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1.
Wellcome Open Research ; 6:333, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025558

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against the virus responsible for COVID-19 has become key in preventing mortality and morbidity related to the infection. Studies have shown that the benefits of vaccination outweigh the risks. However, there are concerns regarding serious adverse events of some vaccines, although they are fortunately rare. Here, we report a case of a 47-year-old female from Kathmandu who presented with high grade fever, dry cough and erythematous rash a week after exposure to the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. She had hepatosplenomegaly, persistent leucocytosis, anaemia and thrombocytosis along with markedly raised inflammatory markers. Her tests for infectious causes and haematological malignancies were negative and she showed no response to multiple antibiotics. Finally, she had a dramatic response to steroids with disappearance of fever and normalization of other laboratory parameters. Hence, she was diagnosed with Adult-onset Still's Disease (AOSD). She was under methotrexate and prednisolone tapering dose and doing well as of the time of writing. The trigger for the disease was hypothesized to be the vaccine because of the strong temporal association.

2.
Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine ; 09:09, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2011088

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Homoeopathy has played a notable role in managing epidemics in the past. The Ministry of Ayush, Government of India, declared Arsenicum album 30 C as a prophylactic for Covid-19, which was followed by the distribution of the medicine across India. The Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) collected post-prophylactic consumption data of individuals from various colleges over months, which created a data pool. Considering the importance of these mass-level data and their possible impact on public healthcare decisions, the information gathered from this heterogeneous population cohort was subjected to a retrospective data analysis to observe the incidence of Covid-19 in the community. Methods: Data from 50 colleges from February-August 2020 showed that 10.6 million people in 13 states of India received prophylactic medicine during the study period. The data was collected from individuals three weeks following prophylactic consumption for a retrospective analysis. The incidence of Covid-19 was assessed. Results: The data of 584 980 individuals who met the study criteria were included in the analysis. The incidence of Covid-19 in the population cohort was 13.58 per 10 000-person weeks (95% CI, 13.04 to 14.14), which remained near-constant over time despite the increasing disease burden in the country (12.87 to 14.52 per 10 000-person weeks). Consumption of the prophylactic significantly reduced the risk of contracting Covid-19 in high-risk groups as compared to their counterparts. Conclusion: The study concludes that Arsenicum album 30 C has a potential prophylactic effect against Covid-19. Further controlled studies are recommended to establish a causal relation.

3.
Luminescence : the journal of biological and chemical luminescence ; 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007090

ABSTRACT

Due to their capabilities of immobilizing more bioreceptor parts with reduced volumes, nanomaterials have emerged as potential tools for increasing sensitivity to specific molecules. Furthermore, carbon nanotube, gold nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles, semiconductor quantum dots, graphene, nano-diamonds and graphene are among the nanomaterials that are under investigation. Due to the fast development of such a field of research, review summarises the classification of biosensors using main receptors, and designing biosensors. Numerous studies have concentrated on the manipulation of Persistent luminescence nanoparticles (PLNPs) in biosensing, cell tracking, bioimaging, and cancer therapy due to the effective removal of the autofluorescence interferences from tissues and the ultra-long near-infrared afterglow emission. As luminescence has a unique optical property, it can be detected without constant external illumination, preventing autofluorescence and light dispersion through tissues. These successes sparked an increasing curiosity in creating novel PLNP kinds with desired superior properties and multiple purposes. In this review, we emphasize the most recent developments in biosensing, imaging, and image-guided therapy while summarizing the research on synthesis methods, bio applications, bio membrane modification and bio-safety of PLNPs. Finally, the remaining issues and difficulties are examined together with prospective future developments in the field of biomedical applications.

4.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005714

ABSTRACT

Background: Fatigue is common in patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). Melatonin, an inexpensive natural supplement, may improve symptoms and attenuate the side effects of RT. The effect of melatonin for prevention of fatigue and other symptoms was evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Early-stage or ductal carcinoma in-situ breast cancer patients ≥ 18 years, female, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) < 3, hemoglobin ≥9 g/dL. RT with curative intent, randomized 1:1 to melatonin 20 mg or oral placebo, starting night before RT initiation until 2 weeks post-RT. Sample size of 142 evaluable patients in each arm for 80% power and interim analysis at mid recruitment using the unified family method rho = 0.3. Randomization stratified to RT duration (< 3 weeks, ≥3 weeks) and prior chemotherapy. Primary outcome : Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT)-Fatigue subscale after completion of RT with additional scores measured at baseline, 2 and 8 weeks post-RT. Secondary outcomes : FACIT-F subscales, Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Fatigue-Short Form 8a. Secondary analyses reported using an F-test at a 5% significance level. Results: For this interim analysis, 85 patients screened;80 randomized;39 received melatonin and 38 placebo. 72 included in the analysis as 5 patients had no post baseline FACIT score. Characteristics of age, race, and ECOG PS similar in both arms. Treatment X time for FACIT-Fatigue not significant for melatonin compared to placebo (p .83). FACIT physical, emotional, and functional wellbeing scores not significantly different (p .35, .62, and .71) but showing a trend for social well-being (p .06). PROMIS scores not changed over time (p .34). ESAS individual symptoms of anxiety, well-being, drowsiness, poor appetite, nausea, pain, shortness of breath, sleep and tiredness not significant, except for depression (p.04). However, a decrease of 0.01 unit in depression score is not considered clinically significant. No grade 3 or 4 adverse events. No participants died during study, 2 died after study completion from breast cancer recurrence. 16 withdrew prior to study completion because of adverse events, unrelated hospitalizations, RT discontinuation, and COVID-19 precautions. Trial was stopped based on statistical analysis demonstrating no difference for primary outcome and imminent expiry of available drug. Discontinuation was approved by Data Safety Monitoring Committee. Conclusions: Melatonin did not prevent fatigue in patients with early stage breast cancer undergoing RT. Melatonin also demonstrated no benefit for other symptoms, except depression. Analysis showed little evidence of an effect, and the trial was terminated early.

