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Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e630-e644, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886372


BACKGROUND: We studied humoral responses after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination across varying causes of immunodeficiency. METHODS: Prospective study of fully vaccinated immunocompromised adults (solid organ transplant [SOT], hematologic malignancy, solid cancers, autoimmune conditions, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]) versus nonimmunocompromised healthcare workers (HCWs). The primary outcome was the proportion with a reactive test (seropositive) for immunoglobulin G to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain. Secondary outcomes were comparisons of antibody levels and their correlation with pseudovirus neutralization titers. Stepwise logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with seropositivity. RESULTS: A total of 1271 participants enrolled: 1099 immunocompromised and 172 HCW. Compared with HCW (92.4% seropositive), seropositivity was lower among participants with SOT (30.7%), hematological malignancies (50.0%), autoimmune conditions (79.1%), solid tumors (78.7%), and HIV (79.8%) (P < .01). Factors associated with poor seropositivity included age, greater immunosuppression, time since vaccination, anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies, and vaccination with BNT162b2 (Pfizer) or adenovirus vector vaccines versus messenger RNA (mRNA)-1273 (Moderna). mRNA-1273 was associated with higher antibody levels than BNT162b2 or adenovirus vector vaccines after adjusting for time since vaccination, age, and underlying condition. Antibody levels were strongly correlated with pseudovirus neutralization titers (Spearman r = 0.89, P < .0001), but in seropositive participants with intermediate antibody levels, neutralization titers were significantly lower in immunocompromised individuals versus HCW. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses to COVID-19 vaccines were lowest among SOT and anti-CD20 monoclonal recipients, and recipients of vaccines other than mRNA-1273. Among those with intermediate antibody levels, pseudovirus neutralization titers were lower in immunocompromised patients than HCWs. Additional SARS-CoV-2 preventive approaches are needed for immunocompromised persons, which may need to be tailored to the cause of immunodeficiency.

COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Psychooncology ; 31(6): 1003-1012, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653332


BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to examine benefits and consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for patients diagnosed with cancer and their family caregivers. METHODS: A 23-item questionnaire assessing COVID-19-related issues, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)-4 were administered to patients diagnosed with cancer and their family caregivers. RESULTS: Of the 161 patients and 78 caregivers who participated, 38.1% and 32.8 were male, 95% and 84.6% Caucasian, and the mean age was 66 and 64.6 years, respectively. A total of 16.5% and 15.2% reported depressive symptoms, 18.4% and 19% reported anxiety; 35.5% and 26.6% reported poor sleep quality, and 66% and 63.3% scored one standard deviation above the norms for the PSS, respectively. Predictors of poorer patient- and caregiver-reported outcomes included greater loneliness, worry about self or family being infected by the COVID-19, and worsening relationships with family. The fear of COVID-19 led to 20.8% of patients and 24.4% of family caregivers cancelling medical appointments, procedures, and treatments. A total of 52.5% of patients and 53.2% caregivers reported that the pandemic led to benefit finding but these changes were not associated with any of the measured patient- or caregiver-related outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Psychological functioning for patients and caregivers was similar to that of pre-pandemic levels, however the decrease in health care utilization secondary to fear of COVID-19 was notable. While there were many negative effects of the pandemic, the majority of patients and caregivers reported some benefit to the pandemic.

COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2