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1.
World's Veterinary Journal ; 11(2):170-180, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1312132

ABSTRACT

Bats are a group of mammals that harbor the most significant number of coronaviruses. The aim of present review article was to analyze the broad spectrum of the coronavirus coexisting in Chiropterans hosts. Bats have certain types of cell receptors that allow them to be the potential hosts of a large number of viruses without the presence of any clinical manifestations, and to be a source of contagion infections for other animals and human species. Emphasis can be placed on five coronaviruses, such as Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Disease, Severe Acute Diarrhea Syndrome, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome 2, which have had significant impacts causing epidemic outbreaks in different parts of the world, and generating implications for both human and animal health. In conclusion, recent research indicated the importance of bats as potential hosts of multiple coroaviruses leading to some zoonotic diseases.

3.
Infez Med ; 29(2):181-190, 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1248641

ABSTRACT

In recent years, and now especially with the arrival of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), there has been increased interest in understanding the role of bats in the dynamics of transmission and origin of this pandemic agent. To date, no systematic reviews have been published on this topic. This systematic review aimed to summarize and highlight the frequency of bat infections reported in currently available observational studies for coronavirus. The purpose of this study was also to examine the differences between the pool prevalence by technique and country. We performed a systematic literature review with meta-analysis, using three databases to assess coronavirus (CoV) infection in bats and its diagnosis by serological and molecular tests. We carried out random-effects model meta-analysis to calculate the pooled prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). In all, 824 articles were retrieved (1960-2021). After screening by abstract/title, 43 articles were selected for full-text assessment. Of these, 33 were finally included for qualitative and quantitative analyses. From the total of studies, the pool prevalence by RT-PCR (n=14,295 bats) for CoV was 9.8% (95% CI 8.7-10.9%);Italy reported the highest pooled prevalence (44.9%, 95% CI 31.6-58.1%), followed by the Philippines (29.6%). Regarding the ELISA, the pool prevalence for coronavirus from 15 studies, including 359 bats, was 30.2% (95% CI 14.7-45.6%). The results for coronaviruses with the MIF were significantly lower, 2.6% (95% CI 1.5-3.7%). A considerable proportion of infected bats tested positive, particularly by molecular tests. This essential condition highlights the relevance of bats and the need for future studies to detail their role as potential reservoirs of SARS-CoV-2. In this meta-analysis, bats were positive in almost 10% by RT-PCR, suggesting their relevance and the need to understand their potential participation in maintaining wild zoonotic transmission.

4.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S277-S278, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185785

ABSTRACT

Background: Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs) of nasopharyngeal specimens (NPS) have become standard for diagnosis of SARS-COV2. IDSA guidelines suggest repeat testing after 24-48 h when initially negative and clinical suspicion persists. We characterized patients from whom initial NPS were NAAT-negative, but repeats were NAAT-positive, in order to identify which patients might benefit from repeat NAAT for SARS-CoV-2, and the appropriate interval. Methods: We conducted an IRB-approved retrospective review of laboratory and electronic medical record data for all patients evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection at the Mount Sinai Health System, whose initial NAATs were done between March 16 - March 30, 2020, and who were retested within one month. NAATs were performed on NPS in viral transport medium using the Roche Diagnostics cobas® 6800 SARS-CoV-2 Test. Baseline patient characteristics, clinical and radiographic findings were identified. Results: Of 235 patients eligible for inclusion, 172 (70.5%) were initially NAAT-negative, and 118 (68.6%) remained NAAT-negative over 1 month follow up. 54 (31.4%) converted to NAAT-positive over the next 1-month. Of patients who became NAAT-positive, 31 (57.4%) were inpatients who converted results within a single admission;the average interval was 6d 7h between the NAAT-negative and NAAT-positive results, and the minimum interval was 10.5 h. Symptoms examined for correlation for conversion to NAAT-positive were: fever, cough, shortness of breath, and combined nausea/vomiting/diarrhea. Duration of symptoms reported at triage did not appear to affect time to conversion to NAAT-positive. No individual symptom was more likely to be associated with conversion to NAAT- positive. However, time to conversion to NAAT-positive was shorter for patients with multiple symptoms. In general, chest radiography (CXR) findings correlated with NAAT results;interval to NAAT-positive was shorter for patients with worsening CXR findings. Conclusion: Our data supports repeat testing in patients with multiple clinical symptoms suggestive of SARS CoV-2 infection and negative initial NP test results. Further studies are needed to determine the true clinical sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 NAAT assays.

5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S268, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185766

ABSTRACT

Background: MIS-C is a multi-system inflammatory syndrome which has been described in pediatric patients after COVID-19 since late April. Our objective is to describe the short-term outcomes of the first 15 cases with MIS-C, who presented for care to a tertiary pediatric referral center. Methods: This is a retrospective chart review of patients who met MIS-C criteria based on the New York State Department of Health case definition and who were admitted to the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, between April 24 and May 14, 2020. We collected clinical and laboratory data during their hospital admission and subsequent outpatient follow up. Results: The range of the length of hospital stay was 6-13 days (mean=7 days). One patient expired on day 9 of hospitalization. At the time of discharge, all patients had normalization of inflammatory markers. All patients were discharged on anticoagulation therapy for 14 days. One patient was readmitted with a subdural hematoma at day 13 post discharge and 3 patients had bruising at their follow up visit 7-12 days after hospital discharge. All patients had normalization of cardiac enzymes prior to hospital discharge. Abnormalities in coronary arteries and cardiac function which were observed during hospitalizations in 4 (27%) and 8 (53%) patients respectively, had resolved by day 6-35 post discharge (mean=20 days). Conclusion: Although patients with MIS-C can present with severe multi-organ involvement and shock, the majority of the patients in our experience had resolution of symptoms and normalization of laboratory parameters within a few weeks of initial symptoms. Our findings underscore the need to carefully weigh the risk and benefits of anticoagulation therapy and to monitor this treatment closely. Further research is needed to determine long-term outcomes of these patients.

6.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 28(4):475-485, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-970405

ABSTRACT

While the world is focused on attending, controlling, and mitigating the current pandemic of COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2, other viral threats are possibly emerging and reemerging especially in Asia, posing a risk for the spread in that region and beyond. A predictable threat is the avian influenza virus, especially H5N6, which has recently led to significant outbreaks in China and the Philippines, deserving more attention and control. In the current review, we assess the history of this highly pathogenic reemerging virus, as well as the contemporary implications of poultry outbreaks occurring in some Asian countries. We also look at outbreaks due to other strains not only in Asia but also across Europe and Africa, according to recent reports from the World Organization of Animal Health (OIE).

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