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1.
Echocardiography ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968088

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myocardial strain assessed with speckle tracking echocardiography is a sensitive marker of cardiac dysfunction. Both left-ventricular global longitudinal strain (LV-GLS) and right ventricular longitudinal strain (RV-LS) were affected by severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data about cardiac involvement in patients with asymptomatic/mild Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is still lacking. AIM: To evaluate myocardial function using LV-GLS and RV-LS in patients with previous asymptomatic/mild COVID-19. METHODS: Forty young adults without previously known comorbidities/cardiovascular risk factors and with a confirmed diagnosis of asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were retrospectively included. A 2D-transthoracic echocardiogram with speckle tracking analysis was performed at least 3 months after the diagnosis. Forty healthy subjects, matched for age, sex, and body surface area in a 1:1 ratio were used as the control group. RESULTS: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and RV-LS were comparable between the two groups. LV-GLS was significantly lower in the cases compared to the control group (-22.7 ± 1.6% vs. -25.7 ± 2.3%; p < .001). Moreover, the prevalence of regional peak systolic strain below -16% in at least two segments was three times higher in patients with previous COVID-19 compared to controls (30% vs. 10%, p = .02). In multivariable logistic regression, previous COVID-19 infection was independently associated with reduced LV-GLS values (p < .001). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in 30% of young adult patients despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. Speckle-tracking echocardiography could help early identification of patients with subclinical cardiac involvement, with potential repercussions on risk stratification and management.

2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316455

ABSTRACT

Background: . The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons have been equal to that of symptomatic patients, suggesting a similar risk for endothelial dysfunction and increased coagulation in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. To date, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. We evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial lush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. Methods: . This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. Results: . Thrombus dimensions were significantly higher in ASAP patients as compared to SANE patients. Interestingly, 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients also had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. In ASAP STEMI patients (n=46), thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p<0.005). MBG and left ventricular function were significantly lower in ASAP STEMI patients (p<0.001). Multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Conclusions: . In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.

3.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602072

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with potential side effects, particularly following second vaccine dose. Recent case series have reported a potential association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and acute myocarditis, predominantly in young males. We hereby describe a previously healthy 17-year-old man, with no past cardiac history, who presented to the emergency department with persistent chest pain and fever (up to 38 °C). The patient had received the first dose of Cominarty (BioNTech/Pfizer) vaccine 10 days before symptom onset and reported flu-like symptoms and conjunctivitis involving both eyes one week before administration of the first vaccine dose. On that occasion, no COVID test was performed and the patient was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotic eye drops. On admission, laboratory tests were performed (Troponin-I Δ 19 500–23 270 ng/l. CRP 23 mg/dl, ESR 43 s, WBC 17 570 cell/mm3) as well as COVID-19 PCR, Serological tests and Autoimmune disorders panel all resulting negative. CT coronary angiogram did not reveal any spontaneous coronary artery dissection or anomalous origin of coronary arteries and Calcium Score was 0. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a depressed LVEF (36%) with concomitant posterior and inferior wall as well as posterior and anterior basal interventricular septum hypokinesia. Endomyocardial biopsy revealed multifocal lymphocytic myocarditis with sub-endomyocardial and interstitial fibrosis. CMR was also performed (1-week after presentation) demonstrating mildly depressed systolic function (LVEF 47%), with hypokinesia of the posterior and inferior wall, increased signal intensity on T2 maps (58 ms, n.v. <55 ms), prolonged native T1 values (1083 ms, n.v. <1030 ms) as well as subepicardial and intramyocardial LGE enhancement of infero-lateral segments reflecting intercellular fibrosis. Thereafter, the patient was discharged with medical therapy including ACE-inhibitor, colchicine, and ibuprofen. Given the close proximity between SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration and the absence of other predisposing conditions, the aetiology of myocarditis was attributed to the vaccine. In addition, as the patient suffered from flu-like symptoms and conjunctivitis 1 week before the vaccine, a previous paucisymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was suspected and anti-SARS-Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein antibody test revealed high antibody levels with low IgG avidity. Given that myocarditic symptoms evolved after complete Sars-Cov2 symptom resolution, our first hypothesis is that the infection is unlikely to be the cause of acute myocarditis in this patient. Indeed, current literature on COVID-related myocarditis reports close temporal association between respiratory symptoms and myocarditis onset. In support to our hypothesis, recent trials have reported that myocarditis more frequently occurs following administration of mRNA vaccines especially in male adolescents and young adults like our patient. However, cardiac side effects typically occur after full vaccination and symptoms appear within three days following the second dose, which does not fully apply to this case. Notwithstanding this, more recent studies have reported myocarditis even after first vaccination dose in patients with previous COVID-19 infection, analogously to the case described. This case suggests a complex interaction between immunological factors and covid infection/vaccination with potential significant implications on the cardiovascular system. From current literature, much uncertainty remains regarding time interval criteria for reliable post-vaccination myocarditis diagnosis, hence large-scale clinical trials are needed to address this issue.

