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1.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(8): 1066-1075, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859445

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many postmortem studies address the cardiovascular effects of COVID-19 and provide valuable information, but are limited by their small sample size. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to better understand the various aspects of the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 by pooling data from a large number of autopsy studies. DATA SOURCES: We searched the online databases Ovid EBM Reviews, Ovid Embase, Ovid Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science for concepts of autopsy or histopathology combined with COVID-19, published between database inception and February 2021. We also searched for unpublished manuscripts using the medRxiv services operated by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles were considered eligible for inclusion if they reported human postmortem cardiovascular findings among individuals with a confirmed SARS coronavirus type 2 (CoV-2) infection. PARTICIPANTS: Confirmed COVID-19 patients with post-mortem cardiovascular findings. INTERVENTIONS: None. METHODS: Studies were individually assessed for risk of selection, detection, and reporting biases. The median prevalence of different autopsy findings with associated interquartile ranges (IQRs). RESULTS: This review cohort contained 50 studies including 548 hearts. The median age of the deceased was 69 years. The most prevalent acute cardiovascular findings were myocardial necrosis (median: 100.0%; IQR, 20%-100%; number of studies = 9; number of patients = 64) and myocardial oedema (median: 55.5%; IQR, 19.5%-92.5%; number of studies = 4; number of patients = 46). The median reported prevalence of extensive, focal active, and multifocal myocarditis were all 0.0%. The most prevalent chronic changes were myocyte hypertrophy (median: 69.0%; IQR, 46.8%-92.1%) and fibrosis (median: 35.0%; IQR, 35.0%-90.5%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the myocardium with median prevalence of 60.8% (IQR 40.4-95.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review confirmed the high prevalence of acute and chronic cardiac pathologies in COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 cardiac tropism, as well as the low prevalence of myocarditis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Aged , Autopsy , Humans , Lung , Myocarditis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Mol Diagn ; 24(7): 738-749, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819546

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to circulate, multiple variants of concern have emerged. New variants pose challenges for diagnostic platforms because sequence diversity can alter primer/probe-binding sites (PBSs), causing false-negative results. The MassARRAY SARS-CoV-2 Panel (Agena Bioscience) uses RT-PCR and mass spectrometry to detect five multiplex targets across N and ORF1ab genes. Herein, we use a data set of 256 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens collected between April 11, 2021, and August 28, 2021, to evaluate target performance with paired sequencing data. During this time frame, two targets in the N gene (N2 and N3) were subject to the greatest sequence diversity. In specimens with N3 dropout, 69% harbored the Alpha-specific A28095U polymorphism that introduces a 3'-mismatch to the N3 forward PBS and increases risk of target dropout relative to specimens with 28095A (relative risk, 20.02; 95% CI, 11.36 to 35.72; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, among specimens with N2 dropout, 90% harbored the Delta-specific G28916U polymorphism that creates a 3'-mismatch to the N2 probe PBS and increases target dropout risk (relative risk, 11.92; 95% CI, 8.17 to 14.06; P < 0.0001). These findings highlight the robust capability of MassARRAY SARS-CoV-2 Panel target results to reveal circulating virus diversity, and they underscore the power of multitarget design to capture variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(8): 3988-3991, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802455

ABSTRACT

We assessed the circulation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 variants amongst vaccinated military personnel in Bogotá, Colombia to evaluate the mutations of certain variants and their potential for breakthrough infection in vaccinated subjects. We observed that in vaccinated individuals the most frequent infecting lineage was Mu (B.1.621 and B.1.621.1). The above is possibly associated with specific mutations that confer it with vaccine-induced immune escape ability. Our findings highlight the importance of how genomic tracking coupled with epidemiological surveillance can assist in the study of novel emerging variants (e.g., Omicron) and their impact on vaccination efforts worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Colombia/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 863911, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793007

