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1.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 11(Suppl 1): S2-S3, 2008 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35721443
2.
Stroke ; 53(7): e246-e250, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of instant messenger applications among physicians has become common in acute stroke management, especially in developing countries. Photos or video sequences of brain computed tomography (CT) scans are being sent to receive real-time support in assessing radiological findings. We analyzed whether instant messaging-based evaluation is precise enough to extract relevant information from the images. METHODS: In this prospective study, anonymized videos and photos of CT and CT angiography scans of patients with symptoms of acute stroke were recorded from the diagnostic monitor using a smartphone. Two neurologists and 2 neuroradiologists performed evaluation of the images using WhatsApp. The gold standard was set by 2 experienced neuroradiologists who evaluated the CT images with their full radiological equipment. Statistical analysis included the calculation of Cohen kappa (κ). RESULTS: A total of 104 brain images (derived from 81 patients) were included. All 4 raters performed with a perfect (κ=1) interobserver reliability in diagnosing intracerebral hemorrhage. For subarachnoid hemorrhage, interobserver reliability was slightly lower (raters 1, 2, and 3, κ=1; rater 4, κ=0.88). For diagnosing stroke mimics, interobserver reliability showed considerable variations (κ between 0.32 and 1). Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score differences overall were comparable between raters and did not exceed 3 to 4 points without noticeable outliers. All raters performed with a moderate-to-substantial interobserver reliability for detecting large vessel occlusions (κ=0.48 in rater 1, κ=0.62 in rater 2, and κ=0.63 in raters 3 and 4). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke neurologists can reliably extract information on intracerebral hemorrhage from CT images recorded via smartphone and sent through instant messaging tools. Remote diagnosis of early infarct signs and stroke mimics was less reliable. We developed a standard for the acquisition of images, taking data protection into account.

3.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 25(1): 114-119, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35342262

ABSTRACT

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine incidence, risk factors, and short-term outcomes of young stroke in Ludhiana city, Northwest India. Methods: Data were collected on first-ever stroke in patients of age ≥18 years, from hospitals, diagnostic imaging centers, general practitioners, and municipal corporation during March 2011-March 2013 in Ludhiana city, using the World Health Organization Stepwise Approach to Surveillance (WHO STEPS). Outcome was documented using the modified Rankin Scale at 28 days. Results: Of 2948 patients, 700 (24%) were in the age group 18-49 years. Annual incidence in this age group was 46/100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-51/100,000). Hypertension (84%), diabetes mellitus (48%), and atrial fibrillation (AF) (12%) were found more common in >49 years age group, as compared with 18-49 years age group. Drug abuse (8.7% vs. 6% in age >49 years; P = 0.04) and tobacco intake (8.7% vs. 5.6% in age >49 years; P = 0.02) was more common in young people, that is, 18-49 years age group in comparison to older patients, >49 years age group. Recovery was better in younger subjects (60% vs. 46% in age >49 years P < 0.001). In a multivariable analysis, younger people were more often literate (odds ratio [OR] 2.52; 95% CI, 1.68-3.77; P < 0.001), employed (OR 3.92; 95% CI, 2.20-5.21; P < 0.001), and 374 (60%) had good clinical outcome, modified Rankin Scale <2 at 28 days follow-up as compared with 938 (46%) older patients (OR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.15-2.00; P = 0.003). Conclusion: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, drug addiction, and tobacco intake were significantly associated with young stroke. Outcome was also better in younger people.

