Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 8 de 8
Filter
1.
Environmental Science: Nano ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083149

ABSTRACT

For the first time, we exploited the antiviral and antibacterial properties of Ag NPs stabilised by quaternized hydroxyethyl cellulose (Ag-HEC) against SARS-CoV-2 and Escherichia coli through an eco-friendly process at room temperature in three different environments: 1) water, where Ag was dispersed as a nanosol, 2) textiles, where Ag was applied as a coating, and 3) hydrogel where Ag is embedded. The antiviral performance of Ag-HEC nanosols was quantified through the selectivity index (SI), defined as the ratio between 50% cytotoxic and inhibitory concentration, in order to evaluate the ability to be active in a concentration range below the cytotoxicity value. The collected results pointed out an actual enhanced risk/benefit profile of Ag-HEC NPs with respect to chloroquine, with an SI of 22.2 and 8.4, respectively. Antibacterial and antiviral activities of Ag-HEC NPs immobilized on textiles or mucosa-like hydrogels were also assessed and their efficacy in potential application as protective clothing or nasal molecular masks was verified. This work demonstrated that a modern, safe and sustainable design allows traditional colloidal silver-based technologies to be efficiently exploited for a broad spectrum of antimicrobial solutions against bacterial and viral infections.

2.
Microorganisms ; 10(7)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911475

ABSTRACT

More than two years have passed since the viral outbreak that led to the novel infectious respiratory disease COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Since then, the urgency for effective treatments resulted in unprecedented efforts to develop new vaccines and to accelerate the drug discovery pipeline, mainly through the repurposing of well-known compounds with broad antiviral effects. In particular, antiparasitic drugs historically used against human infections due to protozoa or helminth parasites have entered the main stage as a miracle cure in the fight against SARS-CoV-2. Despite having demonstrated promising anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities in vitro, conflicting results have made their translation into clinical practice more difficult than expected. Since many studies involving antiparasitic drugs are currently under investigation, the window of opportunity might be not closed yet. Here, we will review the (controversial) journey of these old antiparasitic drugs to combat the human infection caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776254

ABSTRACT

In the novel pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019, high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines lead to endothelial activation and dysfunction, promoting a pro-coagulative state, thrombotic events, and microvasculature injuries. The aim of the present work was to investigate the effect of SARS-CoV-2 on pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue factor, and chemokine release, with Human Microvascular Endothelial Cells (HMEC-1). ACE2 receptor expression was evaluated by western blot analysis. SARS-CoV-2 infection was assessed by one-step RT-PCR until 7 days post-infection (p.i.), and by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). IL-6, TNF-α, IL-8, IFN-α, and hTF mRNA expression levels were detected by RT-PCR, while cytokine release was evaluated by ELISA. HMEC-1 expressed ACE2 receptor and SARS-CoV-2 infection showed a constant viral load. TEM analysis showed virions localized in the cytoplasm. Expression of IL-6 at 24 h and IFN-α mRNA at 24 h and 48 h p.i. was higher in infected than uninfected HMEC-1 (p < 0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly higher in supernatants from infected HMEC-1 (p < 0.001) at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h p.i., while IL-8 levels were significantly lower at 24 h p.i. (p < 0.001). These data indicate that in vitro microvascular endothelial cells are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection but slightly contribute to viral amplification. However, SARS-CoV-2 infection might trigger the increase of pro-inflammatory mediators.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Chemokines/genetics , Chemokines/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/genetics , Interleukin-8/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Neurovirol ; 28(1): 113-122, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611521

ABSTRACT

Here we described the virological and serological assessment of 23 COVID-19 patients hospitalized and followed up in Milan, Italy, during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic. Nasopharyngeal (NPS), anal swabs, and blood samples were collected from 23 COVID-19 patients, at hospital admission, and periodically up to discharge, for a median time of 20 days (3-83 days). RNA was isolated and tested for SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR; anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibody titers were evaluated in serum samples by ELISA. SARS-CoV-2 genome was detected in the NPS swabs of the 23 patients, at the admission, and 8/19 (42.1%) were still positive at the discharge. Anal swabs were positive to SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in 20/23 (86.9%) patients; 6/19 (31.6%) were still positive at discharge. The mean time of RNA negative conversion was 17 days (4-36 days) and 33 days (4-77 days), for NPS and anal swabs, respectively. SARS-CoV-2-RNA was detected in the blood of 6/23 (26.1%) patients. Thirteen/23 (56.5%) and 17/23 (73.9%) patients were seropositive for IgM and IgG, respectively, at the admission, and the median IgM and IgG levels significantly (p < 0.05) increased after 13 days. Although the limited cohort size, our report provides evidence that SARS-CoV-2 is shed through multiple routes, with important implications in healthcare settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Pandemics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594431

