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1.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(5): 103525, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944084

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate perspectives of patients, family members, caregivers (PFC), and healthcare professionals (HCP) on tracheostomy care during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey investigating barriers and facilitators to tracheostomy care was collaboratively developed by patients, family members, nurses, speech-language pathologists, respiratory care practitioners, physicians, and surgeons. The survey was distributed to the Global Tracheostomy Collaborative's learning community, and responses were analyzed. RESULTS: Survey respondents (n = 191) from 17 countries included individuals with a tracheostomy (85 [45 %]), families/caregivers (43 [22 %]), and diverse HCP (63 [33.0 %]). Overall, 94 % of respondents reported concern that patients with tracheostomy were at increased risk of critical illness from SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19; 93 % reported fear or anxiety. With respect to prioritization of care, 38 % of PFC versus 16 % of HCP reported concern that patients with tracheostomies might not be valued or prioritized (p = 0.002). Respondents also differed in fear of contracting COVID-19 (69 % PFC vs. 49 % HCP group, p = 0.009); concern for hospitalization (55.5 % PFC vs. 27 % HCP, p < 0.001); access to medical personnel (34 % PFC vs. 14 % HCP, p = 0.005); and concern about canceled appointments (62 % PFC vs. 41 % HCP, p = 0.01). Respondents from both groups reported severe stress and fatigue, sleep deprivation, lack of breaks, and lack of support (70 % PFC vs. 65 % HCP, p = 0.54). Virtual telecare seldom met perceived needs. CONCLUSION: PFC with a tracheostomy perceived most risks more acutely than HCP in this global sample. Broad stakeholder engagement is necessary to achieve creative, patient-driven solutions to maintain connection, communication, and access for patients with a tracheostomy.

4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(2): 103354, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Investigate healthcare providers, caregivers, and patient perspectives on tracheostomy care barriers during COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional anonymous survey SETTING: Global Tracheostomy Collaborative Learning Community METHODS: A 17-item questionnaire was electronically distributed, assessing demographic and occupational data; challenges in ten domains of tracheostomy care; and perceptions regarding knowledge and preparedness for navigating the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Respondents (n = 115) were from 20 countries, consisting of patients/caregivers (10.4%) and healthcare professionals (87.0%), including primarily otolaryngologists (20.9%), nurses (24.3%), speech-language pathologists (18.3%), respiratory therapists (11.3%), and other physicians (12.2%). The most common tracheostomy care problem was inability to communicate (33.9%), followed by mucus plugging and wound care. Need for information on how to manage cuffs and initiate speech trials was rated highly by most respondents, along with other technical and knowledge areas. Access to care and disposable supplies were also prominent concerns, reflecting competition between community needs for routine tracheostomy supplies and shortages in intensive care units. Integrated teamwork was reported in 40 to 67% of respondents, depending on geography. Forty percent of respondents reported concern regarding personal protective equipment (PPE), and 70% emphasized proper PPE use. CONCLUSION: While safety concerns, centering on personal protective equipment and pandemic resources are prominent concerns in COVID-19 tracheostomy care, patient-centered concerns must also be prioritized. Communication and speech, adequate supplies, and care standards are critical considerations in tracheostomy. Stakeholders in tracheostomy care can partner to identify creative solutions for delays in restoring communication, supply disruptions, and reduced access to tracheostomy care in both inpatient and community settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheostomy
5.
J Adv Nurs ; 78(5): 1366-1376, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528388

