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1.
mBio ; 14(3): e0059023, 2023 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303885

ABSTRACT

Cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis in patients suffering from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were reported in different parts of the world, especially in India. However, specific immune mechanisms that are linked to susceptibility to COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) remain largely unexplored. We aimed to explore whether the differential regulation of circulating cytokines in CAM patients had any potential pathogenic links with myeloid phagocyte function and susceptibility to mucormycosis. A small cohort of Indian patients suffering from CAM (N = 9) as well as COVID-19 patients with no evidence of mucormycosis (N = 5) were recruited in the study. Venous blood was collected from the patients as well as from healthy volunteers (N = 8). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma were isolated. Plasma samples were used to measure a panel of 48 cytokines. CD14+ monocytes were isolated and used for a flow cytometric phagocytosis assay as well as a global transcriptome analysis via RNA-sequencing. A multiplex cytokine analysis of the plasma samples revealed reduction in a subset of cytokines in CAM patients, which is known to potentiate the activation, migration, or phagocytic activity of myeloid cells, compared to the COVID-19 patients who did not contract mucormycosis. Compared to monocytes from healthy individuals, peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes from CAM patients were significantly deficient in phagocytic function. The monocyte transcriptome also revealed that pathways related to endocytic pathways, phagosome maturation, and the cytoskeletal regulation of phagocytosis were significantly downregulated in CAM patients. Thus, the study reports a significant deficiency in the phagocytic activity of monocytes, which is a critical effector mechanism for the antifungal host defense, in patients with CAM. This result is in concordance with results regarding the specific cytokine signature and monocyte transcriptome. IMPORTANCE A number of cases of mucormycosis, often fatal, were reported among severe COVID-19 patients from India as well as from some other parts of the world. However, specific immunocellular mechanisms that underlie susceptibility to this fungal infection in COVID-19 remain largely unexplored. Our study reports a deficiency in phagocytosis by monocytes in COVID-19 patients who are concomitantly afflicted with mucormycosis, with this deficiency being linked to a characteristic monocyte transcriptome as well as a circulating cytokine signature. The functional phenotype and cytokine signature of the monocytes may provide useful biomarkers for detecting potential susceptibility to mucormycosis in COVID-19 as well as in other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Humans , Monocytes , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Phagocytosis , Cytokines
2.
Pathogens ; 9(11)2020 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248546

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has challenged the research community globally to innovate, interact, and integrate findings across hierarchies. Research on SARS-CoV-2 has produced an abundance of data spanning multiple parallels, including clinical data, SARS-CoV-2 genome architecture, host response captured through transcriptome and genetic variants, microbial co-infections (metagenome), and comorbidities. Disease phenotypes in the case of COVID-19 present an intriguing complexity that includes a broad range of symptomatic to asymptomatic individuals, further compounded by a vast heterogeneity within the spectrum of clinical symptoms displayed by the symptomatic individuals. The clinical outcome is further modulated by the presence of comorbid conditions at the point of infection. The COVID-19 pandemic has produced an expansive wealth of literature touching many aspects of SARS-CoV-2 ranging from causal to outcome, predisposition to protective (possible), co-infection to comorbidity, and differential mortality globally. As challenges provide opportunities, the current pandemic's challenge has underscored the need and opportunity to work for an integrative approach that may be able to thread together the multiple variables. Through this review, we have made an effort towards bringing together information spanning across different domains to facilitate researchers globally in pursuit of their response to SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0429222, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271377

ABSTRACT

Globally, COVID-19 vaccines have emerged as a boon, especially during the severe pandemic phases to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, saving millions of lives. However, mixed responses to vaccination with breakthrough challenges provided a rationale to explore the immune responses generated postvaccination, which plausibly alter the subsequent course of infection. In this regard, we comprehensively profiled the nasopharyngeal transcriptomic signature of double-dose-vaccinated individuals with breakthrough infections in comparison to unvaccinated infected persons. The vaccinated individuals demonstrated a gross downregulation of ribosomal proteins along with immune response genes and transcription/translational machinery that methodically modulated the entire innate immune landscape toward immune tolerance, a feature of innate immune memory. This coordinated response was orchestrated through 17 transcription factors captured as differentially expressed in the vaccination breakthroughs, including epigenetic modulators of CHD1 and LMNB1 and several immune response effectors, with ELF1 emerging as one of the important transcriptional regulators of the antiviral innate immune response. Deconvolution algorithm using bulk gene expression data revealed decreased T-cell populations with higher expression of memory B cells in the vaccination breakthroughs. Thus, vaccination might synergize the innate immune response with humoral and T-cell correlates of protection to more rapidly clear SARS-CoV-2 infections and reduce symptoms within a shorter span of time. An important feature invariably noted after secondary vaccination is downregulation of ribosomal proteins, which might plausibly be an important factor arising from epigenetic reprogramming leading to innate immune tolerance. IMPORTANCE The development of multiple vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 infection is an unprecedented milestone achieved globally. Immunization of the mass population is a rigorous process for getting the pandemic under control, yet continuous challenges are being faced, one of them being breakthrough infections. This is the first study wherein the vaccination breakthrough cases of COVD-19 relative to unvaccinated infected individuals have been explored. In the context of vaccination, how do innate and adaptive immune responses correspond to SARS-CoV-2 infection? How do these responses culminate in a milder observable phenotype with shorter hospital stay in vaccination breakthrough cases compared with the unvaccinated? We identified a subdued transcriptional landscape in vaccination breakthroughs with decreased expression of a large set of immune and ribosomal proteins genes. We propose a module of innate immune memory, i.e., immune tolerance, which plausibly helps to explain the observed mild phenotype and fast recovery in vaccination breakthroughs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Immunity, Innate , Breakthrough Infections
4.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 986729, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2275386

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid evolution of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a global crisis that required a detailed characterization of the dynamics of mutational pattern of the viral genome for comprehending its epidemiology, pathogenesis and containment. We investigated the molecular evolution of the SASR-CoV-2 genome during the first, second and third waves of COVID-19 in Uttar Pradesh, India. Nanopore sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome was undertaken in 544 confirmed cases of COVID-19, which included vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. In the first wave (unvaccinated population), the 20A clade (56.32%) was superior that was replaced by 21A Delta in the second wave, which was more often seen in vaccinated individuals in comparison to unvaccinated (75.84% versus 16.17%, respectively). Subsequently, 21A delta got outcompeted by Omicron (71.8%), especially the 21L variant, in the third wave. We noticed that Q677H appeared in 20A Alpha and stayed up to Delta, D614G appeared in 20A Alpha and stayed in Delta and Omicron variants (got fixed), and several other mutations appeared in Delta and stayed in Omicron. A cross-sectional analysis of the vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals during the second wave revealed signature combinations of E156G, F157Del, L452R, T478K, D614G mutations in the Spike protein that might have facilitated vaccination breach in India. Interestingly, some of these mutation combinations were carried forward from Delta to Omicron. In silico protein docking showed that Omicron had a higher binding affinity with the host ACE2 receptor, resulting in enhanced infectivity of Omicron over the Delta variant. This work has identified the combinations of key mutations causing vaccination breach in India and provided insights into the change of [virus's] binding affinity with evolution, resulting in more virulence in Delta and more infectivity in Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2. Our findings will help in understanding the COVID-19 disease biology and guide further surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 genome to facilitate the development of vaccines with better efficacies.