4.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(3): e12852, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526344
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 217, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The viral load of asymptomatic SAR-COV-2 positive (ASAP) persons has been equal to that of symptomatic patients. On the other hand, there are no reports of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) outcomes in ASAP patients. Therefore, we evaluated thrombus burden and thrombus viral load and their impact on microvascular bed perfusion in the infarct area (myocardial blush grade, MBG) in ASAP compared to SARS-COV-2 negative (SANE) STEMI patients. METHODS: This was an observational study of 46 ASAP, and 130 SANE patients admitted with confirmed STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and thrombus aspiration. The primary endpoints were thrombus dimension + thrombus viral load effects on MBG after PPCI. The secondary endpoints during hospitalization were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). MACEs are defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal acute AMI, and heart failure during hospitalization. RESULTS: In the study population, ASAP vs. SANE showed a significant greater use of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors and of heparin (p < 0.05), and a higher thrombus grade 5 and thrombus dimensions (p < 0.05). Interestingly, ASAP vs. SANE patients had lower MBG and left ventricular function (p < 0.001), and 39 (84.9%) of ASAP patients had thrombus specimens positive for SARS-COV-2. After PPCI, a MBG 2-3 was present in only 26.1% of ASAP vs. 97.7% of SANE STEMI patients (p < 0.001). Notably, death and nonfatal AMI were higher in ASAP vs. SANE patients (p < 0.05). Finally, in ASAP STEMI patients the thrombus viral load was a significant determinant of thrombus dimension independently of risk factors (p < 0.005). Thus, multiple logistic regression analyses evidenced that thrombus SARS-CoV-2 infection and dimension were significant predictors of poorer MBG in STEMI patients. Intriguingly, in ASAP patients the female vs. male had higher thrombus viral load (15.53 ± 4.5 vs. 30.25 ± 5.51 CT; p < 0.001), and thrombus dimension (4.62 ± 0.44 vs 4.00 ± 1.28 mm2; p < 0.001). ASAP vs. SANE patients had a significantly lower in-hospital survival for MACE following PPCI (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In ASAP patients presenting with STEMI, there is strong evidence towards higher thrombus viral load, dimension, and poorer MBG. These data support the need to reconsider ASAP status as a risk factor that may worsen STEMI outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/virology , Heart/physiopathology , Microcirculation/physiology , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Coronary Angiography/methods , Coronary Thrombosis/epidemiology , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology
6.
Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol ; 26(3): e12815, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054505

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence of cardiac injury in COVID-19. Our purpose was to assess the prognostic value of serial electrocardiograms in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We evaluated 269 consecutive patients admitted to our center with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. ECGs available at admission and after 1 week from hospitalization were assessed. We evaluated the correlation between ECGs findings and major adverse events (MAE) as the composite of intra-hospital all-cause mortality or need for invasive mechanical ventilation. Abnormal ECGs were defined if primary ST-T segment alterations, left ventricular hypertrophy, tachy or bradyarrhythmias and any new AV, bundle blocks or significant morphology alterations (e.g., new Q pathological waves) were present. RESULTS: Abnormal ECG at admission (106/216) and elevated baseline troponin values were more common in patients who developed MAE (p = .04 and p = .02, respectively). Concerning ECGs recorded after 7 days (159), abnormal findings were reported in 53.5% of patients and they were more frequent in those with MAE (p = .001). Among abnormal ECGs, ischemic alterations and left ventricular hypertrophy were significantly associated with a higher MAE rate. The multivariable analysis showed that the presence of abnormal ECG at 7 days of hospitalization was an independent predictor of MAE (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.7; p = .02). Furthermore, patients with abnormal ECG at 7 days more often required transfer to the intensive care unit (p = .01) or renal replacement therapy (p = .04). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 should receive ECG at admission but also during their hospital stay. Indeed, electrocardiographic alterations during hospitalization are associated with MAE and infection severity.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Aged , Causality , Comorbidity , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 1124, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heparin administration in COVID-19 patients is recommended by expert consensus, although evidence about dosage, duration and efficacy are limited. We aim to investigate the association between different dosages of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and mortality among COVID-19 hospitalized patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective study of 450 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to Sant'Orsola Bologna Hospital from March 01 to April 10, 2020. Clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected and analyzed. The in-hospital mortality between COVID-19 patients treated with standard prophylactic LMWH dosage vs. intermediate LMWH dosage was compared. Out of 450 patients, 361 received standard deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis enoxaparin treatment (40-60mg daily) and 89 patients received intermediate enoxaparin dosage (40-60 mg twice daily) for 7 days. No significant differences in the main demographic characteristics and laboratory testings at admission were observed in the two heparin regimen subgroups, except for older age and prevalence of hypertension in the group treated with "standard" prophylaxis LMWH dosage. The intermediate LMWH administration was associated with a lower in-hospital all-cause mortality compared to the "standard" prophylactic LMWH dosage (18.8% vs. 5.8%, p = 0.02). This difference remained significant after adjustment with the propensity score for variables that differed significantly between the dosage groups (OR= 0.260, 95% CI 0.089-0.758, p=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Intermediate LMWH dosage seems to be associated with lower incidence of mortality compared to standard DVT prophylaxys in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Our study paves the way to further pathophysiological investigations and controlled studies of anticoagulation therapy in Covid-19 disease.

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