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Thousands of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers every year might be prevented through increased receipt of vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV). This project aimed to (1) increase the rate of HPV vaccination status assessment, and (2) improve HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates among 18 to 26-year-old patients in the family practice setting. DESIGN: Quality improvement project, pre/post intervention design. METHODS: This project implemented the HIYA! (HPV Immunization among Young Adults) Intervention in a private sports and family practice in central New Jersey. HIYA! implemented 10 pre-, during, and post-visit outcome measures during every family medicine visit with an 18 to 26-year-old patient for HPV. Data collection involved retrospective chart review of every eligible patient during the 12-week implementation period from 17 August to 06 November 2020 and during the same 12-week control period in 2019. RESULTS/FINDINGS: One hundred sixteen charts from 2019 and 129 charts from 2020 were reviewed for assessment of HPV vaccination status and HPV vaccine initiation and/or completion. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that participants in the control group were 84% less likely to be assessed for HPV vaccination status and were 91% less likely to initiate and complete HPV vaccination compared with the intervention group. CONCLUSION: This QI project found HIYA! to be an effective and feasible strategy to improve HPV vaccination rates among 18 to 26-year-old patients in a family practice setting. IMPACT: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, and causes thousands of cancers annually. Although vaccination against HPV can prevent these cancers, vaccination rates remain low, particularly among young adults ages 18 to 26 years. The positive impact of HIYA! was evident based on its success despite the unique challenges presented during the implementation period due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Adult , Family Practice , Humans , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Quality Improvement , Retrospective Studies , United States , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(12): 1513-1515, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455880
8.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(9): 797-803, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320055

ABSTRACT

Importance: During respiratory disease outbreaks such as the COVID-19 pandemic, aerosol-generating procedures, including tracheostomy, are associated with the risk of viral transmission to health care workers. Objective: To quantify particle aerosolization during tracheostomy surgery and tracheostomy care and to evaluate interventions that minimize the risk of viral particle exposure. Design, Setting, and Participants: This comparative effectiveness study was conducted from August 2020 to January 2021 at a tertiary care academic institution. Aerosol generation was measured in real time with an optical particle counter during simulated (manikin) tracheostomy surgical and clinical conditions, including cough, airway nebulization, open suctioning, and electrocautery. Aerosol sampling was also performed during in vivo swine tracheostomy procedures (n = 4), with or without electrocautery. Fluorescent dye was used to visualize cough spread onto the surgical field during swine tracheostomy. Finally, 6 tracheostomy coverings were compared with no tracheostomy covering to quantify reduction in particle aerosolization. Main Outcomes and Measures: Respirable aerosolized particle concentration. Results: Cough, airway humidification, open suctioning, and electrocautery produced aerosol particles substantially above baseline. Compared with uncovered tracheostomy, decreased aerosolization was found with the use of tracheostomy coverings, including a cotton mask (73.8% [(95% CI, 63.0%-84.5%]; d = 3.8), polyester gaiter 79.5% [95% CI, 68.7%-90.3%]; d = 7.2), humidification mask (82.8% [95% CI, 72.0%-93.7%]; d = 8.6), heat moisture exchanger (HME) (91.0% [95% CI, 80.2%-101.7%]; d = 19.0), and surgical mask (89.9% [95% CI, 79.3%-100.6%]; d = 12.8). Simultaneous use of a surgical mask and HME decreased the particle concentration compared with either the HME (95% CI, 1.6%-12.3%; Cohen d = 1.2) or surgical mask (95% CI, 2.7%-13.2%; d = 1.9) used independently. Procedures performed with electrocautery increased total aerosolized particles by 1500 particles/m3 per 5-second interval (95% CI, 1380-1610 particles/m3 per 5-second interval; d = 1.8). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this laboratory and animal comparative effectiveness study indicate that tracheostomy surgery and tracheostomy care are associated with significant aerosol generation, putting health care workers at risk for viral transmission of airborne diseases. Combined HME and surgical mask coverage of the tracheostomy was associated with decreased aerosolization, thereby reducing the risk of viral transmission to health care workers.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Medical Staff, Hospital , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Virion , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Comparative Effectiveness Research , Electrocoagulation/adverse effects , Hot Temperature , Humans , Humidity , Manikins , Masks , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Tracheostomy/instrumentation
9.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(6): 576-577, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289743
10.
Chest ; 159(5): 1731-1733, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1103098
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e048720, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225710

