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1.
Cells ; 11(12)2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963751

ABSTRACT

Current research proves that immune dysregulation is a common feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and immune exhaustion is associated with increased disease mortality. Immune checkpoint molecules, including the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis, may serve as markers of disease severity. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in patients with COVID-19. Blood immunophenotypes of hospitalized patients with moderate (n = 17, requiring oxygen support) and severe (n = 35, requiring mechanical ventilation in the intensive care setting) COVID-19 were compared and associated with clinical, laboratory, and survival data. The associations between severity and lymphocyte profiles were analysed at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of in-hospital treatment. Forty patients without COVID-19 infection were used as controls. For PD-1-positive T and B lymphocyte subsets, notable increases were observed between controls and patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 for CD4+PD-1+ T cells, CD8+PD-1+ T and CD19+PD-1+ B cells. Similar trends were observed for PD-L1-positive lymphocytes, namely, CD4+PD-L1+ T cells, CD8+PD-L1+ T cells and CD19+PD-L1+ B cells. Importantly, all markers associated with PD-1 and PD-L1 were stable over time for the analysed time points in the moderate and severe COVID-19 groups. Increased abundances of PD-1+ and PD-L1+ lymphocytes were associated with disease severity and mortality and were stable over time in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. These immune exhaustion parameters may be attractive biomarkers of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen , COVID-19 , Antigens, CD19 , Apoptosis , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Humans , Ligands , Prognosis , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism
2.
Infection ; 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1959190

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immunocompromised patients are postulated to be at elevated risk of unfavorable outcomes of COVID-19. The exact effect of HIV infection on the course of COVID-19 remains to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: The HIV-positive patients who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified through thirteen specialist HIV clinics routinely following them due to HIV treatment. The data were collected between November 2020 and May 2021 through an on-line electronical case report form (SurveyMonkey®). The collected information included demographics, lifestyle, comorbidities, HIV care history, COVID-19 clinical course and treatment. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with the odds of death or hospitalization due to COVID-19. RESULTS: One hundred and seventy-three patients with HIV-SARS-CoV-2 coinfection were included in the analysis. One hundred and sixty-one (93.1%) subjects had a symptomatic course of the disease. Thirty-nine (23.1%) of them were hospitalized, 23 (13.3%) necessitated oxygen therapy. Three (1.8%) patients required admission to the intensive care unit and 6 (3.5%) patients died. The presence of comorbidities and an HIV viral load of more than 50 copies/mL were linked to the increased odds of hospitalization (OR 3.24 [95% CI 1.27-8.28]) and OR 5.12 [95% CI 1.35-19.6], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: As depicted by our analyses, HIV-positive patients with comorbidities and/or uncontrolled HIV replication who are diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered of high risk of poor COVID-19 outcome and followed up carefully.

4.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917285

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Thromboembolic events, including mainly pulmonary embolisms and ischemic strokes, occur in up to one-third of COVID-19 patients. As efficacy of tocilizumab (TCZ) among patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) was not previously investigated, this study aimed to provide such data. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of TCZ on mortality in patients with confirmed acute pulmonary embolism, cytokine release storm and COVID-19 pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Longitudinal data of 4287 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected between 4 March 2020 and 16 January 2022. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the samples and dataset of cases with confirmed acute pulmonary embolism associated with at least moderate lung involvement due to COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS: In the analyzed dataset, 64 adult patients were diagnosed with PE, and of these, 28 (44%) cases were treated with two 8 mg/kg doses of TCZ, and 36 (56%) did not receive this agent. The groups were balanced regarding demographics, comorbidities and the biochemical markers. Overall mortality in our study was 29.6% (n = 17). Mortality in the group treated with TCZ was 43% (n = 12) compared to 19% (n = 7) in the group without TCZ. In multivariate proportional Cox hazards models, intravenous administration of TCZ was independently associated with higher mortality (HR: 3.342 (CI: 1.077-10.370), p = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 pneumonia with at least moderate lung involvement, CRS and acute pulmonary embolism, administration of TCZ is associated with increased mortality. Therefore, TCZ should be used with caution in SARS-CoV-2 cases with pulmonary embolism.