5.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(2): e1011196, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281628

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting unvaccinated, vaccinated and previously-infected individuals due to its ability to evade neutralization by antibodies. With multiple sub-lineages of Omicron emerging in the last 12 months, there is inadequate information on the quantitative antibody response generated upon natural infection with Omicron variant and whether these antibodies offer cross-protection against other sub-lineages of Omicron variant. In this study, we characterized the growth kinetics of Kappa, Delta and Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells. Relatively higher amounts infectious virus titers, cytopathic effect and disruption of epithelial barrier functions was observed with Delta variant whereas infection with Omicron sub-lineages led to a more robust induction of interferon pathway, lower level of virus replication and mild effect on epithelial barrier. The replication kinetics of BA.1, BA.2 and BA.2.75 sub-lineages of the Omicron variant were comparable in cell culture and natural infection in a subset of individuals led to a significant increase in binding and neutralizing antibodies to the Delta variant and all the three sub-lineages of Omicron but the level of neutralizing antibodies were lowest against the BA.2.75 variant. Finally, we show that Cu2+, Zn2+ and Fe2+ salts inhibited in vitro RdRp activity but only Cu2+ and Fe2+ inhibited both the Delta and Omicron variants in cell culture. Thus, our results suggest that high levels of interferons induced upon infection with Omicron variant may counter virus replication and spread. Waning neutralizing antibody titers rendered subjects susceptible to infection by Omicron variants and natural Omicron infection elicits neutralizing antibodies that can cross-react with other sub-lineages of Omicron and other variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , Kinetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Interferons/genetics , Antibodies, Viral
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(2): e1011160, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257001

ABSTRACT

The development of COVID 19 vaccines as an effort to mitigate the outbreak, has saved millions of lives globally. However, vaccination breakthroughs have continuously challenged the vaccines' effectiveness and provided incentives to explore facets holding potential to alter vaccination-induced immunity and protection from subsequent infection, especially VOCs (Variants Of Concern). We explored the functional dynamics of nasopharyngeal transcriptionally active microbes (TAMs) between vaccination breakthroughs and unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. Microbial taxonomic communities were differentially altered with skewed enrichment of bacterial class/genera of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria with grossly reduced phylum Bacteroidetes in vaccination breakthrough individuals. The Bacillus genus was abundant in Firmicutes in vaccination breakthrough whereas Prevotella among Bacteroides dominated the unvaccinated. Also, Pseudomonas and Salmonella of Gammaproteobacteria were overrepresented in vaccination breakthrough, whilst unvaccinated showed presence of several genera, Achromobacter, Bordetella, Burkholderia, Neisseria, Hemophilus, Salmonella and Pseudomonas, belonging to Proteobacteria. At species level, the microbiota of vaccination breakthrough exhibited relatively higher abundance of unique commensals, in comparison to potential opportunistic microbes enrichment in unvaccinated patients' microbiota. Functional metabolic pathways like amino acid biosynthesis, sulphate assimilation, fatty acid and beta oxidation, associated with generation of SCFAs (short chain fatty acids), were enriched in vaccination breakthroughs. Majorly, metabolic pathways of LCFAs biosynthesis (long chain fatty acids; oleate, dodecenoate, palmitoleate, gondoate) were found associated with the unvaccinated. Our research highlights that vaccination decreases the microbial diversity in terms of depleting opportunistic pathogens and increasing the preponderance of commensals with respect to unvaccinated patients. Metabolic pathway analysis substantiates the shift in diversity to functionally modulate immune response generation, which may be related to mild clinical manifestations and faster recovery times during vaccination breakthroughs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gammaproteobacteria , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Bacteroidetes , Fatty Acids
7.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240043

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 frequently features a systemic deluge of cytokines. Circulating cytokines that can stratify risks are useful for more effective triage and management. Here, we ran a machine-learning algorithm on a dataset of 36 plasma cytokines in a cohort of severe COVID-19 to identify cytokine/s useful for describing the dynamic clinical state in multiple regression analysis. We performed RNA-sequencing of circulating blood cells collected at different time-points. From a Bayesian Information Criterion analysis, a combination of interleukin-8 (IL-8), Eotaxin, and Interferon-γ (IFNγ) was found to be significantly linked to blood oxygenation over seven days. Individually testing the cytokines in receiver operator characteristics analyses identified IL-8 as a strong stratifier for clinical outcomes. Circulating IL-8 dynamics paralleled disease course. We also revealed key transitions in immune transcriptome in patients stratified for circulating IL-8 at three time-points. The study identifies plasma IL-8 as a key pathogenic cytokine linking systemic hyper-inflammation to the clinical outcomes in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-8 , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Cytokines , Disease Progression
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1035111, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215274

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The emergence of multiple variants of concerns (VOCs) with higher number of Spike mutations have led to enhanced immune escape by the SARS-CoV-2. With the increasing number of vaccination breakthrough (VBT) infections, it is important to understand the possible reason/s of the breakthrough infections. Methods: We performed transcriptome sequencing of 57 VBT and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients, followed by differential expression and co-expression analysis of the lncRNAs and the mRNAs. The regulatory mechanism was highlighted by analysis towards repeat element distribution within the co-expressed lncRNAs, followed by repeats driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the promoter regions of genes from the same topologically associated domains (TAD). Results: We identified 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (153 upregulated and 574 downregulated) and 338 mRNAs (34 up- and 334 downregulated) in the VBT patients. This includes LUCAT1, MALAT1, ROR1-AS1, UGDH-AS1 and LINC00273 mediated modulation of immune response, whereas MALAT1, NEAT1 and GAS5 regulated inflammatory response in the VBT. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis highlighted 34 lncRNAs interacting with 267 mRNAs. We also observed a higher abundance of Alu, LINE1 and LTRs within the interacting lncRNAs of the VBT patients. These interacting lncRNAs have higher interaction with the promoter region of the genes from the same TAD, compared to the non-interacting lncRNAs with the enrichment of Alu and LINE1 in the gene promoter. Discussion: Significant downregulation and GSEA of the TAD gene suggest Alu and LINE1 driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the TAD genes as a possible mechanism of lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response. The lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response might explain the SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with milder symptoms in the VBT. Besides, the study also highlights repeat element mediated regulation of genes in 3D as another possible way of lncRNA-mediated immune-regulation modulating vaccination breakthroughs milder disease phenotype and shorter hospital stay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Long Noncoding , Humans , RNA, Long Noncoding/genetics , Transcriptome , Down-Regulation , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Vaccination , RNA, Messenger , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/genetics
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1056036, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198897

ABSTRACT

Humans have been challenged by infectious diseases for all of their recorded history, and are continually being affected even today. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled identification of, i) culture independent microbes, ii) emerging disease-causing pathogens, and iii) understanding of the genome architecture. This, in turn, has highlighted that pathogen/s are not a monolith, and thereby allowing for the differentiation of the wide-ranging disease symptoms, albeit infected by a primary pathogen. The conventional 'one disease - one pathogen' paradigm has been positively revisited by considering limited yet important evidence of the co-presence of multiple transcriptionally active microbes (TAMs), potential pathogens, in various infectious diseases, including the COVID-19 pandemic. The ubiquitous microbiota presence inside humans gives reason to hypothesize that the microbiome, especially TAMs, contributes to disease etiology. Herein, we discuss current evidence and inferences on the co-infecting microbes particularly in the diseases caused by the RNA viruses - Influenza, Dengue, and the SARS-CoV-2. We have highlighted that the specific alterations in the microbial taxonomic abundances (dysbiosis) is functionally connected to the exposure of primary infecting pathogen/s. The microbial presence is intertwined with the differential host immune response modulating differential disease trajectories. The microbiota-host interactions have been shown to modulate the host immune responses to Influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infection, wherein the active commensal microbes are involved in the generation of virus-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cells following the influenza virus infection. Furthermore, COVID-19 dysbiosis causes an increase in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß, which might be one of the important predisposing factors for severe infection. Through this article, we aim to provide a comprehensive view of functional microbiomes that can have a significant regulatory impact on predicting disease severity (mild, moderate and severe), as well as clinical outcome (survival and mortality). This can offer fresh perspectives on the novel microbial biomarkers for stratifying patients for severe disease symptoms, disease prevention and augmenting treatment regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Influenza, Human , Humans , Dysbiosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Patient Acuity
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1034159, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198881