ABSTRACT

Background: The third wave of the global health crisis attributed to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus reached Colombia in March 2021. Over the following 6 months, it was interpolated by manifestations of popular disapproval to the actual political regime-with multiple protests sprouting throughout the country. Large social gatherings seeded novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) variants in big cities and propagated their facile spread, leading to increased rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Methods: In this article, we evaluate the effective reproduction number (Rt) dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in Cali, Colombia, between 4 April 2021 and 31 July 2021 based on the analysis of 228 genomes. Results: Our results showed clear contrast in Rt values between the period of frequent protests (Rt > 1), and the preceding and following months (Rt < 1). Genomic analyses revealed 16 circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages during the initial period-including variants of concern (VOCs) (Alpha, Gamma, and Delta) and variants of interest (VOIs) (Lambda and Mu). Furthermore, we noticed the Mu variant dominating the COVID-19 distribution schema as the months progressed. We identified four principal clusters through phylogenomic analyses-each one of potentially independent introduction to the city. Two of these were associated with the Mu variant, one associated with the Gamma variant, and one with the Lambda variant. Conclusion: Our results chronicle the impact of large group assemblies on the epidemiology of COVID-19 during this intersection of political turmoil and sanitary crisis in Cali, Colombia. We emphasize upon the effects of limited biosecurity strategies (which had characterized this time period), on the spread of highly virulent strains throughout Cali and greater Colombia.

5.
J Med Virol ; 94(7): 2911-2914, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756616

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still challenging public health systems worldwide, particularly with the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations that increase their transmissibility and immune escape. This is the case of the variant of concern Omicron that rapidly spread globally. Here, using epidemiological and genomic data we compared the situations in South Africa as the epicenter of emergence, United Kingdom, and with particular interest New York City. This rapid global dispersal from the place of first report reemphasizes the high transmissibility of Omicron, which needed only two weeks to become dominant in the United Kingdom and New York City. Our analyses suggest that as SARS-CoV-2 continues to evolve, global authorities must prioritize equity in vaccine access and continued genomic surveillance. Future studies are still needed to fully unveil the biological properties of Omicron, but what is certain is that vaccination, large-scale testing, and infection prevention efforts are the greatest arsenal against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1606-1616, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718406

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sparked the rapid development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostics. However, emerging variants pose the risk for target dropout and false-negative results secondary to primer/probe binding site (PBS) mismatches. The Agena MassARRAY® SARS-CoV-2 Panel combines reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry to probe for five targets across N and ORF1ab genes, which provides a robust platform to accommodate PBS mismatches in divergent viruses. Herein, we utilize a deidentified data set of 1262 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens from Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) from December 2020 to April 2021 to evaluate target results and corresponding sequencing data. Overall, the level of PBS mismatches was greater in specimens with target dropout. Of specimens with N3 target dropout, 57% harbored an A28095T substitution that is highly specific for the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant of concern. These data highlight the benefit of redundancy in target design and the potential for target performance to illuminate the dynamics of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
7.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718386

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has particularly affected countries with weakened health services in Latin America, where proper patient management could be a critical step to address the epidemic. In this study, we aimed to characterize and identify which epidemiological, clinical, and paraclinical risk factors defined COVID-19 infection from the first confirmed cases through the first epidemic wave in Venezuela. A retrospective analysis of consecutive suspected cases of COVID-19 admitted to a sentinel hospital was carried out, including 576 patient cases subsequently confirmed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Of these, 162 (28.1%) patients met the definition criteria for severe/critical disease, and 414 (71.2%) were classified as mild/moderate disease. The mean age was 47 (SD 16) years, the majority of which were men (59.5%), and the most frequent comorbidity was arterial hypertension (23.3%). The most common symptoms included fever (88.7%), headache (65.6%), and dry cough (63.9%). Severe/critical disease affected mostly older males with low schooling (p < 0.001). Similarly, higher levels of glycemia, urea, aminotransferases, total bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were observed in severe/critical disease patients compared to those with mild/moderate disease. Overall mortality was 7.6% (44/576), with 41.7% (28/68) dying in hospital. We identified risk factors related to COVID-19 infection, which could help healthcare providers take appropriate measures and prevent severe clinical outcomes. Our results suggest that the mortality registered by this disease in Venezuela during the first epidemic wave was underestimated. An increase in fatalities is expected to occur in the coming months unless measures that are more effective are implemented to mitigate the epidemic while the vaccination process is ongoing.