5.
Cells ; 11(12):1978, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894141

ABSTRACT

Current research proves that immune dysregulation is a common feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and immune exhaustion is associated with increased disease mortality. Immune checkpoint molecules, including the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) axis, may serve as markers of disease severity. Accordingly, in this study, we evaluated the expression of PD-1/PD-L1 in patients with COVID-19. Blood immunophenotypes of hospitalized patients with moderate (n = 17, requiring oxygen support) and severe (n = 35, requiring mechanical ventilation in the intensive care setting) COVID-19 were compared and associated with clinical, laboratory, and survival data. The associations between severity and lymphocyte profiles were analysed at baseline and after 7 and 14 days of in-hospital treatment. Forty patients without COVID-19 infection were used as controls. For PD-1-positive T and B lymphocyte subsets, notable increases were observed between controls and patients with moderate or severe COVID-19 for CD4+PD-1+ T cells, CD8+PD-1+ T and CD19+PD-1+ B cells. Similar trends were observed for PD-L1-positive lymphocytes, namely, CD4+PD-L1+ T cells, CD8+PD-L1+ T cells and CD19+PD-L1+ B cells. Importantly, all markers associated with PD-1 and PD-L1 were stable over time for the analysed time points in the moderate and severe COVID-19 groups. Increased abundances of PD-1+ and PD-L1+ lymphocytes were associated with disease severity and mortality and were stable over time in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. These immune exhaustion parameters may be attractive biomarkers of COVID-19 severity.

6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7225, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890252

ABSTRACT

Tear fluid cytokine levels may serve as biomarkers of innate immune system response against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, our aim was to analyze panel of selected inflammatory cytokines in tears of COVID-19 patients in relation to presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in conjunctival secretions. In this study concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p70, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ were determined by a magnetic bead assay in tear film collected from 232 symptomatic COVID-19 patients. SARS-CoV-2 ocular infection was confirmed based on positive conjunctival swab-based RT-PCR testing. Viral RNA in conjunctival sac was detected in 21 patients (9%). No relation between presence and the duration of ophthalmic symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 infection detected in conjunctival secretions was found. The tear film concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-5, IL-8 and GM-CSF were found to be significantly greater among patients with positive conjunctival swab results as compared to the group negative for SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival sac. Our current data depict a group of inflammatory mediators in human tears, which may play a significant role in ocular pathology of SARS-CoV-2 conjunctival infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Conjunctiva , Cytokines , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-8 , SARS-CoV-2 , Tears , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
7.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884383

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated how rapidly various molecular methods can be adapted for a Public Health Emergency. Whether a need arises for whole-genome studies (next-generation sequencing), fast and high-throughput diagnostics (reverse-transcription real-time PCR) or global immunization (construction of mRNA or viral vector vaccines), the scientific community has been able to answer all these calls. In this study, we aimed at the assessment of effectiveness of the commercially available solution for full-genome SARS-CoV-2 sequencing (AmpliSeq™ SARS-CoV-2 Research Panel and Ion AmpliSeq™ Library Kit Plus, Thermo Fisher Scientific). The study is based on 634 samples obtained from patients from Poland, with varying viral load, assigned to a number of lineages. Here, we also present the results of protocol modifications implemented to obtain high-quality genomic data. We found that a modified library preparation protocol required less viral RNA input in order to obtain the optimal library quantity. Concurrently, neither concentration of cDNA nor reamplification of libraries from low-template samples improved the results of sequencing. On the basis of the amplicon success rates, we propose one amplicon to be redesigned, namely, the r1_1.15.1421280, for which less than 50 reads were produced by 44% of samples. Additionally, we found several mutations within different SARS-CoV-2 lineages that cause the neighboring amplicons to underperform. Therefore, due to constant SARS-CoV-2 evolution, we support the idea of conducting ongoing sequence-based surveillance studies to continuously validate commercially available RT-PCR and whole-genome sequencing solutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Technology
8.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the presence and duration of ophthalmic symptoms in the early phase of COVID-19 to assess the corresponding local immune response on the ocular surface. METHODS: The study included data from 180 COVID-19 patients and 160 age-matched healthy controls. The main finding was the occurrence of ophthalmological manifestations at the time of admission to the hospital and during the preceding 7 days. Tear film concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1b, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 p70, GM-CSF, and IFN-γ were determined by a magnetic bead assay. RESULTS: Among the COVID-19 patients, 12.64% had at least one ocular symptom at the time of admission, and 24.14% had symptoms within the preceding 7 days (p < 0.001 vs. controls). We found that the COVID-19 patients complained more frequently about eye tearing (p = 0.04) and eye pain (p = 0.01) than controls. A multivariate analysis of the patients and controls adjusted for age and sex revealed that COVID-19 was an independent factor associated with higher VEGF and IL-10 tear film concentrations (ß = +0.13, p = 0.047 and ß = +0.34, p < 0.001, respectively) and lower IL-1ß, IL-8, and GM-CSF levels (ß = -0.25, p < 0.001; ß = -0.18, p = 0.004; and ß = -0.82, p = 0.0 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 does not attract a strong local response of the conjunctival immune system; therefore, ophthalmic symptoms may not constitute a substantial element in the clinical picture of novel COVID-19 infection.

9.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822448

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has evolved into a worldwide outbreak, with significant molecular evolution over time. Large-scale phylodynamic studies allow to map the virus spread and inform preventive strategies. AIM: This study investigates the extent of binational dispersal and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 lineages between seven border provinces of the adjacent countries of Poland and Germany to reconstruct SARS-CoV-2 transmission networks. METHODS: Following three pandemic waves from March 2020 to the end of May 2021, we analysed a dataset of 19,994 sequences divided into B.1.1.7|Alpha and non-Alpha lineage groups. We performed phylogeographic analyses using the discrete diffusion models to identify the pathways of virus spread. RESULTS: Based on population dynamics inferences, in total, 673 lineage introductions (95% HPD interval 641-712) for non-Alpha and 618 (95% HPD interval 599-639) for B.1.1.7|Alpha were identified in the area. For non-Alpha lineages, 5.05% binational, 86.63% exclusively German, and 8.32% Polish clusters were found, with a higher frequency of international clustering observed for B.1.1.7|Alpha (13.11% for binational, 68.44% German and 18.45% Polish, p < 0.001). We identified key transmission hubs for the analysed lineages, namely Saxony, West Pomerania and Lower Silesia. CONCLUSIONS: Clustering patterns between Poland and Germany reflect the viral variant transmission dynamics at the international level in the borderline area. Tracing the spread of the virus between two adjacent large European countries may provide a basis for future intervention policies in cross-border cooperation efforts against the spread of the pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792658

ABSTRACT

In the beginning of the third year of the fight against COVID-19, the virus remains at least still one step ahead in the pandemic "war". The key reasons are evolving lineages and mutations, resulting in an increase of transmissibility and ability to evade immune system. However, from the immunologic point of view, the cytokine storm (CS) remains a poorly understood and difficult to combat culprit of the extended number of in-hospital admissions and deaths. It is not fully clear whether the cytokine release is a harmful result of suppression of the immune system or a positive reaction necessary to clear the virus. To develop methods of appropriate treatment and therefore decrease the mortality of the so-called COVID-19-CS, we need to look deeply inside its pathogenesis, which is the purpose of this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792635

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute lung injury is associated with dysfunctional immune response to SARS-CoV-2. This leads to CRS, which require immunomodulatory treatments aiming to limit the excessive production of cytokines. The literature so far indicates the effectiveness of tocilizumab in patients with COVID-19-associated pneumonia, but there is no clear evidence of its effectiveness in patients with at least 50% lung involvement; therefore, we aimed to bridge this gap in knowledge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Longitudinal data for 4287 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection were collected between 1st March 2020 and 16th of January 2022. In total, 182 cases with lung involvement >50% and biochemical indicators of cytokine release storm (Il-6 >100 pg/mL) were selected and analyzed using non-parametric statistics and multivariate Cox models. RESULTS: Among the 182 included patients, 100 (55%) were treated with TCZ, while 82 (45%) did not receive TCZ. The groups were balanced regarding demographics, lung involvement and biochemical markers. Overall mortality in the group was 63.1%. Mortality in the TCZ group was 58.0% compared to 69.5% (n = 57) in the non-TCZ group (p = 0.023). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, intravenous administration of tocilizumab was associated with lower probability of ICU admission (HR: 0333 (CI: 0.159-0.700, p = 0.004)) and lower mortality (HR: 0.57306 (CI: 0.354-0.927, p = 0.023)). CONCLUSIONS: Tocilizumab is effective as a treatment in the most severely ill patients, in whom the level of lung involvement by the inflammatory process can exceed 50% with coexisting biochemical indices of cytokine storm (Il-6 > 100 pg/mL).

12.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 132(3)2022 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772002

ABSTRACT

The first Polish recommendations regarding the management of patients with COVID-19 were published by the Polish Society of Epidemiologists and Infectiologists (PTEiLChZ) on March 31, 2020, and the last annex was dated November 12, 2021. The ongoing state of pandemic, the emergence of new variants of the virus, and the availability of new drugs necessitate their updating. Changes introduced in the current version of recommendations for the management of COVID-19 comprised the possibility of using remedesivir in an outpatient setting, previously reserved for inpatient treatment, as well as other antiviral drugs-molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir / ritonavir. We revised the possibility of using monoclonal antibodies due to the resistance of the currently dominant Omicron variant. Anakinra, an antagonist of interleukin 1 receptors, has been added as a treatment option in advanced stages of the disease, and the recommended daily dose of glucocorticosteroids used in the most severe forms of COVID-19 has been increased. Information on vaccination and pre-exposure prophylaxis in specific populations has also been updated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epidemiologists , Humans , Poland , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Clin Med ; 11(4)2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690202

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are present in up to 80% of the affected patients. While the majority of them is benign, in certain patients, viral replication in the central nervous system results in a severe disruption in cognitive function as well as basic life functions. In this case series, the authors present a detailed description of the three SARS-CoV-2 infection cases, which were all complicated by severe encephalopathy. Consecutive neurological status changes were described for each patient with detailed imaging and clinical sequelae. In the discussion, the authors highlight similarities in the course of the disease in presented patients, as well as common features in test results. An effective causal treatment could not be introduced in any of the patients, nor could the progression of the central nervous system (CNS) damage be stopped. The authors hope that the experiences they gathered will help to accelerate the diagnostic and therapeutic process in other patients with COVID-19-associated encephalopathy and result in introducing an effective treatment.

15.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 5027-5033, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Vibrio vulnificus infections are a growing problem worldwide. In recent years, infections with this bacteria have been reported in Central Europe, especially in the German Baltic coast but also in France and Italy. Climate warming causes the sea temperature to increase every year, which translates to an increased risk of infections from the Vibrio group. Most of these are mild and present as wound infections, but some patients develop life-threatening sepsis from either ingestion of infected mollusks or wound lesions that develop into generalized infections. Illness may be associated with necrotizing fasciitis and may require several weeks of therapy, often based on a surgical operation, demarcation of necrosis or limb amputation. A case such as the one described in this manuscript has not been previously described in Poland and demonstrates the need for a multidisciplinary approach to infection with Vibrio vulnificus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old patient was pricked with an unknown object in the side of a lower limb during his stay at the Polish seaside. He developed a life-threatening infection in the form of severe sepsis with multiple organ failure. He required broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, and after obtaining results for Vibrio vulnificus targeted therapy, a surgical operation with skin lesion decompression and fasciotomy was performed. Finally, hyperbaric chamber therapy was given. The patient's general condition improved, and local changes and his vital parameters stabilized. CONCLUSION: Vibrio vulnificus infection may be confused with other causes of skin and subcutaneous tissue infection, although it requires a different approach and different targeted antibiotic therapies. This infection may take the form of a life-threatening disease requiring a multidisciplinary approach.