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite numerous efforts to describe COVID-19's immunological landscape, there is still a gap in our understanding of the virus's infections after-effects, especially in the recovered patients. This would be important to understand as we now have huge number of global populations infected by the SARS-CoV-2 as well as variables inclusive of VOCs, reinfections, and vaccination breakthroughs. Furthermore, single-cell transcriptome alone is often insufficient to understand the complex human host immune landscape underlying differential disease severity and clinical outcome. Methods: By combining single-cell multi-omics (Whole Transcriptome Analysis plus Antibody-seq) and machine learning-based analysis, we aim to better understand the functional aspects of cellular and immunological heterogeneity in the COVID-19 positive, recovered and the healthy individuals. Results: Based on single-cell transcriptome and surface marker study of 163,197 cells (124,726 cells after data QC) from the 33 individuals (healthy=4, COVID-19 positive=16, and COVID-19 recovered=13), we observed a reduced MHC Class-I-mediated antigen presentation and dysregulated MHC Class-II-mediated antigen presentation in the COVID-19 patients, with restoration of the process in the recovered individuals. B-cell maturation process was also impaired in the positive and the recovered individuals. Importantly, we discovered that a subset of the naive T-cells from the healthy individuals were absent from the recovered individuals, suggesting a post-infection inflammatory stage. Both COVID-19 positive patients and the recovered individuals exhibited a CD40-CD40LG-mediated inflammatory response in the monocytes and T-cell subsets. T-cells, NK-cells, and monocyte-mediated elevation of immunological, stress and antiviral responses were also seen in the COVID-19 positive and the recovered individuals, along with an abnormal T-cell activation, inflammatory response, and faster cellular transition of T cell subtypes in the COVID-19 patients. Importantly, above immune findings were used for a Bayesian network model, which significantly revealed FOS, CXCL8, IL1ß, CST3, PSAP, CD45 and CD74 as COVID-19 severity predictors. Discussion: In conclusion, COVID-19 recovered individuals exhibited a hyper-activated inflammatory response with the loss of B cell maturation, suggesting an impeded post-infection stage, necessitating further research to delineate the dynamic immune response associated with the COVID-19. To our knowledge this is first multi-omic study trying to understand the differential and dynamic immune response underlying the sample subtypes.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , COVID-19 , Humans , Bayes Theorem , Multiomics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 17(12): e0278963, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2197061

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) is the only antiviral drug approved for COVID-19 therapy by the FDA. Another drug LAGEVRIO™ (molnupiravir) though has not been approved yet by FDA but has been authorized on December 23, 2021, for emergency use to treat adults with mild-to moderate COVID-19 symptoms and for whom alternative COVID-19 treatment options are not clinically appropriate. The fact is that the efficacy of RDV is, however, limited in vivo though it is highly promising in vitro against SARS-CoV-2 virus. In this paper we are focusing on the action mechanism of RDV and how it can be improved in vivo. The stability of RDV alone and on encapsulation with our platform technology based polymer NV-387 (NV-CoV-2), were compared in presence of plasma in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a non-clinical pharmacology study of NV-CoV-2 (Polymer) and NV CoV-2 (Polymer encapsulated Remdesivir) in both NL-63 infected and uninfected rats was done. In addition, the antiviral activity of NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R was compared with RDV in a cell culture study. The results are (i) NV-CoV-2 polymer encapsulation protects RDV from plasma-mediated catabolism in both in vitro and in vivo, studies; (ii) Body weight measurements of the normal (uninfected) rats after administration of the test materials (NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R) showed no toxic effects. (iii) Body weight measurements and survival rates of the NL-63 infected rats were similar to the uninfected rats after treatment with NV-CoV-2 and NV-CoV-2-R. Overall, the efficacy as an antiviral regimens were found in this order as below; NV-CoV-2-R > NV-CoV-2 > RDV. Our platform technology based NV-387-encapsulated-RDV (NV-CoV-2-R) drug has a dual effect against different variants of the coronaviruses. First, NV-CoV-2 is an antiviral regimen. Secondly, RDV is protected from plasma-mediated degradation in transit. All together, NV-CoV-2-R is the safest and efficient regimen against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Animals , Rats , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Biomimetics , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Body Weight
12.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147162

ABSTRACT

Introduction The emergence of multiple variants of concerns (VOCs) with higher number of Spike mutations have led to enhanced immune escape by the SARS-CoV-2. With the increasing number of vaccination breakthrough (VBT) infections, it is important to understand the possible reason/s of the breakthrough infections. Methods We performed transcriptome sequencing of 57 VBT and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients, followed by differential expression and co-expression analysis of the lncRNAs and the mRNAs. The regulatory mechanism was highlighted by analysis towards repeat element distribution within the co-expressed lncRNAs, followed by repeats driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the promoter regions of genes from the same topologically associated domains (TAD). Results We identified 727 differentially expressed lncRNAs (153 upregulated and 574 downregulated) and 338 mRNAs (34 up- and 334 downregulated) in the VBT patients. This includes LUCAT1, MALAT1, ROR1-AS1, UGDH-AS1 and LINC00273 mediated modulation of immune response, whereas MALAT1, NEAT1 and GAS5 regulated inflammatory response in the VBT. LncRNA-mRNA co-expression analysis highlighted 34 lncRNAs interacting with 267 mRNAs. We also observed a higher abundance of Alu, LINE1 and LTRs within the interacting lncRNAs of the VBT patients. These interacting lncRNAs have higher interaction with the promoter region of the genes from the same TAD, compared to the non-interacting lncRNAs with the enrichment of Alu and LINE1 in the gene promoter. Discussion Significant downregulation and GSEA of the TAD gene suggest Alu and LINE1 driven homologous interaction between the lncRNAs and the TAD genes as a possible mechanism of lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response. The lncRNA-mediated suppression of innate immune/inflammatory responses and activation of adaptive immune response might explain the SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections with milder symptoms in the VBT. Besides, the study also highlights repeat element mediated regulation of genes in 3D as another possible way of lncRNA-mediated immune-regulation modulating vaccination breakthroughs milder disease phenotype and shorter hospital stay.

13.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110276

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus pathogenicity and transmissibility are correlated with the mutations acquired over time, giving rise to variants of concern (VOCs). Mutations can significantly influence the genetic make-up of the virus. Herein, we analyzed the SARS-CoV-2 genomes and sub-genomic nucleotide composition in relation to the mutation rate. Nucleotide percentage distributions of 1397 in-house-sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genomes were enumerated, and comparative analyses (i) within the VOCs and of (ii) recovered and mortality patients were performed. Fisher's test was carried out to highlight the significant mutations, followed by RNA secondary structure prediction and protein modeling for their functional impacts. Subsequently, a uniform dinucleotide composition of AT and GC was found across study cohorts. Notably, the N gene was observed to have a high GC percentage coupled with a relatively higher mutation rate. Functional analysis demonstrated the N gene mutations, C29144T and G29332T, to induce structural changes at the RNA level. Protein secondary structure prediction with N gene missense mutations revealed a differential composition of alpha helices, beta sheets, and coils, whereas the tertiary structure displayed no significant changes. Additionally, the N gene CTD region displayed no mutations. The analysis highlighted the importance of N protein in viral evolution with CTD as a possible target for antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mutation Rate , Nucleotides , Genome, Viral , RNA
14.
Nature ; 599(7883): 114-119, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114880