4.
Int J Stroke ; : 17474930221082446, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35137645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major disparities have been reported in recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) availability among countries of different socioeconomic status. AIMS: To characterize variability of rtPA price, its availability, and its association with and impact on each country's health expenditure (HE) resources. METHODS: We conducted a global survey to obtain information on rtPA price (50 mg vial, 2020 US Dollars) and availability. Country-specific data, including low, lower middle (LMIC), upper middle (UMIC), and high-income country (HIC) classifications, and gross domestic product (GDP) and HE, both nominally and adjusted for purchasing power parity (PPP), were obtained from World Bank Open Data. To assess the impact of rtPA cost, we computed the rtPA price as percentage of per capita GDP and HE and examined its association with the country income classification. RESULTS: rtPA is approved and available in 109 countries. We received surveys from 59 countries: 27 (46%) HIC, 20 (34%) UMIC, and 12 (20%) LMIC. Although HIC have significantly higher per capita GDP and HE compared to UMIC and LMIC (p < 0.0001), the median price of rtPA is non-significantly higher in LMICs (USD 755, interquartile range, IQR (575-1300)) compared to UMICs (USD 544, IQR (400-815)) and HICs (USD 600, IQR (526-1000)). In LMIC, rtPA cost accounts for 217.4% (IQR, 27.1-340.6%) of PPP-adjusted per capita HE, compared to 17.6% (IQR (11.2-28.7%), p < 0.0001) for HICs. CONCLUSION: We documented significant variability in rtPA availability and price among countries. Relative costs are higher in lower income countries, exceeding the available HE. Concerted efforts to improve rtPA affordability in low-income settings are necessary.

5.
Stroke ; 53(3): 1008-1019, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35109683

ABSTRACT

The stroke burden continues to grow across the globe, disproportionally affecting developing countries. This burden cannot be effectively halted and reversed without effective and widely implemented primordial and primary stroke prevention measures, including those on the individual level. The unprecedented growth of smartphone and other digital technologies with digital solutions are now being used in almost every area of health, offering a unique opportunity to improve primordial and primary stroke prevention on the individual level. However, there are several issues that need to be considered to advance development and use this important digital strategy for primordial and primary stroke prevention. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines we provide a systematic review of the current knowledge, challenges, and opportunities of digital health in primordial and primary stroke prevention.


Subject(s)
Internet , Primary Prevention , Smartphone , Stroke/prevention & control , Humans
6.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(5): 668-685, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35002124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Occurrence of stroke has been reported among patients with COVID-19. The present study compares clinical features and outcomes of stroke patients with and without COVID-19. METHODS: The COVID-19 Stroke Study Group (CSSG) is a multicentric study in 18 sites across India to observe and compare the clinical characteristics of patients with stroke admitted during the current pandemic period and a similar epoch in 2019. The present study reports patients of stroke with and without COVID-19 (CoVS and non-CoVS, respectively) seen between February 2020 and July 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and outcome details of patients were collected. RESULTS: The mean age and gender were comparable between the two groups. CoVS patients had higher stroke severity and extent of cerebral involvement on imaging. In-hospital complications and death were higher among CoVS patients (53.06% vs. 17.51%; P < 0.001) and (42.31% vs. 7.6%; P < 0.001), respectively. At 3 months, higher mortality was observed among CoVS patients (67.65% vs. 13.43%; P < 0.001) and good outcome (modified Rankin score [mRS]: 0-2) was seen more often in non-CoVS patients (68.86% vs. 33.33%; P < 0.001). The presence of COVID-19 and baseline stroke severity were independent predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: CoVS is associated with higher severity, poor outcome, and increased mortality. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and baseline stroke severity are independent predictors of mortality.

7.
Int J Stroke ; 17(1): 18-29, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986727

ABSTRACT

Stroke remains the second-leading cause of death and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (as expressed by disability-adjusted life-years lost - DALYs) in the world. The estimated global cost of stroke is over US$721 billion (0.66% of the global GDP). From 1990 to 2019, the burden (in terms of the absolute number of cases) increased substantially (70.0% increase in incident strokes, 43.0% deaths from stroke, 102.0% prevalent strokes, and 143.0% DALYs), with the bulk of the global stroke burden (86.0% of deaths and 89.0% of DALYs) residing in lower-income and lower-middle-income countries (LMIC). This World Stroke Organisation (WSO) Global Stroke Fact Sheet 2022 provides the most updated information that can be used to inform communication with all internal and external stakeholders; all statistics have been reviewed and approved for use by the WSO Executive Committee as well as leaders from the Global Burden of Disease research group.