8.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718383

ABSTRACT

Numerous reports of neuropsychiatric symptoms highlighted the pathologic potential of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its relationship the onset and/or exacerbation of mental disease. However, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatments, themselves, must be considered as potential catalysts for new-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms in COVID-19 patients. To date, immediate and long-term neuropsychiatric complications following SARS-CoV-2 infection are currently unknown. Here we report on five patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection with possible associated neuropsychiatric involvement, following them clinically until resolution of their symptoms. We will also discuss the contributory roles of chloroquine and dexamethasone in these neuropsychiatric presentations.

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2471-2478, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694693

ABSTRACT

Saliva is a promising specimen for the detection of viruses that cause upper respiratory infections including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) due to its cost-effectiveness and noninvasive collection. However, together with intrinsic enzymes and oral microbiota, children's unique dietary habits may introduce substances that interfere with diagnostic testing. To determine whether children's dietary choices impact SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection in saliva, we performed a diagnostic study that simulates testing of real-life specimens provided from healthy children (n = 5) who self-collected saliva at home before and at 0, 20, and 60 min after eating 20 foods they selected. Each of 72 specimens was split into two volumes and spiked with SARS-CoV-2-negative or SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical standards before side-by-side testing by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF) assay. Detection of internal extraction control and SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acids was reduced in replicates of saliva collected at 0 min after eating 11 of 20 foods. Interference resolved at 20 and 60 min after eating all foods except hot dogs in one participant. This represented a significant improvement in the detection of nucleic acids compared to saliva collected at 0 min after eating (p = 0.0005). We demonstrate successful detection of viral nucleic acids in saliva self-collected by children before and after eating a variety of foods. Fasting is not required before saliva collection for SARS-CoV-2 testing by RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF, but waiting for 20 min after eating is sufficient for accurate testing. These findings should be considered for SARS-CoV-2 testing and broader viral diagnostics in saliva specimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nucleic Acids , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA, Viral/analysis , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Specimen Handling
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1606-1616, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1589045

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has sparked the rapid development of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnostics. However, emerging variants pose the risk for target dropout and false-negative results secondary to primer/probe binding site (PBS) mismatches. The Agena MassARRAY® SARS-CoV-2 Panel combines reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass-spectrometry to probe for five targets across N and ORF1ab genes, which provides a robust platform to accommodate PBS mismatches in divergent viruses. Herein, we utilize a deidentified data set of 1262 SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens from Mount Sinai Health System (New York City) from December 2020 to April 2021 to evaluate target results and corresponding sequencing data. Overall, the level of PBS mismatches was greater in specimens with target dropout. Of specimens with N3 target dropout, 57% harbored an A28095T substitution that is highly specific for the Alpha (B.1.1.7) variant of concern. These data highlight the benefit of redundancy in target design and the potential for target performance to illuminate the dynamics of circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , New York City/epidemiology , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Polyproteins/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526811

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid proliferation of Coronavirus Disease-2019, throughout the past year, has put an unprecedented strain on the global schema of health infrastructure and health economy. The time-sensitive agenda of identifying the virus in humans and delivering a vaccine to the public constituted an effort to flatten the statistical curve of viral spread as it grew exponentially. At the forefront of this effort was an exigency of developing rapid and accurate diagnostic strategies. These have emerged in various forms over the past year-each with strengths and weaknesses. To date, they fall into three categories: (1) those isolating and replicating viral RNA in patient samples from the respiratory tract (Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests; NAATs), (2) those detecting the presence of viral proteins (Rapid Antigen Tests; RATs) and serology-based exams identifying antibodies to the virus in whole blood and serum. The latter vary in their detection of immunoglobulins of known prevalence in early-stage and late-stage infection. With this review, we delineate the categories of testing measures developed to date, analyze the efficacy of collecting patient specimens from diverse regions of the respiratory tract, and present the up and coming technologies which have made pathogen identification easier and more accessible to the public.

13.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5481-5486, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363685

ABSTRACT

As severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections continue, there is a substantial need for cost-effective and large-scale testing that utilizes specimens that can be readily collected from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in various community settings. Although multiple diagnostic methods utilize nasopharyngeal specimens, saliva specimens represent an attractive alternative as they can rapidly and safely be collected from different populations. While saliva has been described as an acceptable clinical matrix for the detection of SARS-CoV-2, evaluations of analytic performance across platforms for this specimen type are limited. Here, we used a novel sensitive RT-PCR/MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based assay (Agena MassARRAY®) to detect SARS-CoV-2 in saliva specimens. The platform demonstrated high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when compared to matched patient upper respiratory specimens. We also evaluated the analytical sensitivity of the platform and determined the limit of detection of the assay to be 1562.5 copies/ml. Furthermore, across the five individual target components of this assay, there was a range in analytic sensitivities for each target with the N2 target being the most sensitive. Overall, this system also demonstrated comparable performance when compared to the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva by the cobas® 6800/8800 SARS-CoV-2 real-time RT-PCR Test (Roche). Together, we demonstrate that saliva represents an appropriate matrix for SARS-CoV-2 detection on the novel Agena system as well as on a conventional real-time RT-PCR assay. We conclude that the MassARRAY® system is a sensitive and reliable platform for SARS-CoV-2 detection in saliva, offering scalable throughput in a large variety of clinical laboratory settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/standards , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/standards , Benchmarking , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/instrumentation , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Specimen Handling/standards , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/instrumentation , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization/methods
14.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335264

ABSTRACT

Current efforts to understand the epidemiology, transmission dynamics and emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants worldwide has enabled the scientific community to generate critical information aimed at implementing disease surveillance and control measures, as well as to reduce the social, economic and health impact of the pandemic. Herein, we applied an epidemic model coupled with genomic analysis to assess the SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics in Colombia. This epidemic model allowed to identify the geographical distribution, Rt dynamics and predict the course of the pandemic considering current implementation of countermeasures. The analysis of the incidence rate per 100,000 inhabitants carried out across different regions of Colombia allowed visualizing the changes in the geographic distribution of cases. The cumulative incidence during the timeframe March 2020 to March 2021 revealed that Bogotá (8063.0), Quindío (5482.71), Amazonas (5055.68), Antioquia (4922.35) and Tolima (4724.41) were the departments with the highest incidence rate. The highest median Rt during the first period evaluated was 2.13 and 1.09 in the second period; with this model, we identified improving opportunities in health decision making related to controlling the pandemic, diagnostic testing capacity, case registration and reporting, among others. Genomic analysis revealed 52 circulating SARS-CoV-2 lineages in Colombia detected from 774 genomes sequenced throughout the first year of the pandemic. The genomes grouped into four main clusters and exhibited 19 polymorphisms. Our results provide essential information on the spread of the pandemic countrywide despite implementation of early containment measures. In addition, we aim to provide deeper phylogenetic insights to better understand the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 in light of the latent emergence of novel variants and how these may potentially influence transmissibility and infectivity.