ABSTRACT

The B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in the state of Maharashtra in late 2020 and spread throughout India, outcompeting pre-existing lineages including B.1.617.1 (Kappa) and B.1.1.7 (Alpha)1. In vitro, B.1.617.2 is sixfold less sensitive to serum neutralizing antibodies from recovered individuals, and eightfold less sensitive to vaccine-elicited antibodies, compared with wild-type Wuhan-1 bearing D614G. Serum neutralizing titres against B.1.617.2 were lower in ChAdOx1 vaccinees than in BNT162b2 vaccinees. B.1.617.2 spike pseudotyped viruses exhibited compromised sensitivity to monoclonal antibodies to the receptor-binding domain and the amino-terminal domain. B.1.617.2 demonstrated higher replication efficiency than B.1.1.7 in both airway organoid and human airway epithelial systems, associated with B.1.617.2 spike being in a predominantly cleaved state compared with B.1.1.7 spike. The B.1.617.2 spike protein was able to mediate highly efficient syncytium formation that was less sensitive to inhibition by neutralizing antibody, compared with that of wild-type spike. We also observed that B.1.617.2 had higher replication and spike-mediated entry than B.1.617.1, potentially explaining the B.1.617.2 dominance. In an analysis of more than 130 SARS-CoV-2-infected health care workers across three centres in India during a period of mixed lineage circulation, we observed reduced ChAdOx1 vaccine effectiveness against B.1.617.2 relative to non-B.1.617.2, with the caveat of possible residual confounding. Compromised vaccine efficacy against the highly fit and immune-evasive B.1.617.2 Delta variant warrants continued infection control measures in the post-vaccination era.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Fusion , Cell Line , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , India , Kinetics , Male , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccination
15.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(6): 511-524, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031555

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the clinical and immunological benefits of passive immunization using convalescent plasma therapy (CPT). Materials and Methods: A series of subclass analyses were performed on the previously published outcome data and accompanying clinical metadata from a completed randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Clinical Trial Registry of India, number CTRI/2020/05/025209). The subclass analyses were performed on the outcome data and accompanying clinical metadata from a completed RCT (patient recruitment between May 15, 2020 and October 31, 2020). Data on the plasma abundance of a large panel of cytokines from the same cohort of patients were also used to characterize the heterogeneity of the putative anti-inflammatory function of convalescent plasma (CP) in addition to passively providing neutralizing antibodies. Results: Although the primary clinical outcomes were not significantly different in the RCT across all age groups, significant immediate mitigation of hypoxia, reduction in hospital stay, and significant survival benefit were registered in younger (<67 years in our cohort) patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and acute respiratory distress syndrome on receiving CPT. In addition to neutralizing the antibody content of CP, its anti-inflammatory proteome, by attenuation of the systemic cytokine deluge, significantly contributed to the clinical benefits of CPT. Conclusion: Subgroup analyses revealed that clinical benefits of CPT in severe coronavirus disease 2019 are linked to the anti-inflammatory protein content of CP apart from the anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 neutralizing antibody content.

16.
Front Immunol ; 13: 973070, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022754

ABSTRACT

During an infectious disease progression, it is crucial to understand the cellular heterogeneity underlying the differential immune response landscape that will augment the precise information of the disease severity modulators, leading to differential clinical outcome. Patients with COVID-19 display a complex yet regulated immune profile with a heterogeneous array of clinical manifestation that delineates disease severity sub-phenotypes and worst clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate/understand/enumerate the role of cellular heterogeneity during COVID-19 disease to understand the underlying immunological mechanisms regulating the disease severity. This article aims to comprehend the current findings regarding dysregulation and impairment of immune response in COVID-19 disease severity sub-phenotypes and relate them to a wide array of heterogeneous populations of immune cells. On the basis of the findings, it suggests a possible functional correlation between cellular heterogeneity and the COVID-19 disease severity. It highlights the plausible modulators of age, gender, comorbidities, and hosts' genetics that may be considered relevant in regulating the host response and subsequently the COVID-19 disease severity. Finally, it aims to highlight challenges in COVID-19 disease that can be achieved by the application of single-cell genomics, which may aid in delineating the heterogeneity with more granular understanding. This will augment our future pandemic preparedness with possibility to identify the subset of patients with increased diseased severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Genomics , Humans , Immunity , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Genomics ; 114(5): 110466, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004618

