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2.
Ethiop J Health Sci ; 32(1): 15-26, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When the whole world is fighting in an unprecedented pace against COVID-19 pandemic, the breakthrough COVID infections poise to dampen the rapid control of the same. We carried out this project with two objectives; first, to estimate the proportion of breakthrough COVID-19 infection among completely vaccinated individuals and second, to study the clinico-epidemiological profile of breakthrough COVID-19 infections among them. METHODS: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 2703 fully vaccinated individuals from AIIMS, Patna COVID Vaccination Centre (CVC), Bihar, India. The participants were selected randomly using a systematic sampling technique from the list of beneficiaries maintained at the CVC. Telephonic interviews were made to collect the information by trained data collectors. RESULTS: A total of 274 fully vaccinated beneficiaries [10.1% (95% CI: 9.1%, 11.4%)] were diagnosed with breakthrough COVID-19 infection. The infections were more among males (10.4%) and the individuals aged ≤29 years (12.5%). The beneficiary categories, the healthcare-worker and the frontline-worker, were identified as predictors of the breakthrough COVID infections. Only one in three participants had adopted adequate COVID appropriate behaviour following the full vaccination. The majority of the breakthrough infections occurred during the second wave of COVID-19. The majority of the individuals with breakthrough infections were asymptomatic and no death was reported among them. CONCLUSION: One in every ten fully vaccinated individuals can get the breakthrough COVID infections. The healthcare-worker and the frontline-worker had independent risk of getting the breakthrough infections. Very few with breakthrough infections were serious and no death was reported among them.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Nepal J Epidemiol ; 12(1): 1139-1155, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798959

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures to confine it has disrupted the routine of the public. The impact of such long-term confinements on the lifestyle and diet of students are not known and hence this study was designed to assess the impact of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the lifestyle and diet of university students. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey among 622 university students across various educational institutes of east India using a pre-designed questionnaire about lifestyle-diet before and during the lockdown. Results were tabulated and statistical tests like Paired t-test, Wilcoxon Rank sign test, and Mc-Nemar tests were applied and overall significance was attributed to P<0.05. Results: During the lockdown a total of 2.4% (95% CI: 1.4-3.8%) decrease in prevalence of tobacco use, 8.7% (95% CI: 6.6-11%) decrease in physical activity and a 0.8 hour (95% CI: 0.6-0.9 hour) increase in the mean sleep duration was observed. There was a significant increase in use of fresh fruits consumption [Median(IQR)-before:2(1-5);during:3(1-5) days] and a decrease in meat-poultry[Median(IQR)-before: 2(0-3);during: 1(0-3)days] and junk food[Median(IQR)-before:1(0-2);during:0(0-2)days] consumption during the lockdown. Conclusion: A significant proportion of changes in lifestyle and frequency of consumption of certain food items in the dietary pattern during the lockdown.

4.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 11(2): 466-471, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776500

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to a global health crisis. Health workforce has been working vigorously in COVID-19 management. So, we have planned this study with an aim to assess the psychological profile of healthcare and allied workers involved in SARS-CoV2 pandemic and to look for associated factors. Methodology: A cross-sectional observational study was planned at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna. Study population comprised of Health care workers and allied health care workers involved in COVID-19 management. Results: Data from 254 study participants have been included in the study. The prevalence of severe and extremely severe depression among study participants was 8.3 and 3.1 percent. Severe and extremely severe anxiety prevalence was found to be 9.4 and 13.8 percent. The prevalence of severe and extremely severe stress was 2.4 and 2.4 percent each. Education till post-graduation, unmarried, occupation of doctor, Comorbidity of headache and occurrence of influenza-like illness in last 3 months had a statistically significant association with high depression score. With high Anxiety score and high-stress score statistically significant association was seen in education till postgraduation, unmarried, occupation of doctor, duration of 1 COVID-19 duty of ≥8 hours. Conclusion: The study highlights high psychological comorbidities in the form of depression, anxiety and stress among health care workers and allied health care workers working in COVID-19 pandemic. Prevalence of psychological morbidity is higher among doctors compared to nurses and allied health workers. COVID-19 duty of ≥8 hours have been found to be hampering mental health.

5.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(1): 51-61, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732600

ABSTRACT

Objectives: With the emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, healthcare professionals (HCPs) have experienced high levels of stress and anxiety because of the high risk of infection for themselves and their families. This has led to acute sleep problems for HCP. This study was designed to assess the anxiety and sleep quality of HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 370 HCPs employed at All India Institute of Medical Sciences Patna over 3 months, using the standard Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale (GAD-7) for suspected GAD and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index for sleep quality. Results were tabulated and multivariable binomial logistic regression analysis was done to determine the predictors of poor sleep. Significance was attributed to p<0.05. RESULTS: Of the 370 HCPs screened, 52 (14.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.8%-18.1%) were found to have GAD and 195 (52.7%; 95% CI, 47.5%-57.9%) were found to be poor sleepers. The presence of any addictive habit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.833; 95% CI, 1.12-2.8), unprotected contact with COVID-19 cases (AOR, 1.902; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3), and the presence of GAD (AOR, 5.57; 95% CI, 2.5-12.4) were found to be predictors of poor sleep quality among HCPs. Conclusion: A significant proportion of HCPs were found to have suspected GAD and were poor sleepers. This highlights the need for measures to confront this problem.