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, has been one of the most highly contagious and rapidly spreading virus outbreak. The pandemic not only has catastrophic impacts on physical health and economy around the world, but also the psychological well-being of individuals, communities and society. The psychological and social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic internationally have not been well described. There is a lack of international study assessing health-related impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, especially on the degree to which individuals are fearful of the pandemic. Therefore, this study aims to (1) assess the health-related impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in community-dwelling individuals around the world; (2) determine the extent various communities are fearful of COVID-19 and (3) identify perceived needs of the population to prepare for potential future pandemics. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This global study involves 30 countries. For each country, we target at least 500 subjects aged 18 years or above. The questionnaires will be available online and in local languages. The questionnaires include assessment of the health impacts of COVID-19, perceived importance of future preparation for the pandemic, fear, lifestyles, sociodemographics, COVID-19-related knowledge, e-health literacy, out-of-control scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe participants' characteristics, perceptions on the health-related impacts of COVID-19, fear, anxiety and depression, lifestyles, COVID-19 knowledge, e-health literacy and other measures. Univariable and multivariable regression models will be used to assess the associations of covariates on the outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been reviewed and approved by the local ethics committees in participating countries, where local ethics approval is needed. The results will be actively disseminated. This study aims to map an international perspective and comparison for future preparation in a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Fear , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 147(6): 576-577, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148771
13.
N Engl J Med ; 384(8): 779, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101717
14.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(3): 102917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064785

ABSTRACT

Mortality from COVID-19 has obscured a subtler crisis - the swelling ranks of COVID-19 survivors. After critical illness, patients often suffer post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses physical, cognitive, and/or mental health impairments that are often long-lasting barriers to resuming a meaningful life. Some deficits after COVID-19 critical illness will require otolaryngologic expertise for years after hospital discharge. There are roles for all subspecialties in preventing, diagnosing, or treating sequelae of COVID-19. Otolaryngologist leadership in multidisciplinary efforts ensures coordinated care. Timely tracheostomy, when indicated, may shorten the course of intensive care unit stay and thereby potentially reduce the impairments associated with PICS. Otolaryngologists can provide expertise in olfactory disorders; thrombotic sequelae of hearing loss and vertigo; and laryngotracheal injuries that impair speech, voice, swallowing, communication, and breathing. In the aftermath of severe COVID-19, otolaryngologists are poised to lead efforts in early identification and intervention for impairments affecting patients' quality of life.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness/therapy , Otolaryngologists , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/etiology , Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases/therapy , Quality of Life , Survivorship , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 164(5): 984-1000, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-788420

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In the chronic phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, questions have arisen regarding the care of patients with a tracheostomy and downstream management. This review addresses gaps in the literature regarding posttracheostomy care, emphasizing safety of multidisciplinary teams, coordinating complex care needs, and identifying and managing late complications of prolonged intubation and tracheostomy. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Google Scholar, institutional guidance documents. REVIEW METHODS: Literature through June 2020 on the care of patients with a tracheostomy was reviewed, including consensus statements, clinical practice guidelines, institutional guidance, and scientific literature on COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 virology and immunology. Where data were lacking, expert opinions were aggregated and adjudicated to arrive at consensus recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Best practices in caring for patients after a tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic are multifaceted, encompassing precautions during aerosol-generating procedures; minimizing exposure risks to health care workers, caregivers, and patients; ensuring safe, timely tracheostomy care; and identifying and managing laryngotracheal injury, such as vocal fold injury, posterior glottic stenosis, and subglottic stenosis that may affect speech, swallowing, and airway protection. We present recommended approaches to tracheostomy care, outlining modifications to conventional algorithms, raising vigilance for heightened risks of bleeding or other complications, and offering recommendations for personal protective equipment, equipment, care protocols, and personnel. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Treatment of patients with a tracheostomy in the COVID-19 pandemic requires foresight and may rival procedural considerations in tracheostomy in their complexity. By considering patient-specific factors, mitigating transmission risks, optimizing the clinical environment, and detecting late manifestations of severe COVID-19, clinicians can ensure due vigilance and quality care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Postoperative Care , Tracheostomy , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Am J Crit Care ; 29(6): e116-e127, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-769524