Subject(s)
Disability-Adjusted Life Years , Stroke , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
Neurol India ; 69(6): 1645-1649, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34979663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pre-stroke anti-platelet (PAP) therapy can potentially influence the severity and outcome after ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed data from the prospective multicenter Indo-US collaborative stroke project for the impact of PAP therapy. Outcome measures included the admission National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS) score, and rates of in-hospital mortality and post-ischemic intracerebral hemorrhage. RESULTS: Among 2048 of 2066 patients (M:F = 2:1) with known pre-stroke medication status, 336 (16.3%) were on PAP therapy. As compared to the non-PAP group, the PAP group had significantly higher mean age (62.2 vs 57.4 years, P < 0.001) and significantly more men, vascular risk factors, cerebral microbleeds (12.8% vs 6.2%, P = 0.001) and intravenous thrombolysis treatment (17% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.001). Cardioembolic strokes were significantly more in the PAP group (P < 0.001), but not large artery atherosclerosis. No significant differences were observed in the median NIHSS score (9 vs. 10, P = 0.274), 3-month mRS (score 0-2,51.4% vs. 49.0%, P = 0.428), in-hospital mortality (8.6% vs. 7.8%, P = 0.592), or symptomatic post ischemic intracerebral haemorrhage (12.2% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.382). The PAP group had more stroke recurrence (6.6% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.002) which was not significant (P = 0.065) after multivariate regression analysis adjusting for age, sex and vascular risk factors. PAP therapy was not an independent predictor of initial stroke severity or stroke outcome. CONCLUSION: PAP therapy has no significant effect on initial stroke severity, rates of post-ischemic hemorrhage with or without thrombolysis, in-hospital mortality, stroke recurrence, and 3-month outcome after ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
9.
Trials ; 22(1): 943, 2021 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early intensive blood pressure (BP) lowering remains the most promising treatment for acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), despite discordant results between clinical trials and potential variation in the treatment effects by approach to control BP. As the third in a series of clinical trials on this topic, the INTEnsive care bundle with blood pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT3) aims to determine the effectiveness of a goal-directed care bundle protocol of early physiological control (intensive BP lowering, glycemic control, and pyrexia treatment) and reversal of anticoagulation, in acute ICH. METHODS: INTERACT3 is a pragmatic, international, multicenter, stepped-wedge (4 phases/3 steps), cluster-randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of a multifaceted care package in adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients (target 8360) with acute ICH (< 6 h of onset) recruited from 110 hospitals (average of 19 consecutive patients per phase) in low- and middle-income countries. After a control phase, each hospital implements the intervention (intensive BP lowering, target systolic < 140 mmHg; glucose control, target 6.1-7.8 mmol/L and 7.8-10.0 mmol/L in those without and with diabetes mellitus, respectively; anti-pyrexia treatment to target body temperature ≤ 37.5 °C; and reversal of anticoagulation, target international normalized ratio < 1.5 within 1 h). Information will be obtained on demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital management, and 7-day outcomes. Central trained blinded assessors will conduct telephone interviews to assess physical function and health-related quality of life at 6 months. The primary outcome is the modified Rankin scale (mRS) at 6 months analyzed using ordinal logistic regression. The sample size of 8360 subjects provides 90% power (α = 0.05) to detect a 5.6% absolute improvement (shift) in the primary outcome of the intervention versus control standard care, with various assumptions. DISCUSSION: As the largest clinical trial in acute ICH, INTERACT3 is on schedule to provide an assessment of the effectiveness of a widely applicable goal-directed care bundle for a serious condition in which a clearly proven treatment has yet to be established. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03209258. Registered on 1 July 2017. Chinese Trial Registry ChiCTR-IOC-17011787. Registered on 28 June 2017.


