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Diagnostics (Basel) ; 13(6)2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257234


Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia), an important pathogen in immuno-compromised patients, has recently gained attention in patients admitted in intensive care units (ICU). We sought to investigate clinical features of infections caused by S. maltophilia in ICU patients and identify risk factors for mortality. We conducted a retrospective study in two multivalent non-COVID-19 ICUs of tertiary-teaching hospitals in Greece and Spain, including patients with isolated S. maltophilia from at least one clinical specimen along with clinical signs of infection. A total of 103 patients (66% male) were analyzed. Median age was 65.5 (54-73.3) years and mean APACHE II and SOFA scores upon ICU admission were 18.36 (±7.22) and 18.17 (±6.95), respectively. Pneumonia was the predominant clinical syndrome (72.8%), while 22% of cases were among hemato/oncology patients. Crude 28-day mortality rate was 54.8%, even though, 14-day clinical and microbiological response was 96%. Age, APACHE II on ICU admission, hemato-oncologic disease, and multi-organ failure were initially identified as potential predictors of mortality. In the multivariable analysis, only increasing age and hemato-oncologic disease were shown to be independent risk factors for 28-day mortality. High all-cause mortality was observed in critically ill patients with predominantly respiratory infections by S. maltophilia, despite initial clinical and laboratory response after targeted treatment. The study elucidates a potentially worrisome emerging pathogen in the ICU.

J Innate Immun ; 14(3): 218-228, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546612


BACKGROUND: Macrophage activation-like syndrome (MALS) and complex immune dysregulation (CID) often underlie acute respiratory distress (ARDS) in COVID-19. We aimed to investigate the effect of personalized immunotherapy on clinical improvement of critical COVID-19. METHODS: In this open-label prospective trial, 102 patients with ARDS by SARS-CoV-2 were screened for MALS (ferritin >4,420 ng/mL) and CID (ferritin ≤4,420 ng/mL and low human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR expression on CD14-monocytes). Patients with MALS or CID with increased aminotransferases received intravenous anakinra; those with CID and normal aminotransferases received tocilizumab. The primary outcome was ≥25% decrease in the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and/or 50% increase in the respiratory ratio by day 8; 28-day mortality, change of SOFA score by day 28, serum biomarkers, and cytokine production by mononuclear cells were secondary endpoints. RESULTS: The primary study endpoint was met in 58.3% of anakinra-treated patients and in 33.3% of tocilizumab-treated patients (p: 0.01). Most patients in both groups received dexamethasone as standard of care. No differences were found in secondary outcomes, mortality, and SOFA score changes. Ferritin decreased among anakinra-treated patients; interleukin-6, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, and HLA-DR expression increased among tocilizumab-treated patients. Survivors by day 28 who received anakinra were distributed to lower severity levels of the WHO clinical progression scale. Greater incidence of secondary infections was found with tocilizumab treatment. CONCLUSION: Immune assessment resulted in favorable anakinra responses among critically ill patients with COVID-19 and features of MALS.

COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Ferritins , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Transaminases
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1779-1792, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309094


INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is an emerging complication among intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 (CAPA). In the present study, all CAPA cases during the first year of the pandemic were reviewed in critically ill patients at a 650-bed tertiary Greek COVID-19 reference hospital. METHODS: Data regarding patients admitted to the ICU of Attikon Hospital in Athens, Greece, between 22 March 2020 and 28 February 2021 with a positive PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection were reviewed. Clinical and microbiological records were analysed including demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological features, treatment and outcomes. CAPA was determined according to the recent 2020 ECMM/ISHAM definitions. RESULTS: A total of 179 patients were admitted in the ICU and 6 (3.3%) patients were diagnosed with CAPA (4 probable and 2 possible CAPA) with 5/6 with co-infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative pathogens. No patient had a history of immunosuppression. All suffered from acute respiratory distress syndrome. The median (range) time from intubation to diagnosis was 6 (1-14) days. Five patients had positive Aspergillus cultures in bronchial secretions (1 A. fumigatus, 1 A. flavus, 1 A. fumigatus + A. flavus, 1 A. fumigatus + A. terreus and 1 A. terreus) while culture was negative in one patient. All isolates were susceptible to antifungal drugs. Serum galactomannan (GM), pan-Aspergillus PCR and (1,3)-ß-D-glucan (BDG) were positive in 4/6 (67%), 5/6 (83%, 3/5 in two consecutive samples) and 4/6 (67%, in consecutive samples) patients, respectively. GM and PCR positive bronchial secretions had GM indices > 9.95 and PCR Ct < 34. All were treated with antifungal drugs with 5 out of 6 receiving isavuconazole. Mortality was 67% (4/6) with 1/4 attributed to CAPA (two died as a result of bacterial septic shock and one as a result of multiorgan failure). CONCLUSION: The incidence of CAPA in ICU patients was 3.3% and it was associated with approximately a 17% attributable mortality in the setting of MDR gram-negative pathogen co-infections.