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Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1997730


Micronutrients are ions and vitamins humbly required by the human body. They play a main role in several physiological mechanisms and their imbalance is strongly associated with potentially-fatal complications. Micronutrient imbalance is associated with many cardiovascular diseases, such as arrythmias, heart failure, and ischemic heart disease. It has been also observed in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), particularly in most severe patients. The relationship between cardiovascular diseases and COVID-19 is mutual: the latter triggers cardiovascular disease onset and worsening while patients with previous cardiovascular disease may develop a more severe form of COVID-19. In addition to the well-known pathophysiological mechanisms binding COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases together, increasing importance is being given to the impact of micronutrient alterations, often present during COVID-19 and able to affect the balance responsible for a good functioning of the cardiovascular system. In particular, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia, and hypocalcemia are strongly associated with worse outcome, while vitamin A and D deficiency are associated with thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Thus, considering how frequent the cardiovascular involvement is in patients with COVID-19, and how it majorly affects their prognosis, this manuscript provides a comprehensive review on the role of micronutrient imbalance in the interconnection between COVID-19 and cardiovascular diseases.

COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Trace Elements , Humans , Micronutrients , Vitamin A , Vitamins
J Clin Med ; 11(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855688


BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) patients are predisposed to recurrences and disease destabilizations, especially during the COVID-19 outbreak period. In this scenario, telemedicine could be a proper way to ensure continuous care. The purpose of the study was to compare two modalities of HF outpatients' follow up, the traditional in-person visits and telephone consultations, during the COVID-19 pandemic period in Italy. METHODS: We conducted an observational study on consecutive HF outpatients. The follow up period was 12 months, starting from the beginning of the COVID-19 Italy lockdown. According to the follow up modality, and after the propensity matching score, patients were divided into two groups: those in G1 (n = 92) were managed with traditional in-person visits and those in G2 (n = 92) were managed with telephone consultation. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were the primary endpoints. Secondary endpoints were overall mortality, cardiovascular death, cardiovascular hospitalization, and hospitalization due to HF. RESULTS: No significant differences between G1 and G2 have been observed regarding MACE (p = 0.65), cardiovascular death (p = 0.39), overall mortality (p = 0.85), hospitalization due to acute HF (p = 0.07), and cardiovascular hospitalization (p = 0.4). Survival analysis performed by the Kaplan-Meier method also did not show significant differences between G1 and G2. CONCLUSIONS: Telephone consultations represented a valid option to manage HF outpatients during COVID-19 pandemic, comparable to traditional in-person visits.