6.
Addict Health ; 13(3): 194-204, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 presented an unprecedented situation in which behavioural factors including tobacco use were believed to increase the risk of morbidity and mortality. The objective of the present study was to find the tobacco use pattern among the COVID-19 patients and the perceived risk of developing severe COVID-19 following tobacco use. METHODS: This hospital-based, cross-sectional, analytical study was conducted among 300 COVID-19 patients at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Patna, India, during November and December 2020 using a semi-structured, pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed using statistical software and the results were presented as proportion and percentage. FINDINGS: About 27% and 16% of the COVID-19 patients were ever and current tobacco users, respectively. Quit attempts were found to have increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. A majority (65%) of current tobacco users had reduced their amount of tobacco use. Nearly 2 in every 3 patients perceived high risk of developing severe COVID-19 following tobacco use. Perceived risk was significantly higher among tobacco non-users, patients who were aware of the ill health effects of tobacco use, and patients who had noticed anti-tobacco messages or had been advised to quit tobacco. Among the current tobacco users, a significantly higher proportion of patients who perceived high risk of developing severe COVID-19 following tobacco use had made quit attempts or had reduced tobacco consumption during the pandemic (76.7% vs. 40%; P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: A high proportion of COVID-19 patients believed that tobacco use aggravated the COVID-19 condition. Increased quit attempts and reduction in tobacco consumption during this pandemic is a positive sign for tobacco control.

7.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1353: 131-149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680582

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Within a short period, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) spread all over the globe and became the first pandemic of the present century. Early diagnostic tools and effective drugs are urgently needed to effectively manage the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on current literature, we provide recent updates on SARS-CoV-2 biology, available diagnostic methods, and therapeutic options for the management of COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A literature survey was done using Google and PubMed and Web of Science to summarize the current updates on this topic. RESULTS: Current coronavirus diagnostic tests are reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), and reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) which detects the presence of specific genome sequence of virus. Existing antiviral drugs or new therapeutic options such as neutralizing antibody or plasma therapy are mostly used to restrict the virus growth with a limited success. CONCLUSION: As there is no specific treatment or vaccine available to limit the infection of SARS-CoV-2, we need to rely on the existing way to limit the disease. The first priority to fight COVID-19 is development of early diagnostic tools so that infected persons can be identified and further viral transmission can be blocked. Evaluation of existing drugs or identification of new therapeutic entities becomes the major challenge to deal with the present pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
Cureus ; 14(1): e21416, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1677766

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pulmonary sequelae of severe COVID-19 infection are yet to be fully defined. The authors undertook this study to find out the proportion of severe COVID-19 patients having fibrosis-like lung sequelae during a medium-term follow-up period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study from a dedicated COVID centre of Eastern India. Severe COVID-19 patients who had undergone chest computerized tomography (CT) during the acute phase of illness and at least one follow-up CT with a gap of minimum two months between the two scans were included in the study. RESULT: A total of 39 patients who had recovered from severe COVID-19 pneumonia and presented to the pulmonary medicine OPD in the months of July and August 2021 were included. Patients with pre-existing lung disease (n-4), mild to moderate (n-11), and due to unavailability of CT scan (n-2) were excluded. A total of 22 patients (thirteen males, nine females) were thus included for analysis. Follow-up scans were performed with a mean of 2.5 months after the onset of the disease. Out of 22 patients, only one patient's follow-up scan was normal. Predominant fibrotic-like features were present in six (27.2%) patients, though some evidence of fibrosis-like changes were seen in 20 out of 22 (90.9%) patients. The remaining 15 (68.2%) patients with abnormal scans had predominant non-fibrotic changes like ground-glass opacities (GGOs), consolidation, cavity, or nodule. The most common presenting symptoms at the follow-up examination were dyspnoea (81.8%), cough (54.1%) followed by fatigue in 40.9% of patients. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that most of the severe COVID-19 patients have some residual radiological findings during medium-term follow-up. Fibrotic-like lesions are present in almost all patients but most of them get resolved with time. True fibrotic features like honeycombing are rarely seen as residual lung sequelae.