Subject(s)
Patient Care Bundles , Adolescent , Adult , Blood Pressure , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Cerebral Hemorrhage/therapy , Critical Care , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2021: 6251-6254, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34892542

ABSTRACT

Post-stroke monitoring is a crucial step for properly studying the progress of stroke patients. The rehabilitation process consists of exercise regimes that help in constantly engaging the affected part of the brain leading to faster recovery. The work here studies the effectiveness of the rehabilitation regime by investigating several parameters that can play important role in observing the immediate effect of the exercises. Various parameters from different wavelet coefficients were extracted for monitoring rehabilitation for up to 90 days. Energy and waveform length show maximum variation when monitoring pre and post-exercise changes. The parameters were correlated with clinical(FMA) score. Centroid Index gave high correlation value for beta band (r = -0.559). Alpha band on the other hand showed a good correlation with all the extracted fe atures, maximum being -0.6988 with energy. So for monitoring post-stroke rehabilitation alpha and beta bands should be focused. Region-specific analyses were also done to monitor changes in different parts of the brain.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Electroencephalography , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Upper Extremity
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(1): 106201, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794031

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are few large population-based studies of outcomes after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) than other stroke types. METHODS: We pooled data from 13 population-based stroke incidence studies (10 studies from the INternational STRroke oUtComes sTudy (INSTRUCT) and 3 new studies; N=657). Primary outcomes were case-fatality and functional outcome (modified Rankin scale score 3-5 [poor] vs. 0-2 [good]). Harmonized patient-level factors included age, sex, health behaviours (e.g. current smoking at baseline), comorbidities (e.g.history of hypertension), baseline stroke severity (e.g. NIHSS >7) and year of stroke. We estimated predictors of case-fatality and functional outcome using Poisson regression and generalized estimating equations using log-binomial models respectively at multiple timepoints. RESULTS: Case-fatality rate was 33% at 1 month, 43% at 1 year, and 47% at 5 years. Poor functional outcome was present in 27% of survivors at 1 month and 15% at 1 year. In multivariable analysis, predictors of death at 1-month were age (per decade increase MRR 1.14 [1.07-1.22]) and SAH severity (MRR 1.87 [1.50-2.33]); at 1 year were age (MRR 1.53 [1.34-1.56]), current smoking (MRR 1.82 [1.20-2.72]) and SAH severity (MRR 3.00 [2.06-4.33]) and; at 5 years were age (MRR 1.63 [1.45-1.84]), current smoking (MRR 2.29 [1.54-3.46]) and severity of SAH (MRR 2.10 [1.44-3.05]). Predictors of poor functional outcome at 1 month were age (per decade increase RR 1.32 [1.11-1.56]) and SAH severity (RR 1.85 [1.06-3.23]), and SAH severity (RR 7.09 [3.17-15.85]) at 1 year. CONCLUSION: Although age is a non-modifiable risk factor for poor outcomes after SAH, however, severity of SAH and smoking are potential targets to improve the outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Stroke , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/mortality , Treatment Outcome
13.
Lancet Public Health ; 7(1): e74-e85, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34756176

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the third leading cause of disability worldwide and its burden is increasing rapidly in low-income and middle-income countries, many of which are unable to face the challenges it imposes. In this Health Policy paper on primary stroke prevention, we provide an overview of the current situation regarding primary prevention services, estimate the cost of stroke and stroke prevention, and identify deficiencies in existing guidelines and gaps in primary prevention. We also offer a set of pragmatic solutions for implementation of primary stroke prevention, with an emphasis on the role of governments and population-wide strategies, including task-shifting and sharing and health system re-engineering. Implementation of primary stroke prevention involves patients, health professionals, funders, policy makers, implementation partners, and the entire population along the life course.


Subject(s)
Stroke/prevention & control , Costs and Cost Analysis , Developing Countries , Global Health , Health Policy , Humans , Stroke/economics
14.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751121

