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Rheumatol Adv Pract ; 5(2): rkab043, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381038


OBJECTIVES: The systemic autoinflammatory diseases are rare conditions; to date, data on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and vaccination safety are scarce. Agents targeting innate immune pathways have transformed the management of affected patients, and their outcomes are of wider interest given the role of inflammation in both viral clearance and severe COVID-19 disease. We surveyed patients with systemic autoinflammatory disease on biologic therapy to determine the prevalence and outcomes of COVID-19 infection and to gather early safety data on vaccination. METHODS: Electronic medical records of 248 patients with systemic autoinflammatory disease on biologic therapy at a national centre were reviewed. Patients were then surveyed in clinic or using a Web-based survey. RESULTS: In the cohort of 248 patients, no deaths were recorded. One hundred and seventy-five survey responses were received. Among the respondents, 27 reported suspected COVID-19 infection, of which 14 were confirmed by testing (8.0%). Two patients required hospital admission owing to dehydration. No patient required respiratory support or intensive care. One hundred and thirty-eight doses of COVID-19 vaccine had been administered to 130 patients. Side effects were reported after 71 of 138 (51.4%) administrations and were consistent with a flare of the underlying disease in 26 of 138 (18.8%) instances. No serious adverse events or hospital admissions were reported after vaccination. CONCLUSION: These data, including the largest published series of patients on anti-IL-1/6 biologics to receive any adenoviral vector or messenger RNA vaccine, show no serious early concerns regarding vaccination and will provide an urgently needed resource to inform decision-making of these patients and their clinicians.

Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(2): 911-917, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944404


OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were (i) to describe the clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally related to Sars-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) in children; (ii) to propose a framework to guide multidisciplinary team (MDT) management; and (iii) to highlight the role of the paediatric rheumatologist in this context. METHODS: This study involved a retrospective case notes review of patients referred to a single specialist paediatric centre with suspected PIMS-TS, with a focus on clinical presentation, laboratory parameters, treatment, and outcome in the context of an MDT framework. RESULTS: Nineteen children of median age 9.1 years fulfilled the definition of PIMS-TS and were managed within an MDT framework: 5/19 were female; 14/19 were of Black, Asian or minority ethnicity; 9/19 also fulfilled diagnostic criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD). Severe systemic inflammation, shock, and abdominal pain were ubiquitous. Treatment was stratified within an MDT framework and included CSs in all; i.v. immunoglobulin in all; anakinra in 4/19; infliximab in 1/19; and antiviral (aciclovir) in 4/19. CONCLUSIONS: We observed significant diagnostic equipoise using a current definition of PIMS-TS, overlapping with KD. Outside of clinical trials, an MDT approach is vital. The role of the paediatric rheumatologist is to consider differential diagnoses of hyperinflammation in the young, to advise on empiric immunomodulatory therapy, to set realistic therapeutic targets, to gauge therapeutic success, to oversee timely step-down of immunomodulation, and to contribute to the longer-term MDT follow-up of any late inflammatory sequelae.

Abdominal Pain/therapy , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Shock/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Male , Patient Care Team , Physician's Role , Retrospective Studies , Rheumatologists , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Shock/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , United Kingdom