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic continues due to emerging Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC). Here, we performed comprehensive analysis of in-house sequenced SARS-CoV-2 genome mutations dynamics in the patients infected with the VOCs - Delta and Omicron, within Recovered and Mortality patients. Statistical analysis highlighted significant mutations - T4685A, N4992N, and G5063S in RdRp; T19R in NTD spike; K444N and N532H in RBD spike, associated with Delta mortality. Mutations, T19I in NTD spike, Q493R and N440K in the RBD spike were significantly associated with Omicron mortality. We performed molecular docking for possible effect of significant mutations on the binding of Remdesivir. We found that Remdesivir showed less binding efficacy with the mutant Spike protein of both Delta and Omicron mortality compared to recovered patients. This indicates that mortality associated mutations could have a modulatory effect on drug binding which could be associated with disease outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Mutation , Pandemics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Microbiol Res ; 262: 127099, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs at different time points through COVID-19 pandemic raised concern for increased transmissibility, infectivity and vaccination breakthroughs. METHODS: 1567 international travellers plus community transmission COVID-19 cases were analysed for mutational profile of VOCS, that led to notable waves in India, namely Alpha, Delta, and Omicron. Spike mutations in Linkage Disequilibrium were investigated for potential impact on structural and functional changes of Spike-ACE2. RESULTS: ORF1ab and spike harboured diverse mutational signatures for each lineage. B.1.617.2 and AY. * demonstrated comparable profile, yet non-clade defining mutations were majorly unique between international vs community samples. Contrarily, Omicron lineages showed substantial overlap in non-clade defining mutations, signifying early phase of transmission and evolution within Indian community. Mutations in LD for Alpha [N501Y, A570D, D1118H, S982A], Delta [P681R, L452R, EFR:156-158 G, D950N, G142D] and Omicron [P681H, D796Y, N764K, N969K, N501Y, S375F] resulted in decreased binding affinity of Spike-ACE2 for Alpha and BA.1 whereas Delta, Omicron and BA.2 demonstrated strong binding. CONCLUSION: Genomic surveillance tracked spread of VOCs in international travellers' vs community transmission. Behavioural transmission patterns of variants, based on selective advantage incurred by spike mutations, led us to predict sudden takeover of Delta over Alpha and BA.2 over BA.1 in India.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , Mutation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Microbiological research ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905005

ABSTRACT

Background Emergence of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs at different time points through COVID-19 pandemic raised concern for increased transmissibility, infectivity and vaccination breakthroughs. Methods 1567 international travellers plus community transmission COVID-19 cases were analysed for mutational profile of VOCS, that led to notable waves in India, namely Alpha, Delta, and Omicron. Spike mutations in Linkage Disequilibrium were investigated for potential impact on structural and functional changes of Spike-ACE2. Results ORF1ab and spike harboured diverse mutational signatures for each lineage. B.1.617.2 and AY. * demonstrated comparable profile, yet non-clade defining mutations were majorly unique between international vs community samples. Contrarily, Omicron lineages showed substantial overlap in non-clade defining mutations, signifying early phase of transmission and evolution within Indian community. Mutations in LD for Alpha [N501Y, A570D, D1118H, S982A], Delta [P681R, L452R, EFR:156-158 G, D950N, G142D] and Omicron [P681H, D796Y, N764K, N969K, N501Y, S375F] resulted in decreased binding affinity of Spike-ACE2 for Alpha and BA.1 whereas Delta, Omicron and BA.2 demonstrated strong binding. Conclusion Genomic surveillance tracked spread of VOCs in international travellers’ vs community transmission. Behavioural transmission patterns of variants, based on selective advantage incurred by spike mutations, led us to predict sudden takeover of Delta over Alpha and BA.2 over BA.1 in India. Graphical

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