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide. The rates of stroke are increasing in less affluent countries predominantly because of a high prevalence of modifiable risk factors. The Lipid Association of India (LAI) has provided a risk stratification algorithm for patients with ischaemic stroke and recommended low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals for those in a very high risk group and extreme risk group (category A) of <50 mg/dl (1.3 mmol/l) while the LDL-C goal for extreme risk group (category B) is ≤30 mg/dl (0.8 mmol/l). High intensity statins are the first-line lipid lowering therapy. Non-statin therapy like ezetimibe and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors may be added as an adjunct to statins in patients who do not achieve LDL-C goals statins alone. In acute ischaemic stroke, high intensity statin therapy improves neurological and functional outcomes regardless of thrombolytic therapy. Although conflicting data exist regarding increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with statin use, the overall benefit risk ratio favors long-term statin therapy necessitating detailed discussion with the patient. Patients who have statins withdrawn while being on prior statin therapy at the time of acute ischaemic stroke have worse functional outcomes and increased mortality. LAI recommends that statins be continued in such patients. In patients presenting with ICH, statins should not be started in the acute phase but should be continued in patients who are already taking statins. ICH patients, once stable, need risk stratification for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

15.
Eur Stroke J ; 6(3): 291-301, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Activity-based neuroplasticity and re-organization leads to motor learning via replicating real-life movements. Increased repetition of such movements has growing evidence over last few decades. In particular, computer-game-based rehabilitation is found to be effective, feasible and acceptable for post-stroke upper limb deficits. Our study aims to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of 12 weeks of computer-game-based rehabilitation platform (GRP) on fine and gross motor skills post-stroke in India. METHODS: Through this trial we will study the effect of adjunctive in-hospital GRP (using a motion-sensing airmouse with off-the-shelf computer games) in 80 persons with subacute stroke, for reduction of post-stroke upper limb deficits in a single-centre prospective Randomized Open, Blinded End- point trial when compared to conventional therapy alone. RESULTS: We intend to evaluate between-group differences using Wolf Motor Function test, Stroke Specific Quality of Life, and GRP assessment tool. Feasibility will be assessed via recruitment rates, adherence to intervention periods, drop-out rate and qualitative findings of patient experience with the intervention. CONCLUSION: The CARE FOR U trial is designed to test the feasibility and effectiveness of a computer-game based rehabilitation platform in treating upper limb deficits after stroke. In case of positive findings GRP can be widely applicable for stroke populations needing intensive and regular therapy with supervision.

16.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 24(4): 573-579, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728953

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: GIS mapping as a public health tool has been increasingly applied to chronic disease control. While evaluating TIA incidence from an existing regional stroke registry in Ludhiana city, India, we aim to apply the innovative concept of regional TIA GIS mapping for planning targeted stroke prevention interventions. METHODS: TIA patient data was obtained from hospitals, scan centers and general practitioners from March 2010 to March 2013 using WHO-Stroke STEPS based surveillance as part of establishing a population-based stroke registry in Ludhiana city. From this registry, patients with TIA (diagnosed by MRI image-based stroke rule-out, or clinically) were chosen and data analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 138 TIA patients were included in the final analysis. The annual TIA incidence rate for Ludhiana city was 7.13/100,000 (95% confidence interval: 5.52 to 8.74) for 2012-2013. Mean age was 58.5 ± 13.9 years (range: 22-88 years) and 87 (63%) were men. Majority of the TIA cases had anterior circulation TIAs. Hypertension (87.4%) was the most common risk factor. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping, high TIA incidence was seen in central, western, and southern parts and clustering of TIA cumulative incidence was seen in the central part of Ludhiana city. CONCLUSION: Incidence rate of TIA was lower than that expected from a low- and middle-income country (LMIC). TIA GIS mapping, looking at regional localization, can be a novel option for developing targeted, cost-effective stroke prevention programs.