15.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335257

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal infection most commonly observed in immunocompromised patients. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, a growing number of Mucorales associated infections, now termed COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM), have been reported. Despite an increase in fatality reports, no cases of rhino-orbital CAM complicated with gangrenous bone necrosis have been described in the literature to date. CASE: A 56-year-old male with a recent COVID-19 diagnosis developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis after 22 days of treatment with dexamethasone. Cultures and histopathological assessment of tissue biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient survived after treatment with amphotericin B. CONCLUSIONS: Mucormycosis is an invasive fungal infection affecting mostly immunocompromised patients. Along with the COVID-19 pandemic, the inappropriate use of steroids, in addition to concurrent risk factors, such as diabetes, has led to an increase in the occurrence of these devastating mycoses, leading to the development of severe presentations and complications, as observed in many cases. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are crucial in order to avoid dissemination and fatal outcomes.

16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 410-416, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330878

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the genomic epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 from Venezuelan migrants living in Colombia. METHODS: This study sequenced SARS-CoV-2 from 30 clinical specimens collected from Venezuelan migrants. Genomes were compared with the Wuhan reference genome to identify polymorphisms, reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and perform comparative genomic analyses. Geographic, sociodemographic and clinical data were also studied across genotypes. RESULTS: This study demonstrated the presence of six distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating among Venezuelan migrants, as well as a close relationship between SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequences obtained from individuals living in the Venezuelan-Colombian border regions of La Guajira (Colombia) and Zulia (Venezuela). Three clusters (C-1, C-2 and C-3) were well supported by phylogenomic inference, supporting the hypothesis of three potential transmission routes across the Colombian-Venezuelan border. These genomes included point mutations previously associated with increased infectivity. A mutation (L18F) in the N-terminal domain of the spike protein that has been associated with compromised binding of neutralizing antibodies was found in 2 of 30 (6.6%) genomes. A statistically significant association was identified with symptomatology for cluster C2. CONCLUSION: The close phylogenetic relationships between SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Venezuelan migrants and from people living at the Venezuela-Colombian border support the importance of human movements for the spread of COVID-19 and for emerging virus variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Colombia/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3463, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261999

ABSTRACT

Numerous reports document the spread of SARS-CoV-2, but there is limited information on its introduction before the identification of a local case. This may lead to incorrect assumptions when modeling viral origins and transmission. Here, we utilize a sample pooling strategy to screen for previously undetected SARS-CoV-2 in de-identified, respiratory pathogen-negative nasopharyngeal specimens from 3,040 patients across the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. The patients had been previously evaluated for respiratory symptoms or influenza-like illness during the first 10 weeks of 2020. We identify SARS-CoV-2 RNA from specimens collected as early as 25 January 2020, and complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences from multiple pools of samples collected between late February and early March, documenting an increase prior to the later surge. Our results provide evidence of sporadic SARS-CoV-2 infections a full month before both the first officially documented case and emergence of New York as a COVID-19 epicenter in March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , New York/epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
18.
J Infect Dis ; 223(11): 1842-1854, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients manifest with pulmonary symptoms reflected by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), excessive inflammation, and thromboembolism. The mechanisms mediating these processes remain unclear. METHODS: We performed multicolor staining for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins and lineage markers to define viral tropism and lung pathobiology in 5 autopsy cases. RESULTS: Lung parenchyma showed severe DAD with thromboemboli. Viral infection was found in an extensive range of cells including pneumocyte type II, ciliated, goblet, club-like, and endothelial cells. More than 90% of infiltrating immune cells were positive for viral proteins including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells, B cells, and T cells. Most but not all infected cells were angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) positive. The numbers of infected and ACE2-positive cells are associated with extensive tissue damage. Infected tissues exhibited high levels of inflammatory cells including macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, and NK cells, and low levels of B cells but abundant T cells consisting of mainly T helper cells, few cytotoxic T cells, and no regulatory T cells. Robust interleukin-6 expression was present in most cells, with or without infection. CONCLUSIONS: In fatal COVID-19 lungs, there are broad SARS-CoV-2 cell tropisms, extensive infiltrated innate immune cells, and activation and depletion of adaptive immune cells, contributing to severe tissue damage, thromboemboli, excess inflammation, and compromised immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Tropism , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lung/cytology , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Alveoli/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/virology , Viral Tropism/immunology
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