ABSTRACT

Malaria is still one of the most dangerous infectious diseases and the emergence of drug resistant parasites only worsens the situation. A series of new tetrahydro-ß-carbolines were designed, synthesized by the Pictet-Spengler reaction, and characterized. Further, the compounds were screened for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D10) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Moreover, molecular modeling studies were performed to assess the potential action of the designed molecules and toxicity assays were conducted on the human microvascular endothelial (HMEC-1) cell line and human red blood cells. Our studies identified N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-1-octyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole-3-carboxamide (7) (a mixture of diastereomers) as the most promising compound endowed with the highest antiplasmodial activity, highest selectivity, and lack of cytotoxicity. In silico simulations carried out for (1S,3R)-7 provided useful insights into its possible interactions with enzymes essential for parasite metabolism. Further studies are underway to develop the optimal nanosized lipid-based delivery system for this compound and to determine its precise mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Carbolines/chemistry , Carbolines/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Antimalarials/chemical synthesis , Carbolines/chemical synthesis , Cell Line , Drug Design , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plasmodium falciparum/enzymology , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism
6.
Nanoscale ; 13(40): 16885-16899, 2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413378

ABSTRACT

The present research study reports the development of plastic antibodies based on Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) capable of selectively binding a portion of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Indeed, molecular imprinting represents a very promising and attractive technology for the synthesis of MIPs characterized by specific recognition abilities for a target molecule. Given these characteristics, MIPs can be considered tailor-made synthetic antibodies obtained by a templating process. After in silico analysis, imprinted nanoparticles were synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization and their ability to prevent the interaction between ACE2 and the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 was investigated. Of relevance, the developed synthetic antibodies are capable of significantly inhibiting virus replication in Vero cell culture, suggesting their potential application in the treatment, prevention and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Molecularly Imprinted Polymers , Humans , Plastics , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360773

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic causes serious public health, social, and economic issues all over the globe. Surface transmission has been claimed as a possible SARS-CoV-2 infection route, especially in heavy contaminated environmental surfaces, including hospitals and crowded public places. Herein, we studied the deactivation of SARS-CoV-2 on photoactive AgNPs@TiO2 coated on industrial ceramic tiles under dark, UVA, and LED light irradiations. SARS-CoV-2 inactivation is effective under any light/dark conditions. The presence of AgNPs has an important key to limit the survival of SARS-CoV-2 in the dark; moreover, there is a synergistic action when TiO2 is decorated with Ag to enhance the virus photocatalytic inactivation even under LED. The radical oxidation was confirmed as the the central mechanism behind SARS-CoV-2 damage/inactivation by ESR analysis under LED light. Therefore, photoactive AgNPs@TiO2 ceramic tiles could be exploited to fight surface infections, especially during viral severe pandemics.


Subject(s)
Ceramics/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Titanium/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Light , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/radiation effects , Pandemics , Particle Size , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Surface Properties , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Virus Inactivation/radiation effects
8.
Molecules ; 25(7)2020 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-326826

ABSTRACT

Malaria is a life-threatening disease and, what is more, the resistance to available antimalarial drugs is a recurring problem. The resistance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites to previous generations of medicines has undermined malaria control efforts and reversed gains in child survival. This paper describes a continuation of our ongoing efforts to investigate the effects against Plasmodium falciparum strains and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) of a series of methoxy p-benzyl-substituted thiazinoquinones designed starting from a pointed antimalarial lead candidate. The data obtained from the newly tested compounds expanded the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of the thiazinoquinone scaffold, indicating that antiplasmodial activity is not affected by the inductive effect but rather by the resonance effect of the introduced group at the para position of the benzyl substituent. Indeed, the current survey was based on the evaluation of antiparasitic usefulness as well as the selectivity on mammalian cells of the tested p-benzyl-substituted thiazinoquinones, upgrading the knowledge about the active thiazinoquinone scaffold.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/drug effects , Malaria/drug therapy , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Quinones/chemistry , Quinones/pharmacology , Endothelial Cells/parasitology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Parasitic Sensitivity Tests , Quinones/chemical synthesis , Structure-Activity Relationship
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL