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1.
Br J Haematol ; 197(5): 576-579, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741343

ABSTRACT

Patients with transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (TDT) are considered an at increased-risk population for severe and/or morbid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Timely vaccination is the main preventive method for severe COVID-19. Different adverse events and reactions after vaccination have been reported, with severe ones being extremely rare. Patients with TDT may have altered immunity due to chronic transfusions, iron overload and chelation therapy, and splenic dysfunction. Here, we show that adult patients with TDT following vaccination with the novel messenger RNA vaccines have mild adverse events and can produce protective antibodies comparable to the healthy population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thalassemia , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Thalassemia/complications , Thalassemia/therapy , Vaccination/adverse effects
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2174-2180, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1640752

ABSTRACT

Limited prospective serosurveillance data in children regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported. We prospectively investigated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in children during a 16-month period of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the four waves of the pandemic, before SARS-CoV-2 adolescents' vaccination. Serum samples from children admitted to the major tertiary Greek pediatric hospital for any cause, except for COVID-19 infection, were randomly collected from 05/2020 to 08/2021. The study period was divided into four 4-month periods representing relevant epidemic waves. Total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies for nucleocapsid protein were determined using the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 reagent. A total of 3099 children (0-16 years) were included in the study. A total of 344 (11.1%) seropositive children were detected (males: 205 [59.5%]; median age [interquartile range [IQR]]: 3 years [0.6-10]). Seropositivity rates (%) increased during the four 4-month periods: 1.4%, 8.6%, 17.2%, and 17.6%, respectively. A correlation of seropositivity rates in children with new diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 cases in the community was detected. No significant differences were detected between males and females. Seropositivity was significantly higher in hospitalized than in nonhospitalized children and in non-Greek compared to Greek children (p < 0.001). The lowest seropositivity rate before school opening (9/2021) was detected in the age groups 6-12 years (14.4%) and 12-16 years (16.1%). However, compared with the other age groups, the lowest median antibody titers were observed in children 0-1 year (median [IQR]: 13.9 cut-off index: [4.5-53.9] [p < 0.001]). Although the seropositivity of children was related to the community epidemic waves, the exposure was limited. Low seropositivity rates in school-age children support the need for SARS-CoV-2 immunization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
4.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine / Laboratoriums Medizin ; 45(6):245-248, 2021.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-1595675

ABSTRACT

An editorial is presented on improving paediatric healthcare including prenatal and perinatal care. Topics include public health measures resulted in remarkable improvements in childhood survival, nutrition, and general health;and focusing on the use of science and technology for detecting and measuring biomarkers for clinical care.

5.
Hemasphere ; 6(1): e677, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598646

ABSTRACT

The sustainability of coronavirus 19 (COVID-19) vaccine-induced immunity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is critical to be determined to inform public health decisions on vaccination programs and prevention measures against COVID-19. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-S-receptor binding domain (RBD IgGs) against SARS-CoV-2 after full vaccination with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine for up to 9 months in healthy individuals (NCT04743388). The assessments were performed at the following time points after the second vaccination: 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 9 months. The measurements were performed with the GenScript's cPassTM SARS-CoV-2 NAbs Detection Kit (GenScript, Inc.; Piscataway, NJ) and the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay (Roche Diagnostics GmbH; Mannheim, Germany). Three hundred nine participants with a median age of 48 years were included. A gradual decline in both NAbs and anti-S-RBD IgGs became evident from 2 weeks to 9 months postvaccination. Both NAbs and anti-S-RBD IgGs levels were significantly lower at 9 months compared with the previous timepoints. Interestingly, age was found to exert a statistically significant effect on NAbs elimination only during the first-trimester postvaccination, as older age was associated with a more rapid clearance of NAbs. Furthermore, simulation studies predicted that the median NAb value would fall from 66% at 9 months to 59% and 45% at 12 and 18 months postvaccination, respectively. This finding may reflect a declining degree of immune protection against COVID-19 and advocates for the administration of booster vaccine shots especially in areas with emerging outbreaks.

6.
Laboratoriumsmedizin ; 45(6):293-302, 2021.
Article in German | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1533443

ABSTRACT

To review current literature on the role of endothelial dysfunction in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in terms of pathophysiology, laboratory features and markers, clinical phenotype in adults and children, as well as long COVID-19.We conducted a thorough assessment of the literature and critically analyzed current data, mostly utilizing the PubMed and Medline search engines to find original studies published in the previous decade.Accumulating evidence suggests that endothelial dysfunction may be a common denominator of severe COVID-19 in adults and children, as well as long COVID-19, implicating mutual pathophysiological pathways. This narrative review summarizes the up-to-date knowledge of endothelial dysfunction caused by COVID-19, including novel aspects of long COVID-19 and pediatric disease. This knowledge is important in order not only to understand the multisystemic attack of COVID-19, but also to improve patient management and prognosis.

7.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 208, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, has caused a still evolving global pandemic. Given the worldwide vaccination campaign, the understanding of the vaccine-induced versus COVID-19-induced immunity will contribute to adjusting vaccine dosing strategies and speeding-up vaccination efforts. METHODS: Anti-spike-RBD IgGs and neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) titers were measured in BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinated participants (n = 250); we also investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in vaccinated individuals (n = 21) of this cohort 5 months post-vaccination and assayed NAbs levels in COVID-19 hospitalized patients (n = 60) with moderate or severe disease, as well as in COVID-19 recovered patients (n = 34). RESULTS: We found that one (boosting) dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine triggers robust immune (i.e., anti-spike-RBD IgGs and NAbs) responses in COVID-19 convalescent healthy recipients, while naïve recipients require both priming and boosting shots to acquire high antibody titers. Severe COVID-19 triggers an earlier and more intense (versus moderate disease) immune response in hospitalized patients; in all cases, however, antibody titers remain at high levels in COVID-19 recovered patients. Although virus infection promotes an earlier and more intense, versus priming vaccination, immune response, boosting vaccination induces antibody titers significantly higher and likely more durable versus COVID-19. In support, high anti-spike-RBD IgGs/NAbs titers along with spike (vaccine encoded antigen) specific T cell clones were found in the serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, respectively, of vaccinated individuals 5 months post-vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support vaccination efficacy, also suggesting that vaccination likely offers more protection than natural infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Kinetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cells ; 10(8)2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335013

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-S-RBD IgGs up to three months after the second vaccination dose with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. NAbs and anti-S-RBD levels were measured on days 1 (before the first vaccine shot), 8, 22 (before the second shot), 36, 50, and three months after the second vaccination (D111) (NCT04743388). 283 health workers were included in this study. NAbs showed a rapid increase from D8 to D36 at a constant rate of about 3% per day and reached a median (SD) of 97.2% (4.7) at D36. From D36 to D50, a slight decrease in NAbs values was detected and it became more prominent between D50 and D111 when the rate of decline was determined at -0.11 per day. The median (SD) NAbs value at D111 was 92.7% (11.8). A similar pattern was also observed for anti-S-RBD antibodies. Anti-S-RBDs showed a steeper increase during D22-D36 and a lower decline rate during D36-D111. Prior COVID-19 infection and younger age were associated with superior antibody responses over time. In conclusion, we found a persistent but declining anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity at 3 months following full vaccination with BNT162b2 in healthy individuals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Formation , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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