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1.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 2021 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483168

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Despite growing expertise and wide application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO) treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) of different origin and during pandemics (H1N1 Influenza A virus and SARS-CoV-2), large reports are few and pertain mostly to multicenter registries, and randomized trials are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to report outcomes, trends, and innovations of VV ECMO treatment over the last 11 years. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study on 142 patients treated at the IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital in Milan from June 2009 (year of the H1N1 pandemic) to May 2020 (SARS-CoV-2 pandemic). INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The main causes of ARDS were H1N1 pneumonia in 36% of patients, bacterial pneumonia in 17%, and SARS-CoV-2 in 9%. Seventy-two percent of patients were centralized from remote hospitals, of whom 33% had implanted VV ECMO before transport. The most common cannulation strategy was the dual-lumen catheter cannulation system (55%), and anticoagulation was performed with bivalirudin in most patients (79%). Refractory hypoxia was treated with intravenous beta-blockers (64%), nitric oxide (20%), and pronation (8%). Almost one-third of patients (32%) were extubated while on ECMO. Forty-nine percent of patients were discharged from the intensive care unit, and hospital discharge was 46%; survival was lower in patients requiring VV ECMO for more than three weeks compared with shorter support duration (23% v 56%, p = 0.007). Anticoagulation with bivalirudin was associated with higher survival, compared with heparin (55% v 31%, p = 0.03), and lower thrombocytopenia incidence (69% v 35%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: VV ECMO is the pivotal rescue treatment for refractory ARDS-timely treatment and optimal care are needed to optimize therapy, as duration of support is associated with outcome. Anticoagulation with bivalirudin may improve outcome.

2.
Artif Organs ; 45(10): 1240-1249, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354462

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in many centers around the globe for various indications. However, prognosis is often poor even with all supportive therapies, and in many cases, clinical deterioration is associated with inflammation. Hemoadsorption with CytoSorb is a novel approach to limit the inflammatory response, and the device can be safely and easily installed into ECMO circuits. CytoSorb has been used more than 130.000 times to date, but because randomized controlled trials are largely lacking, there is substantial debate on its use. Here, experts from critical care medicine, cardiology, cardiac surgery, and perfusion technology discuss the pros and cons of this novel therapy and outline the future aspects for its clinical application and research.

3.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288953

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 creates an impressive burden for intensive care units in terms of need for advanced respiratory care, with a huge number of acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS) requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. In some cases, this proves to be insufficient, with a refractory respiratory failure calling for an extracorporeal approach (veno-venous ECMO). In this scenario, most of these patients need an early tracheostomy procedure to be carried out, which creates the risk of distribution of aerosol particles, possibly leading to personnel infection. The use of apneic tracheostomy has been proposed for COVID-19 patients, but in case of ECMO it may produce lung derecruitment, severe hypoxemia, and sudden worsening of respiratory mechanics. We developed an apneic tracheostomy technique and applied it in over 32 patients supported by veno-venous ECMO. We present data showing the safety and feasibility of this technique in terms of patient care and personnel protection. Gas exchange and pH did not show statistically significant changes after the tracheostomy, nor did respiratory mechanics data or the need for inspiratory pressure and FiO2. The use of apneic tracheostomy was a safe option for patient care during ECMO and reduced the possibility of virus spreading.

5.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121711

ABSTRACT

The role of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (V-V ECMO) in severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still under debate and conclusive data from large cohorts are scarce. Furthermore, criteria for the selection of patients that benefit most from this highly invasive and resource-demanding therapy are yet to be defined. In this study, we assess survival in an international multicenter cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V-V ECMO and evaluate the performance of several clinical scores to predict 30-day survival. METHODS: This is an investigator-initiated retrospective non-interventional international multicenter registry study (NCT04405973, first registered 28 May 2020). In 127 patients treated with V-V ECMO at 15 centers in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, and the United States, we calculated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) Score, Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) Score, Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V­V ECMO (PRESERVE) Score, and 30-day survival. RESULTS: In our study cohort which enrolled 127 patients, overall 30-day survival was 54%. Median SOFA, SAPS II, APACHE II, RESP, and PRESERVE were 9, 36, 17, 1, and 4, respectively. The prognostic accuracy for all these scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic-AUROC) ranged between 0.548 and 0.605. CONCLUSIONS: The use of scores for the prediction of mortality cannot be recommended for treatment decisions in severe COVID-19 ARDS undergoing V-V ECMO; nevertheless, scoring results below or above a specific cut-off value may be considered as an additional tool in the evaluation of prognosis. Survival rates in this cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V­V ECMO were slightly lower than those reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients treated with V-V ECMO.

6.
ASAIO J ; 66(6): 588-598, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154995

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 is an emerging viral pathogen responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 pandemic resulting in significant human morbidity and mortality. Based on preliminary clinical reports, hypoxic respiratory failure complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of death. Further, septic shock, late-onset cardiac dysfunction, and multiorgan system failure are also described as contributors to overall mortality. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and other modalities of mechanical cardiopulmonary support are increasingly being utilized in the treatment of respiratory and circulatory failure refractory to conventional management, their role and efficacy as support modalities in the present pandemic are unclear. We review the rapidly changing epidemiology, pathophysiology, emerging therapy, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19; and based on these data and previous experience with artificial cardiopulmonary support strategies, particularly in the setting of infectious diseases, provide consensus recommendations from ASAIO. Of note, this is a "living document," which will be updated periodically, as additional information and understanding emerges.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Heart Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Animals , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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