 patients, whereas oral ulceration is not so commonly reported. However, the presence of both these symptoms could impair the quality of life of patients and hamper adequate nutritional uptake.

16.
IEEE Photonics Technology Letters ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961413

ABSTRACT

This letter reports facile hydrothermally synthesized colloidal MoS<sub>2</sub> quantum dots (QDs) based inexpensive solution processed metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetector (PD) with device structure Au/MoS<sub>2</sub> QDs/Au on Si/SiO<sub>2</sub> substrate to observe the ~275 nm deep UV radiation used in SARS-CoV-2 virus inactivation. The ligand exchange technique has been used thereby, reducing inter QDs distance for better film quality. Under deep UV exposure (275 nm), the fabricated MSM PD displays good responsivity (343.53 mA/W), external quantum efficiency (EQE) (154.9 %), and detectivity (2.51 ×1011Jones) values. The time response analysis under deep UV irradiation ~275 nm demonstrates adequate rise time (81.17 ms) and fall time (79.58 ms). IEEE

17.
Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958725

ABSTRACT

There is a growing need for next-generation science gateways to increase the accessibility of emerging large-scale datasets for data consumers (e.g., clinicians, researchers) who aim to combat COVID-19-related challenges. Such science gateways that enable access to distributed computing resources for large-scale data management need to be made more programmable, extensible, and scalable. In this article, we propose a novel socio-technical approach for developing a next-generation healthcare science gateway, namely, OnTimeEvidence that addresses data consumer challenges surrounding the COVID-19 pandemic related data analytics. OnTimeEvidence implements an intelligent agent, namely, Vidura Advisor that integrates an evidence-based filtering method to transform manual practices and improve scalability of data analytics. It also features a plug-in management middleware that improves the programmability and extensibility of the science gateway capabilities using microservices. Lastly, we present a usability study that shows the important factors from data consumers' perspective to adopt OnTimeEvidence with chatbot-assisted middleware support to increase their productivity and collaborations to access vast publication archives for rapid knowledge discovery tasks. © 2022 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

18.
Journal of Acute Disease ; 11(3):120-122, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939144

ABSTRACT

Rationale: COVID-19 usually presents with flu-like symptoms and signs, but some rare presentations like leukemoid symptoms cannot be ignored. Patient's concerns: A 37-year-old female presented to the outpatient department with flu-like symptoms. Diagnosis: The RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 infection was positive, while complete blood cell and peripheral blood smear showed leukemoid reaction. Intervention: Paracetamol and fexofenadine for flu-like symptoms and leukemoid presentation. Outcomes: On the 10th day, the patient was asymptomatic and RT-PCR was negative. So the patient was discharged and leukemoid presentation subsided after clearance of viral disease. Lessons: COVID-19 has a myriad of presentations, and unusual symptoms/signs especially in this pandemic could be induced by COVID-19 infection.

19.
J Laryngol Otol ; : 1-3, 2022 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882700

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed: to evaluate the association between coronavirus disease 2019 infection and olfactory and taste dysfunction in patients presenting to the out-patient department with influenza-like illness, who underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing for coronavirus; and to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of olfactory and taste dysfunction and other symptoms in these patients. METHODS: Patients presenting with influenza-like illness to the study centre in September 2020 were included in the study. The symptoms of patients who tested positive for coronavirus on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction testing were compared to those with negative test results. RESULTS: During the study period, 909 patients, aged 12-70 years, presented with influenza-like illness; of these, 316 (34.8 per cent) tested positive for coronavirus. Only the symptoms of olfactory and taste dysfunction were statistically more significant in patients testing positive for coronavirus than those testing negative. CONCLUSION: During the pandemic, patients presenting to the out-patient department with sudden loss of sense of smell or taste may be considered as positive for coronavirus disease 2019, until proven otherwise.

20.
Data Science for COVID-19: Volume 2: Societal and Medical Perspectives ; : 397-422, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872866

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus family is as old as the 1930s when it first showed symptoms in chicken. The virus thereafter kept evolving and it has significantly taken over a large percentage of people worldwide in the form of this new pandemic. As of the present day, there is no treatment available for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2]), although supportive therapy and preventive measures have shown a tremendous control rate among certain patients. Drugs like remdesivir, camostat, nafamostat, ritonavir/lopinavir, several monoclonal antibodies, and CPs are in their early phases of trials. There are approved by the WHO under an emergency use authorization program. Favipiravir has entered its phase 3 clinical trial and is supported by evidence to show no or less adverse effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine development is accelerating its pace, and vaccines will probably become available by the end of the year 2020. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

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