16.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main nutritional consequences of COVID-19 include reduced food intake, hypercatabolism, and rapid muscle wasting. Some studies showed that malnutrition is a significant problem among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 infection, and the outcome of patients with SARS-CoV-2 is strongly associated with their nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to collect useful information about the possible elements of nutritional and probiotic therapy in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. METHODS: A narrative review of the literature, including studies published up to 13 September 2021. RESULTS: Probiotics may support patients by inhibiting the ACE2 receptor, i.e., the passage of the virus into the cell, and may also be effective in suppressing the immune response caused by the proinflammatory cytokine cascade. In patients' diet, it is crucial to ensure an adequate intake of micronutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids (at 2-4 g/d), selenium (300-450 µg/d) and zinc (30-50 mg/d), and vitamins A (900-700 µg/d), E (135 mg/d), D (20,000-50,000 IU), C (1-2 g/d), B6, and B12. Moreover, the daily calorie intake should amount to ≥1500-2000 with 75-100 g of protein. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the treatment of gut dysbiosis involving an adequate intake of prebiotic dietary fiber and probiotics could turn out to be an immensely helpful instrument for immunomodulation, both in COVID-19 patients and prophylactically in individuals with no history of infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Diet/methods , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Nutritional Status , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323130

ABSTRACT

Since the end of 2019, a new, dangerous virus has caused the deaths of more than 3 million people. Efforts to fight the disease remain multifaceted and include prophylactic strategies (vaccines), the development of antiviral drugs targeting replication, and the mitigation of the damage associated with exacerbated immune responses (e.g., interleukin-6-receptor inhibitors). However, numerous uncertainties remain, making it difficult to lower the mortality rate, especially among critically ill patients. While looking for a new means of understanding the pathomechanisms of the disease, we asked a question-is our immunity key to resolving these uncertainties? In this review, we attempt to answer this question, and summarize, interpret, and discuss the available knowledge concerning the interplay between neutrophils, neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), and T-cells in COVID-19. These are considered to be the first line of defense against pathogens and, thus, we chose to emphasize their role in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although immunologic alterations are the subject of constant research, they are poorly understood and often underestimated. This review provides background information for the expansion of research on the novel, immunity-oriented approach to diagnostic and treatment possibilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Neutrophils/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/pathology
18.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295939

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolved into a worldwide outbreak, with the first Polish cases in February/March 2020. This study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology of the circulating virus lineages between March 2020 and February 2021. We performed variant identification, spike mutation pattern analysis, and phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses for 1106 high-coverage whole-genome sequences, implementing maximum likelihood, multiple continuous-time Markov chain, and Bayesian birth-death skyline models. For time trends, logistic regression was used. In the dataset, virus B.1.221 lineage was predominant (15.37%), followed by B.1.258 (15.01%) and B.1.1.29 (11.48%) strains. Three clades were identified, being responsible for 74.41% of infections over the analyzed period. Expansion in variant diversity was observed since September 2020 with increasing frequency of the number in spike substitutions, mainly H69V70 deletion, P681H, N439K, and S98F. In population dynamics inferences, three periods with exponential increase in infection were observed, beginning in March, July, and September 2020, respectively, and were driven by different virus clades. Additionally, a notable increase in infections caused by the B.1.1.7 lineage since February 2021 was noted. Over time, the virus accumulated mutations related to optimized transmissibility; therefore, faster dissemination is reflected by the second wave of epidemics in Poland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bayes Theorem , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Mutation , Phylogeny , Poland/epidemiology , Prevalence , Whole Genome Sequencing
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288908

ABSTRACT

The continually evolving severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has resulted in a vast number of either acute or chronic medical impairments of a pathophysiology that is not yet fully understood. SARS-CoV-2 tropism for the organs is associated with bilateral organ cross-talks as well as targeted dysfunctions, among which acute kidney injury (AKI) seems to be highly prevalent in infected patients. The need for efficient management of COVID-related AKI patients is an aspect that is still being investigated by nephrologists; however, another reason for concern is a disturbingly high proportion of various types of kidney dysfunctions in patients who have recovered from COVID-19. Even though the clinical picture of AKI and COVID-related AKI seems to be quite similar, it must be considered that regarding the latter, little is known about both the optimal management and long-term consequences. These discrepancies raise an urgent need for further research aimed at evaluating the molecular mechanisms associated with SARS-CoV-2-induced kidney damage as well as standardized management of COVID-related AKI patients. The following review presents a comprehensive and most-recent insight into the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, recommended patient management, treatment strategies, and post-mortem findings in patients with COVID-related AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Rhabdomyolysis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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