9.
Indian J Public Health ; 65(4): 422-424, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603912

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the peripheral nerve. Different variants of GBS can produce a wide array of symptoms among which motor weakness, areflexia without bladder-bowel involvement are commonly encountered. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is a recombinant Corona Virus Vaccine and it is incorporated into India's coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccination program. Few rare instances of serious neurological complications have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination. Our case received 2 dose of COVID-19 vaccine. After receiving 1st dose he had rapid onset of ascending paralysis without any sensory and bladder bowel involvement. He received Intra Venous Immuno Globulin and Injection prednisolone for 5 days. Following that his lower limb weakness resolved rapidly but there was no improvement in upper limb weakness. Nerve conduction study showed demyelinating etiology and along with clinical features, it was appeared to be a case of GBS. However, more evidence is needed before establishing the causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccines and GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Humans , India , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e224, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461942

ABSTRACT

Effectiveness of corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccines used in India is unexplored and need to be substantiated. The present case-control study was planned to elicit the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing infection and disease severity in the general population of Bihar, India. This case-control study was conducted among people aged ≥45 years during April to June 2021. The cases were the COVID-19 patients admitted or visited All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Patna, Bihar, India, and were contacted directly. The controls were the individuals tested negative for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) at the Virology laboratory, AIIMS-Patna and contacted telephonically for collection of relevant information. The vaccine effectiveness (VE) was calculated by using the formula (VE = 1 - odds ratio). The adjusted VE for partial and full vaccination were estimated to be 52.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) 39.0-63.0%) and 83.0% (95% CI 73.0-89.0%) respectively for preventing SARS CoV-2 infection. The sub-group analyses of the cases have shown that the length of hospital stays (LOS) (partially vaccinated: 9 days vs. unvaccinated: 12 days; P = 0.028) and the severity of the disease (fully vaccinated: 30.3% vs. partially vaccinated: 51.3% and unvaccinated: 54.1%; P = 0.035) were significantly low among vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals. To conclude, four out of every five fully vaccinated individuals are estimated to be protected from contracting SARS CoV-2 infection. Vaccination lowered LOS and chances of development of severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
11.
Cureus ; 13(9): e17660, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406863

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 is associated with huge morbidity and mortality in India. Identification of factors associated with mortality would make a difference in the management of COVID-19 infection-related illness. Objective To assess clinical & laboratory parameters associated with adverse outcomes among 984 patients with COVID-19 infection admitted to a tertiary care hospital in eastern India. Materials and methods All patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) or rapid antigen positive for COVID-19 admitted at our All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) Patna between 1st July to 30th Aug 2020 were included for analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using Stata, version 10 (Stata Corp, College Station, USA). Four subgroup regression models have been analyzed to predict the odds of death. Results A total of 984 COVID-19 cases admitted to our hospital during the given period were analyzed. Out of 984 cases, 762 (77.44%) were males and 222 (22.56%) females. The overall case-fatality rate among admitted cases was 254 (25.81%) [males (26.64%) and females (22.96%)]. The final logistic regression model showed that patients presenting with severe COVID-19 disease (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 17.81), cough (aOR: 3.83), dyspnea (aOR:2.35), age 60-75 (aOR:1.47), age >75 years (aOR:3.97), presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) (aOR:2.95), were found to be significantly associated with a high risk of mortality after controlling for the confounders (p<0.05). Among lab variable, total leukocyte count (TLC) (>10,000/mm3) (aOR: 1.74), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (>3.3) (aOR:2.37), serum albumin (<3.4 g/dl) (aOR : 2.3), blood urea (>43 gm/dl) (aOR:3.72), ferritin (>322) (aOR:2.39), and D-dimer (>0.5) (aOR:5.58) were significantly associated with higher mortality (p<0.05) Conclusion Age 60 years plus, presence of CKD, and severe covid infection carried the highest risk of mortality. Lab markers such as raised TLC, ferritin, D-dimer, and low albumin were associated with worse outcomes in our subset of COVID-19-related illness.

12.
Cureus ; 13(8): e17170, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372146

ABSTRACT

Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing COVID-19 disease is the third coronavirus to have emerged in the last 20 years. The COVID-19 infection causes more severe illness in patients with comorbid diseases, especially in patients with diabetes, hypertension and kidney failure. Methods This is a retrospective study using electronic records and laboratory data of adult patients hospitalised at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Patna between May 1st, 2020 and March 31st, 2021, who were diagnosed with COVID-19 and needed haemodialysis. The demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, symptoms, clinical course, laboratory parameters, and treatments were recorded. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome of patients on hemodialysis with COVID-19 infection. Results The study included 261 COVID-19 patients who needed haemodialysis. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (72.8%), cough (64.3%) and dyspnoea (46.6%). The mean age was 58.4 +/-15 years. A total of 195 patients (74.7%) were male. The most common co-morbid condition was hypertension (85.1%) followed by diabetes (71.9%). A total of 118 (45.2) patients had acute on chronic kidney disease (CKD), 40 (15.3) were on maintenance haemodialysis (MHD) and 103 (39.5) were having acute kidney injury (AKI). Eight patients were renal transplant recipients. At presentation, 183 (70.1%) patients were having mild to moderately severe infection and 78 (29.9%) patients were having severe disease. A total of 213 patients required ICU admissions, 186 (75.3%) of whom required invasive ventilation. Overall mortality was 66% (172/261) and the rest were discharged. Conclusion The study suggests that COVID-19 disease has a significantly more severe course and poorer outcome in patients requiring haemodialysis.