17.
Int J Stroke ; 17(1): 9-17, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34711104

ABSTRACT

For more than a year, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has had a devastating effect on global health. High-, low-, and middle-income countries are struggling to cope with the spread of newer mutant strains of the virus. Delivery of acute stroke care remains a priority despite the pandemic. In order to maintain the time-dependent processes required to optimize delivery of intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy, most countries have reorganized infrastructure to optimize human resources and critical services. Low-and-middle income countries (LMIC) have strained medical resources at baseline and often face challenges in the delivery of stroke systems of care (SSOC). This position statement aims to produce pragmatic recommendations on methods to preserve the existing SSOC during COVID-19 in LMIC and propose best stroke practices that may be low cost but high impact and commonly shared across the world.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , American Heart Association , Developing Countries , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , United States/epidemiology
18.
Stroke ; 53(3): 779-787, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In thrombolysis-eligible patients with acute ischemic stroke, there is uncertainty over the most appropriate systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering profile that provides an optimal balance of potential benefit (functional recovery) and harm (intracranial hemorrhage). We aimed to determine relationships of SBP parameters and outcomes in thrombolyzed acute ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: Post hoc analyzes of the ENCHANTED (Enhanced Control of Hypertension and Thrombolysis Stroke Study), a partial-factorial trial of thrombolysis-eligible and treated acute ischemic stroke patients with high SBP (150-180 mm Hg) assigned to low-dose (0.6 mg/kg) or standard-dose (0.9 mg/kg) alteplase and intensive (target SBP, 130-140 mm Hg) or guideline-recommended (target SBP <180 mm Hg) treatment. All patients were followed up for functional status and serious adverse events to 90 days. Logistic regression models were used to analyze 3 SBP summary measures postrandomization: attained (mean), variability (SD) in 1-24 hours, and magnitude of reduction in 1 hour. The primary outcome was a favorable shift on the modified Rankin Scale. The key safety outcome was any intracranial hemorrhage. RESULTS: Among 4511 included participants (mean age 67 years, 38% female, 65% Asian) lower attained SBP and smaller SBP variability were associated with favorable shift on the modified Rankin Scale (per 10 mm Hg increase: odds ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.71-0.82]; P<0.001 and 0.86 [95% CI, 0.76-0.98]; P=0.025) respectively, but not for magnitude of SBP reduction (0.98, [0.93-1.04]; P=0.564). Odds of intracranial hemorrhage was associated with higher attained SBP and greater SBP variability (1.18 [1.06-1.31]; P=0.002 and 1.34 [1.11-1.62]; P=0.002) but not with magnitude of SBP reduction (1.05 [0.98-1.14]; P=0.184). CONCLUSIONS: Attaining early and consistent low levels in SBP <140 mm Hg, even as low as 110 to 120 mm Hg, over 24 hours is associated with better outcomes in thrombolyzed acute ischemic stroke patients. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01422616.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Hypertension , Ischemic Stroke , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/physiopathology , Hypertension/therapy , Intracranial Hemorrhages/chemically induced , Intracranial Hemorrhages/prevention & control , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/adverse effects
19.
Glob Heart ; 16(1): 66, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692391

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had a continuous and robust impact on world health. The resulting COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating physical, mental and fiscal impact on the millions of people living with noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). In addition to older age, people living with CVD, stroke, obesity, diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension are at a particularly greater risk for severe forms of COVID-19 and its consequences. Meta-analysis indicates that hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and thrombotic complications have been observed as both the most prevalent and most dangerous co-morbidities in COVID-19 patients. And despite the nearly incalculable physical, mental, emotional, and economic toll of this pandemic, forthcoming public health figures continue to place cardiovascular disease as the number one cause of death across the globe in the year 2020. The world simply cannot wait for the next pandemic to invest in NCDs. Social determinants of health cannot be addressed only through the healthcare system, but a more holistic multisectoral approach with at its basis the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is needed to truly address social and economic inequalities and build more resilient systems. Yet there is reason for hope: the 2019 UN Political Declaration on UHC provides a strong framework for building more resilient health systems, with explicit calls for investment in NCDs and references to fiscal policies that put such investment firmly within reach. By further cementing the importance of addressing circulatory health in a future Framework Convention on Emergency Preparedness, WHO Member States can take concrete steps towards a pandemic-free future. As the chief representatives of the global circulatory health community and patients, the Global Coalition for Circulatory Health calls for increased support for the healthcare workforce, global vaccine equity, embracing new models of care and digital health solutions, as well as fiscal policies on unhealthy commodities to support these investments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Noncommunicable Diseases , Aged , Global Health , Humans , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Noncommunicable Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(10): 774-775, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487724
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