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critical care nurses caring for patients with a tracheostomy are at high risk because of the predilection of SARS-CoV-2 for respiratory and mucosal surfaces. This review identifies patient-centered practices that ensure safety and reduce risk of infection transmission to health care workers during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Consensus statements, guidelines, institutional recommendations, and scientific literature on COVID-19 and previous outbreaks were reviewed. A global interdisciplinary team analyzed and prioritized findings via electronic communications and video conferences to develop consensus recommendations. RESULTS: Aerosol-generating procedures are commonly performed by nurses and other health care workers, most notably during suctioning, tracheostomy tube changes, and stoma care. Patient repositioning, readjusting circuits, administering nebulized medications, and patient transport also present risks. Standard personal protective equipment includes an N95/FFP3 mask with or without surgical masks, gloves, goggles, and gown when performing aerosol-generating procedures for patients with known or suspected COVID-19. Viral testing of bronchial aspirate via tracheostomy may inform care providers when determining the protective equipment required. The need for protocols to reduce risk of transmission of infection to nurses and other health care workers is evident. CONCLUSION: Critical care nurses and multidisciplinary teams often care for patients with a tracheostomy who are known or suspected to have COVID-19. Appropriate care of these patients relies on safeguarding the health care team. The practices described in this review may greatly reduce risk of infectious transmission.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Health Personnel , Infection Control/methods , Occupational Health , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tracheostomy , Aerosols , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/nursing , Critical Care Nursing/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/nursing , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 29(3): 1320-1334, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594936

ABSTRACT

Purpose As the COVID-19 pandemic has unfolded, there has been growing recognition of risks to frontline health care workers. When caring for patients with tracheostomy, speech-language pathologists have significant exposure to mucosal surfaces, secretions, and aerosols that may harbor the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This tutorial provides guidance on practices for safely performing patient evaluation and procedures, thereby reducing risk of infection. Method Data were collated through review of literature, guidelines, and consensus statements relating to COVID-19 and similar high-consequent infections, with a focus on mitigating risk of transmission to health care workers. Particular emphasis was placed on speech-language pathologists, nurses, and other allied health professionals. A multinational interdisciplinary team then analyzed findings, arriving at recommendations through consensus via electronic communications and video conference. Results Reports of transmission of infection to health care workers in the current COVID-19 pandemic and previous outbreaks substantiate the need for safe practices. Many procedures routinely performed by speech-language pathologists have a significant risk of infection due to aerosol generation. COVID-19 testing can inform level of protective equipment, and meticulous hygiene can stem spread of nosocomial infection. Modifications to standard clinical practice in tracheostomy are often required. Personal protective equipment, including either powered air-purifying respirator or N95 mask, gloves, goggles, and gown, are needed when performing aerosol-generating procedures in patients with known or suspected COVID-19 infection. Conclusions Speech-language pathologists are often called on to assist in the care of patients with tracheostomy and known or suspected COVID-19 infection. Appropriate care of these patients is predicated on maintaining the health and safety of the health care team. Careful adherence to best practices can significantly reduce risk of infectious transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Speech-Language Pathology/standards , Tracheostomy/standards , COVID-19 , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Interdisciplinary Communication , International Cooperation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 717-725, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276408

ABSTRACT

Global health care is experiencing an unprecedented surge in the number of critically ill patients who require mechanical ventilation due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The requirement for relatively long periods of ventilation in those who survive means that many are considered for tracheostomy to free patients from ventilatory support and maximise scarce resources. COVID-19 provides unique challenges for tracheostomy care: health-care workers need to safely undertake tracheostomy procedures and manage patients afterwards, minimising risks of nosocomial transmission and compromises in the quality of care. Conflicting recommendations exist about case selection, the timing and performance of tracheostomy, and the subsequent management of patients. In response, we convened an international working group of individuals with relevant expertise in tracheostomy. We did a literature and internet search for reports of research pertaining to tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic, supplemented by sources comprising statements and guidance on tracheostomy care. By synthesising early experiences from countries that have managed a surge in patient numbers, emerging virological data, and international, multidisciplinary expert opinion, we aim to provide consensus guidelines and recommendations on the conduct and management of tracheostomy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Internationality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Tracheostomy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Critical Care/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
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