13.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 21501327211041486, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370932

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic still poses a serious challenge to health system worldwide. This study was planned to determine exposure characteristics, in-hospital mortality, and predictors of in hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory profile of confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted from 25th March to 31st August 2020. COVID-19 patient profiles were collected from Medical Record Section of the hospital. RESULTS: In hospital mortality occurred in 159 (11%) cases. Increasing respiratory rate, higher temperature, higher total leukocyte count, and high blood urea levels were found to be independent risk factors for in hospital mortality whereas higher hemoglobin and higher oxygen saturation at the time of hospital admission were found to be protective against in hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: In hospital mortality among COVID-19 patients is almost 1 in 10 in tertiary care hospital. Patients with advancing age (AOR: 1.048; 95% CI: 1.021-1.076), higher respiratory rate (AOR: 1.248; 95% CI: 1.047-1.489), higher temperature (AOR: 1.758; 95% CI: 1.025-3.016), higher leukocyte count (AOR: 1.147; 95% CI: 1.035-1.270), and higher urea levels (AOR: 1.034; 95% CI: 1.005-1.064) at the time of admission are important predictors of COVID-19 in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , Humans , India/epidemiology , Laboratories , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100838, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) have a definite role in tobacco control and can help immensely by setting examples. The current study aimed to study the tobacco use pattern and quitting behaviour among HCPs of India during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We addressed the research objective using a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey using 'google form" among 687 HCPs of India during December 2020. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS. RESULTS: Overall, 32.6% of the HCPs were ever tobacco user while 23.4% and 16.9% were current and daily tobacco user. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 51.7% and 43.1% of HCPs cut down the frequency and amount of tobacco use respectively while for 24.1% COVID-19 pandemic exerted no effect on their tobacco use. Presence of vulnerable population at home [ adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 17.5 (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-92.2)], ever tobacco quit attempt [AOR: 13.5 (95% CI:2.7-67.7)] and history of COVID-19 disease [AOR: 5.1 (95% CI:1.3-20.7)] significantly determined reduced tobacco use (60.3%) during the pandemic. Similarly, reduced tobacco use during the pandemic [AOR: 4.8 (95% CI:1.7-13.5)] and perception of both smoking and smokeless tobacco form to be harmful for COVID-19 [AOR: 4.8 (95% CI:1.7-13.5)] were the independent correlates of tobacco quit attempt (50.0%) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Tobacco use was quite rampant among the HCPs with every fourth and sixth being a current and daily tobacco user respectively. During the COVID-19 pandemic three in every five HCPs surveyed reduced tobacco use while every second HCP made a quit attempt.

16.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 69(2): 77-78, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058807

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Neurol India ; 68(2): 246-254, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-270267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 infection outbreak has aroused increasing attention and affected thousands of people nationwide. The long incubation period, high infectious rate, varied manifestation, and absence of effective treatment make it difficult to manage the disease transmission. OBJECTIVE: The intended goals are to encourage efficient management of neurological and neurosurgical patients, resource utilization, and protecting the healthcare provider during the COVID-19 epidemic. Herein, we present a consensus statement from various centers in India. METHODOLOGY: In addition to the literature review, recommendations were included from neurologists and neurosurgeons from various centers in India. RESULTS: Every patient presenting for treatment should be treated as a potential asymptomatic infected case. Patients should be categorized based upon the priority as acute (require immediate treatment/surgery within 24 h), sub-acute (requiring treatment within a maximum of 7-10 days), or chronic (requiring treatment within a month). Non-essential elective surgeries and outpatient clinics should be avoided after informing the patient(s). There is a high risk of aerosol dispersion during intubation and certain neurosurgical procedures particularly those involving drills and endoscopes. These procedures should be performed wearing full personal protective equipment. The workflow of the operating rooms should also be modified significantly. Minor modifications in personal and professional lifestyles and routine training to use the PPE will ensure efficient management of resources. CONCLUSION: These recommendations could be used to mitigate the risks and reduce exposure to other patients, public, and healthcare staff.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Neurology/standards , Neurosurgery/standards , Pandemics , Patient Care/standards , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Neurosurgical Procedures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
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