5.
Advances in Respiratory Medicine ; 90(3):193-201, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997991

ABSTRACT

Introduction: This retrospective observational study has been designed to identify clinical characteristics, treatment outcomes and factors associated with severe illness in 813 COVID-19 patients hospitalised in an Indian tertiary care hospital. Material and methods: This was a retrospective analysis of patient admitted between 1st July to 15th Aug 2020 with COVID-19 infections. Logistic regression was performed to explore the association of clinical characteristics and laboratory parameters with the risk of severe disease and mortality. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05 (two-tailed). Results: Out of 813 study patients, 630 (77.50%) patients were categorised with mild to moderate while 183 (22.50%) patients as severe Covid infection. Mortality was significantly higher in severe Covid patients as compared to mild moderate cases (66.21% vs. 10.31%. p<0.0001. Patients with severe infection were significantly more likely to have diabetes hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and had significantly higher Neutrophil count, serum creatinine, C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, D-Dimer and decreased haemoglobin, lymphocyte and serum calcium than patients with mild-moderate infection. In Multivariate analysis, age more than 60 years [AOR: 2.114, 95% CI (1.05-4.254), 0.036], NLR more than 3.3 [AOR: 1.082, 95% CI (1.030-1.137), 0.002] and D-Dimer >1 mu g/mL [AOR: 2.999 (1.464-6.146), 0.003] were found significantly associated with severe disease (p < 0.05). Factors associated with mortality were age more than 60 years, presence of breathlessness, severe disease or presence of chronic kidney disease. Conclusions: Factors like elderly age (age > 60 years), elevated NRL, CRP, D-Dimer and serum ferritin were associated with significantly higher risk to develop severe COVID-19 infections. Elderly, and patients with CKD were associated with worse outcome.

6.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION ; 14(3):9621-9625, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939405

ABSTRACT

December 2019 saw the world changing, particularly in context of the manner in which work took place. People were confined to their homes, and were had to face hardships in managing their daily lives. The workplace was no different as working from home became the new normal. COVID19 brought a lot of challenges in managing the human resource due to the various legal challenges that were brought with it. For instance, the mental health issues while working from home, or the lack of vaccination raising safety and privacy concerns for others and for the employees, were among the few challenges that an HR manager had to keep up with. This work highlights some of such legal challenges that were and are being faced in managing the human resource.

7.
Minerva Psychiatry ; 63(2):111-120, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide. We plan to assess the psychological impact of this pandemic in different groups of HCWs including female community health volunteers (FCHVs) at various types of health facilities in Nepal, factors associated with it and the degree of satisfaction with the ongoing mental health support system. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey with an option of telephone interview was conducted from June 20 to July 7, 2020. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, work related characteristics, substance use history, and degree of satisfaction with family, society and institutional support. Depression, anxiety, and stress scales (DASS-21) and the impact of events scale-revised (IES-R) tool were used to access the level of psychological impact. Linear regression was used to analyze factors associated with psychological outcome. RESULTS: Out of 608 respondents, the overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 20.89%. 24.18%, 13.82%, and 15.46% respectively. Nurses had higher depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD scores while FCHVs had high depression and PTSD compared to doctors. For various types of health facilities, HCWs working in provincial-level hospitals had high-stress level. Similarly, "have to go into quarantine" and increased level of substance abuse were directly associated with poor psychological impact. Finally, 62% of HCWs did not have any institutional mental health support system. Among those who had institutional mental health support, 39.4% were not satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: We found mild to extremely severe level of depression, anxiety, stress, and PTSD among HCWs in Nepal. Urgent plans are required to mitigate the mental health risk caused by this current pandemic.

10.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S576-S576, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905238
11.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S581-S582, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905202
12.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S527-S527, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905146
13.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S578-S578, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905126
14.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S602-S602, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1905033
15.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S589-S589, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904893
16.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S294-S294, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904715
17.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S488-S488, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904567
18.
Value in health : the journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research ; 25(7):S586-S586, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904566
19.
MAPAN |Journal of Metrology Society of India ; 37(2):443-452, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1889068

ABSTRACT

In the present area, the outbreak of COVID-19, customer behavior have been seen toward their individual specific need, which encourages advanced-manufacturing industries to provide mass personalization of goods and services. The Covid-19 crises bring opportunities for industries and service providers to enhance their capability for a fault-free environment, zero failure, anti-fragile, and improve production capacity. The present paper provides an overview of the sustainability of Industry 6.0 in a global perspective with vision, objective, and transformation of Industrial Revolutions. The sole aim of industry 6.0 is to seizure the new technologies, which can be applied worldwide and deliver wealth, prosperity away from the job and provide growth to nations across all planetary boundaries. This revolution would promote living harmony with nature, support the principle of sustainability where technology would not be a thing, and promote the human virtual digital twin where all can simultaneously see physical goods and virtual product information.

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