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Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528358


The COVID-19 pandemic is a highly dramatic concern for mankind. In Italy, the pandemic exerted its major impact throughout the period of February to June 2020. To date, the awkward amount of more than 131,000 deaths have been reported. Post-mortem autopsy was performed on a very modest number of patients who died from COVID-19 infection, leading to a first confirmation of an immune-thrombosis of the lungs as the major COVID-19 pathogenesis, likewise for SARS. Since then (June-August 2020), no targeted early therapy considering this pathogenetic issue was approached. The patients treated with early anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, anticoagulant, and antibiotic therapy confirmed that COVID-19 was an endothelial inflammation with immuno-thrombosis. Patients not treated or scarcely treated with the most proper and appropriate therapy and in the earliest, increased the hospitalization rate in the intensive care units and also mortality, due to immune-thrombosis from the pulmonary capillary district and alveoli. The disease causes widespread endothelial inflammation, which can induce damage to various organs and systems. Therapy must be targeted in this consideration and in this review, we demonstrate how early anti-inflammatory therapy treats endothelia inflammation and immune-thrombosis caused by COVID-19, by using drugs we are going to recommend in this paper.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol ; 129(6): 395-396, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398355
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107777, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225264


An increasing amount of reports in the literature is showing that medical ozone (O3) is used, with encouraging results, in treating COVID-19 patients, optimizing pain and symptoms relief, respiratory parameters, inflammatory and coagulation markers and the overall health status, so reducing significantly how much time patients underwent hospitalization and intensive care. To date, aside from mechanisms taking into account the ability of O3 to activate a rapid oxidative stress response, by up-regulating antioxidant and scavenging enzymes, no sound hypothesis was addressed to attempt a synopsis of how O3 should act on COVID-19. The knowledge on how O3 works on inflammation and thrombosis mechanisms is of the utmost importance to make physicians endowed with new guns against SARS-CoV2 pandemic. This review tries to address this issue, so to expand the debate in the scientific community.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Oxidants, Photochemical/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects