Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
Add filters

Language
Year range
1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307685

ABSTRACT

Importance: Clinical severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection seems to be lower in children compared to that in adults. Defining the pathophysiological mechanisms of such disease patterns maybe relevant for development of effective public health strategies. It has been hypothesised that the lower severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children could be due to the differential expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), which serves as a virus receptor.Objective: To evaluate the expression of ACE2, ACE1, and TMPRSS2 genes at the level of the two most relevant entry sites for SARS-CoV-2, the upper respiratory tract and small intestine, in healthy children and adult subjects.Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective study included healthy individuals of both sexes, aged 1-10 years in the paediatric population (n=30) and 20-80 years in the adult population (n=30). The participants were consecutively evaluated at two tertiary centres for paediatrics, gastroenterology, and otolaryngology.Main Measures: Expression of ACE2, ACE1, and TMPRSS2 genes in samples collected from the upper respiratory tract and small intestine.Results: We found no difference in ACE2, ACE1, and TMPRSS2 expression in the nasal epithelium between children and adult subjects. ACE2 expression was more abundant in the small intestine of children compared to that in adults. ACE1 expression was higher in the small intestine of adults compared to that in children. Intestinal TMPRSS2 expression was similar in the two study populations.Conclusions and Relevance: The general lower severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children does not seem to be related to a lower expression of ACE2 and/or TMPRSS2 in the respiratory tract or in the gastrointestinal tract. Other co-factors may confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 in children. The exploration of such factors is of pivotal importance for development of innovative protective strategies against SARS-CoV-2.Funding Statement: This work was supported in part by a grant of Regione Campania POR FESR 2014/2020, Task Force Covid-19 DGR 140 – 17 March 2020.Declaration of Interests: The authors have no other conflict of interests that are directly relevant to the content of this manuscript, which remains their sole responsibility.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University Federico II of Naples, Italy. Written informed consent was obtained from the adult participants and from the parents/tutors of minors.

2.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674736

ABSTRACT

Butyrate is a major gut microbiome metabolite that regulates several defense mechanisms against infectious diseases. Alterations in the gut microbiome, leading to reduced butyrate production, have been reported in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A new butyrate releaser, useful for all the known applications of butyrate, presenting physiochemical characteristics suitable for easy oral administration, (N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA), has been recently developed. We investigated the protective action of FBA against SARS-CoV-2 infection in the human small intestine and enterocytes. Relevant aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed: infectivity, host functional receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), neuropilin-1 (NRP1), pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, genes involved in the antiviral response and the activation of Nf-kB nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like) 2 (Nfr2) pathways. We found that FBA positively modulates the crucial aspects of the infection in small intestinal biopsies and human enterocytes, reducing the expression of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and NRP1, pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-15, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α, and regulating several genes involved in antiviral pathways. FBA was also able to reduce the number of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, and ACE2, TMPRSS2 and NRP1 expression. Lastly, through the inhibition of Nf-kB and the up-regulation of Nfr2, it was also able to reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-15, MCP-1 and TNF-α in human enterocytes. The new butyrate releaser, FBA, exerts a preventive action against SARS-CoV-2 infection. It could be considered as an innovative strategy to limit COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Butyrates/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Butyrates/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Enterocytes/drug effects , Enterocytes/metabolism , Gene Expression/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/genetics , Humans , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/metabolism , Male , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
J Funct Foods ; 87: 104787, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607061

ABSTRACT

Fermented foods have been proposed in limiting SARS-CoV-2 infection. Emerging evidence suggest the efficacy of cow's milk fermented with the probiotic L. paracasei CBAL74 (FM-CBAL74) in preventing infectious diseases. We evaluated the protective action of FM-CBAL74 against SARS-CoV-2 infection in human enterocytes. Relevant aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection were assessed: infectivity, host functional receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (IL-6, IL-15, IL-1ß, VEGFß, TNF-α, MCP-1, CXCL1). Pre-incubation with FM-CBA L74 reduced the number of infected cells. The expression of ACE2 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, VEGFß, IL-15, IL-1ß was downregulated by the pre-treatment with this fermented food. No effect on TMPRSS2, MCP-1, TNF-α and CXCL1 expression was observed. Modulating the crucial aspects of the infection, the fermented food FM-CBAL74 exerts a preventive action against SARS-CoV-2. These evidence could pave the way to innovative nutritional strategy to mitigate the COVID-19.

6.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 697390, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357534

ABSTRACT

Background: Clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection seem to differ in children compared to that in adults. It has been hypothesized that the lower clinical severity in children could be influenced by differential expression of the main host functional receptor to SARS-CoV-2, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), but data are still conflicting. To explore the origin of age-dependent clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), we comparatively evaluated the expression in children and adult subjects of the most relevant mediators of the SARS-CoV-2 infection: ACE2, angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), transmembrane serine protease-2 (TMPRSS2), and neuropilin-1 (NRP1), at upper respiratory tract and small intestine level. Methods: The expression of ACE2, ACE1, TMPRSS2, and NRP1 in nasal epithelium and in small intestine epithelium was investigated by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Results: We found no differences in ACE2, ACE1, and TMPRSS2 expression in the nasal epithelium comparing children and adult subjects. In contrast, nasal epithelium NRP1 expression was lower in children compared to that in adults. Intestinal ACE2 expression was higher in children compared to that in adults, whereas intestinal ACE1 expression was higher in adults. Intestinal TMPRSS2 and NRP1 expression was similar comparing children and adult subjects. Conclusions: The lower severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection observed in children may be due to a different expression of nasal NRP1, that promotes the virus interaction with ACE2. However, the common findings of intestinal symptoms in children could be due to a higher expression of ACE2 at this level. The insights from these data will be useful in determining the treatment policies and preventive measures for COVID-19.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL