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1.
Revista Colombiana de Cardiologia ; 29(Supplement 4):47-51, 2022.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2205344

ABSTRACT

A 67-years-old woman with hypertension, obesity as previous diseases, presented to the emergency department due to cough, fatigue, fever, and dyspnea. ST-segment elevation was visualized during monitoring, troponin was positive, the coronary angiography was negative;the ventriculogram and transthoracic echocardiogram documented apical akinesia. The RT-PCR was positive for SARS CoV-2;the diagnosis was takotsubo-syndrome. Copyright © 2021 Sociedad Colombiana de Cardiologia y Cirugia Cardiovascular.

2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2198764

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) and hyperglycemia are important risk factors for poor outcomes in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of the present study was to analyze the factors associated with the composite outcome of the necessity of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) or admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in subjects with severe COVID-19 infection treated with dexamethasone comparing patients with DM vs. patients without DM. Research design and methods: An observational retrospective cohort study was performed, including hospitalized subjects with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥18 years old with severe COVID-19 disease requiring daily intravenous 6 mg dexamethasone treatment for 10 days. Exclusion criteria were: <18 years old, non-severe illness and/or patients in charge of ICU. Variables related to clinical and analytical parameters, glycemic control, acquired-hospital superinfections, mortality, IMV requirement, ICU admission and length of stay were included. Results: Two hundred and nine individuals with COVID-19 disease treated with dexamethasone were included. One hundred twenty-five out of these subjects (59.8%) were patients with DM. Overall, from the 209 subjects, 66 (31.6%) required IMV or were admitted to the ICU, with significant differences between patients with DM (n=50) vs. patients without DM (n=16) (76% vs. 24%, p=0.002). Among the group of subjects with DM (n=125), those who required IMV or were admitted to the ICU showed higher serum concentrations of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, D-dimer, ferritin and pro-calcitonin and significantly lower serum concentrations of albumin compared to those who did not require IMV or were not admitted to the ICU. Besides, between these two groups of patients with DM, we observed no differences in glycemic parameters, including median capillary blood glucose values, glycosylated hemoglobin, coefficient of variability and hypoglycemic episodes. In the multinomial analysis, factors independently associated with the composite outcome of IMV or admission to the ICU in the insulin-treated group were the National Early Warning Score (NEWS) 2 score (OR 1.55 [1.17-2.17], p=0.005) and the presence of hospital-acquired superinfections (OR 35.21 [5.11-386.99], p=0.001). Conclusions: In our study, parameters related to glycemic control were not associated with IMV requirement nor admission to the ICU in patients with DM and severe COVID-19 disease receiving daily 6 mg of dexamethasone for 10 days. However, hospital-acquired superinfections and disease severity at admission were independent factors associated with this composite outcome.

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(28):42-42, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2167617
4.
Aem Education & Training ; 6(6):e10806, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2157670

ABSTRACT

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an advanced medical technology used to treat respiratory and heart failure. The coronavirus pandemic has resulted in significantly more ECMO patients worldwide. However, the number of hospitals with ECMO capabilities and ECMO-trained staff are limited. Training of personnel in ECMO could supplement this demand.

5.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(28 Supplement):42, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2109216

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 presents a particular challenge in oncology, as in-person visits and treatments can be delayed during infection and patients are at risk for prolonged viral shedding. Our center uses two consecutive negative PCR tests for patients to return to clinic. As vaccination rates increase, we questioned the need for this strategy vs a time-based clearance approach. Method(s): We identified cancer patients who tested positive for COVID-19 from 10/1/2021 to 3/31/2022 at a single tertiary care center and performed chart review under an IRB-approved protocol. Subgroups were compared using the Welch's t-test and Welch's ANOVA for 2 or > 2 groups, respectively. Result(s): 169 patients were identified. 153 had documented clearance defined as two consecutive negative PCR tests. The mean clearance time was 35.7 days (95% CI 32.3-39.0). There was a trend toward longer clearance time in patients with hematologic vs solid tumors (39.6 vs 33.2, p =.06) and a significant increase in patients treated with B cell depletion (58.0) vs chemo/targeted therapy (35.7, p =.01) or immunotherapy (29.0, p =.004). No significant difference was found by vaccination status or between the Delta and Omicron waves. If defined as one negative test, mean clearance time was 25.9 days (95% CI 23.6- 28.1), and there was a significant difference in patients with hematologic vs solid tumors and in those treated with B cell depletion vs other therapies. However, 16.0% (27/169) of patients had a subsequent positive test after a first negative result, with increased incidence in patients with hematologic malignancy (26.2%, 16/61) and stem cell/adoptive cell transplant (46.2%, 6/13). Conclusion(s): COVID- 19 is a significant barrier to oncologic care, and clearance times remain longer than reported for the general population. In this single center study, clearance time was > 1 month and further increased in patients with hematologic malignancy or on B cell depleting therapy. While adjusting clearance criteria to a single negative test or specific timeframe may be an attractive option to reduce delays, a large proportion of patients may have further positive PCR testing.

6.
Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety ; 31:118-118, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2084294
7.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):101-102, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880960

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the determinants of long-term immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and the concurrent impact of vaccination and emerging variants of concern will guide optimal strategies to achieve global protection against the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A prospective cohort of 332 COVID 19 patients was followed beyond one year. Plasma neutralizing activity was evaluated using HIV-based reporter pseudoviruses expressing different SARS-CoV-2 spikes and was longitudinally analyzed using mixed-effects models. Results: Long-term neutralizing activity was stable beyond one year after infection in mild/asymptomatic and hospitalized participants. However, longitudinal models suggest that hospitalized individuals generate both short-and long-lived memory B cells, while responses of non-hospitalized were dominated by long-lived B cells. In both groups, vaccination boosted responses to natural infection. In unvaccinated participants, viral variants, mainly beta, reduced the efficacy of long-term (>300 days from infection) neutralization. Importantly, despite showing higher neutralization titers, hospitalized patients showed lower cross-neutralization of beta variant compared to non-hospitalized. Multivariate analysis identified severity of primary infection as the factor that independently determines both the magnitude and the inferior cross-neutralization activity of long-term neutralizing responses. Conclusion: Neutralizing response induced by SARS-CoV-2 is heterogeneous in magnitude but stable beyond one year after infection. Vaccination boosts these long-lasting natural neutralizing responses and should help counteract the resistance to neutralization of variants of concern such as the beta variant. Severity of primary infection determines higher magnitude but poorer quality of long-term neutralizing responses.

8.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):68, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880808

ABSTRACT

Background: The use of compounds against highly conserved cellular host factors required to complete the replication cycle of distinct viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 offers a common solution to diverse viral threats. This approach is especially relevant for pan-antiviral effects given that viruses converge at intracellular steps such as viral genome replication and protein production. Currently, there are only a limited number of approved drugs involved in targeting intracellular host factors. One of these compounds is plitidiepsin, which has shown a potent preclinical efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 by targeting the host protein eEF1A. Plitidepsin inhibits nucleocapsid viral protein expression and viral induced cytopathic effect in vitro. In addition, it also reduces genomic and subgenomic RNA expression. However, how plitidepsin exerts its antiviral activity remains unknown. Methods: Current models of SARS-CoV-2 replication propose that upon viral fusion, non-structural viral proteins form a replication-transcription complex that associates to compartments with a double membrane vesicle (DMV) morphology that shelters the viral genome replication. Here we have used an electron microcopy analysis to explore the antiviral effect of plitidepsin and its impact on SARS-CoV-2 replication and DMV formation on target Vero E6 cells. Results: This ultrastructural analysis allowed to recapitulate the SARS-CoV-2 infectious life cycle, where evident viral DMV formation was observed as well as viral budding events along with cell-associated viruses. However, in cells treated with plitidepsin at different non-toxic concentrations (0.2 and 0.05 μ M) there was a lack of viral DMV formation and a complete absence of viral particles. Complementary SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and dsRNA immunogold labelling unambiguously confirmed the lack of viral replication in plitidepsin-treated cells. Overall, these data indicate that plitidepsin treatment abrogated the formation of DMVs, and the detection of nucleocapsid or dsRNA viral products. Conclusion: Electron microscopy ultrastructural analysis coupled to immunogold labelling of SARS-CoV-2 products offer a unique approach to understand how antivirals work. This knowledge is key to identify the mechanism of action of promising compounds interfering with host factors whose implication in strategic biological processes can be applied as pan-antiviral strategies.

9.
13th IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON 2022 ; 2022-March:1544-1548, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874234

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought drastic changes in the teaching and learning of EFL, not least through the increased use of ICT and web 3.0 technologies. As part of this phenomenon, blogs have become a widely used technique for assisting foreign language acquisition. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the use of blogs has a significant impact on the development of reading skills in English learners. The study was based on 106 participants (57 male and 49 female) from a private secondary school in the central highland region of Ecuador, with an age-range from 12 to 19 years. A nonparametric-experimental design was applied to the whole sample, who were pre-tested, given reading development instruction, and then post-tested. The pre-test and post-test were adapted from the Cambridge Preliminary English Test (PET) and consisted of 5 multiple choice comprehension questions, 5 scanning questions and 6 fill in the gap questions. In the instructional phase, the participants engaged in 6 sessions of asynchronous and 6 sessions of synchronous study, in which a variety of digital resources such as Kahoot, Nearpod, Educaplay, Liveworksheets, Padlet, Quizzis, British Council, Quizzlet and others, were employed to contribute to students' communicative competence. Data tendencies and normality were measured through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, which was 0.000;while Wilcoxon was used to corroborate the hypothesis. The results showed a significant improvement of 66.9% in the students' reading skills through the use of web 3.0 blogs. Findings of the research show that the integration of web 3.0 technologies, specifically blogs foster learners' oral and written interaction, being reading the keystone of the whole process. © 2022 IEEE.

10.
14th International Conference on Interactive Mobile Communication, Technologies and Learning, IMCL 2021 ; 411 LNNS:1052-1061, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1826220

ABSTRACT

This research aims to assess the impact that information and communication technologies have as support in tourism against the COVID-19 pandemic, in this way a study is developed within Digital Marketing in institutions of the tourism industry of the province of Tungurahua and how they have contributed to the dissemination of information in the field of tourism. This research was based on the implementation of a structured questionnaire of 45 Likert-scale questions, which measure the use of digital, technological and communication tools and strategies that tourism companies have used with the aim of improving their promotion with tourists based on a new normality that has been applied in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the instrument designed and applied, obtained a level of trust of 0.831 by means of the Cronbach Alpha statistic taken from a sample of 320 institutions on the field of tourism. The statistic test for this research was Kolmogorov Smirnov, which allowed knowing the concordance between the data and the specific theoretical distribution, which was to check whether Digital Marketing is considered a supporting tool in tourism in the province of Tungurahua;with the final result obtained, the alternative hypothesis proposed in the research was accepted. The result of the project admitted to using auxiliary technological tools to boost current generations’ interest and knowledge of Digital Marketing through the distribution of information in the field of tourism. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S806-S807, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746277

ABSTRACT

Background. Remdesivir (RDV) is a potent nucleotide prodrug inhibitor of the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase that has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of patients hospitalized with moderate to severe COVID-19. This Phase 3 (GS-US-540-9012) double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the efficacy and safety of 3 days of RDV to standard of care in non-hospitalized, high-risk participants with confirmed COVID-19. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive intravenous (IV) RDV (200 mg on day 1, 100 mg on days 2 to 3) or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was composite COVID-19 hospitalization or all-cause death by day 28 and compared using Cox proportional hazards model with baseline stratification factors as covariates. The primary safety endpoint was proportion of participants with treatment-emergent adverse events. Study enrollment was terminated early for administrative reasons in light of the evolving pandemic. Results. 562 patients underwent randomization and started their assigned treatment (279, RDV;283, placebo). Baseline demographics and characteristics were balanced across arms. Overall, 52% were male, 44% were Hispanic/Latino ethnicity and 30% were ≥ 60 years old. The most common comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (62%), obesity (56%;median BMI, 30.7), and hypertension (48%). Median baseline SARS-CoV-2 RNA nasopharyngeal viral load was 6.2 log10 copies/mL. Treatment with RDV significantly reduced COVID-19 hospitalization or all-cause death by day 28 (HR, 0.13;95% CI, 0.03 - 0.59;p = 0.008;Table 1) compared to placebo. Participants receiving RDV also had significantly lower risk for COVID-19-related medically attended visits or all-cause death by day 28 compared to placebo (HR, 0.19;95% CI, 0.07 - 0.56;p = 0.002;Table 1). No deaths occurred in either arm by day 28. There was no difference between arms in time-weighted average change in nasopharyngeal viral loads from baseline up to day 7. The proportion of patients with AEs was similar between arms (Table 1);the most common AEs in the RDV arm were nausea (11%), headache (6%), and diarrhea (4%). Conclusion. A 3-day course of IV RDV was safe, well tolerated and highly effective at preventing COVID-19 related hospitalization or death in high-risk non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

12.
24th International Conference on Interactive Collaborative Learning, ICL 2021 ; 389 LNNS:303-310, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1706543

ABSTRACT

This research project tries to investigate the influence of the Moth stories in the development of the speaking English skill. This is an experimental representation of the learning in form of storytelling method. This study had the participation of 39 students from the second semester “A” of Pedagogía de los Idiomas Nacionales y Extranjeros program at Technical University of Ambato. The whole experimental group (EG) was allowed to use online resources such as stories taken from The Moth web page to practice and complete some speaking tasks. To assess the speaking skill, a mock-up Key English Test (KET) speaking part was used as a pre and post-test. The speaking criteria were stated in the rubric provided by Cambridge which consisted of Grammar and Vocabulary, Pronunciation and Interactive Communication. The experiment was designed with the use of with the use of online stories according to student’s age and needs and obviously taking into consideration the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to analyze the experimental data that were represented in the paper, the SPSS program was used to apply a T-Student test. To conclude, the results showed that online stories taken from The Moth web page had positive effects on the development of the students’ speaking skill. Its interface, resource, structure, and methodology were engaging for students so they improved mainly the pronunciation and its branches which are the intelligibility, word-stress, intonation and phonological features. Thus, the positive effects of using online storytelling strategies were obvious in this research. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Journal of Physics: Conference Series ; 1938(1), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1269521

ABSTRACT

The environmental impact caused by generation of plastic wastes at a global level is significant, during the last year, production of plastic increased by 40% due to the Covid-19 pandemic, demanding in an accelerated way the massive use of disposable personal protection elements. This situation has changed drastically the pattern of human behavior, introducing a lifestyle with greater hygiene that makes necessary to use plastic packaging to cover products, utensils, and food, avoiding any risk of transmission. To combat the massive use of plastic it is necessary to activate the transition towards circular economies that make use of environmentally friendly plastics;this is the case of biopolymers, materials that can be synthesized from organic waste rich in starch. Therefore, in this work, the factors that affect the hardness of polymers made from potato and plantain peels are studied through a factorial experimental design. The design establishes the combination of urea, glycerine, acetic acid, and water, to identify the best combination of plasticizer and their effect on the hardness of the material. Using Minitab, the multivariate linear models of hardness behavior were assessed to achieve the highest hardness values.

14.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):88, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250606

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the fundamental pillars of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic control and vaccine development is understanding mid-and long-term immunity. Early humoral response has been extensively studied, however data on what recovered individuals are still scarce and the most recent studies are based on few time points over time, which limits the comprehension of the longitudinal pattern of the potential changes. In this study we have evaluated the neutralizing activity and IgG antibody titer against SARS-CoV-2 in mild/ asymptomatic and hospitalized COVID-19 individuals, over a 6-month period. Methods: We have evaluated the kinetics of the humoral immune response in 210 individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2 covering the first and second waves of COVID-19 outbreak in Catalonia (Spain). IgG antibody titer was evaluated with an in-house sandwich ELISA against the S2 subunit, the binding domain receptor (RBD) and the nucleoprotein (NP) and the neutralizing activity was evaluated by a neutralization assay with HIV reporter pseudoviruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Statistical analyses were carried out using mixed-effects non-linear and linear models. Results: Most study participants developed a neutralizing humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, however the maximum neutralization titer was 10-fold lower in mild/asymptomatic individuals compared to those with a more severe illness. We observed a slow and progressive decay of neutralizing activity in individuals with mild or asymptomatic disease throughout the 6-month period. In hospitalized individuals, half maximal neutralization activity was achieved on day 10 and showed an initial rapid decline that significantly slowed and remained nearly flat after day 80. Despite this, activity at six months remained higher in hospitalized individuals compared to mild symptomatic participants. On the other hand, we observed that IgG antibody titers against S2, RBD and NP had a more marked fall without showing differences in the decay pattern between individuals with different degree of severity of the disease. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the neutralizing activity remains relatively stable for more than 6 months despite the decline in IgG antibodies, suggesting that the quality of immune response evolves and allows maintaining the neutralizing activity despite the decay in antibody titers. Our results provide a more detailed picture of the behavior of the natural humoral immune response over time that complements the current evidence on mid-term immunity.

15.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):90, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250361

ABSTRACT

Background: Many immune studies of SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) infection have focused on the generation of virus-specific as a means of protection. However, a small group of CoV-2 infected individuals called Non-seroconverters (NSC), do not generate antibodies but experience a mild or moderate disease course. Identifying mechanism of CoV-2 control in NSC may inform the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines approaches. Methods: We identified eleven CoV-2 NSC (3.6%) from the King-cohort study (PI-20-217). NSC were defined by a positive CoV-2 PCR at the time of diagnosis in the absence of IgG, IgA and IgM in serum and plasma measured by two independent ELISA techniques. For comparison, we identify groups of CoV-2 convalescent (n=15) and low-neutralizers (n=15). We measured T-cell responses to the CoV-2 Spike (S) and Nucleocapsid (NP) recombinant proteins in PBMCs by ELISPOT and flow cytometry. We combined T-cell surface and lineage markers together with PD-1, functional (TNF, IFN-y, and IL-2) and activation induced markers (AIM: CD25, CD137 and OX40). Results: We identified CoV-2 specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells against the S and the NP in NSC individuals. All NSC responded to S by production of one or more cytokine in either CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells, and 57% responded to NP. Specific-CD8+ T cells against S in NSC were characterized by IFN-y, and TNF production, and we observed higher levels of TNF production as compared to low neutralizers (p=0.02). No differences were found in IFN-y, IL-2 and TNF production in S-specific CD4+ T cells between groups, nor in NP CD8+ or CD4+ T-cell responses. The levels of CD137/OX40 in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were significantly lower in NSC in response to S (p=0.006, and p=0.012). Also, lower levels of PD-1 were observed in CD8+ T cells in response to NP in NSC (p=0.017). Conclusion: We provide evidence of SARS-CoV2 cellular immunity in NSC individuals despite the absence of humoral neutralizing responses. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells against the S and NP were present in NSC and characterized by TNF production in CD8+ T-cells in responses to S when compared to low neutralizers. Decreased levels of activation markers were observed in NSCs following S and NP stimulation. We propose a protective role of cellular immunity in NSC potentially driven by preexisting cellular responses.

16.
Coronavirus infections COVID-19 SARS-CoV-2 Pregnancy Pregnancy complications infectious Pregnancy outcome Callao Peru Obstetrics & Gynecology ; 2020(Revista Peruana De Ginecologia Y Obstetricia)
Article in English | Jul-Sep | ID: covidwho-1110962

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It is known that pregnant women are more susceptible to respiratory infections, but the behavior of the SARS-CoV-2 infection is yet to be known. Objective: To describe the epidemiological characteristics of pregnant and puerperal women infected with SARS-CoV-2 at Hospital Nacional Daniel Alcides Carrion, Callao, Peru. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. All pregnant women hospitalized between May 1 and July 31, 2020 with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by either the rapid serological test or the RT-PCR test were selected. Results: During the study period, 671 patients were screened;308 pregnant women and 9 puerperal women were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most common symptoms were cough (57%) and dyspnea (35%). 95% were asymptomatic, 2% presented mild disease, 1% moderate, and less than 1% severe disease. Only one maternal death was registered. 69% of deliveries were vaginal and 31% were delivered by cesarean section. Conclusions: The behavior of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pregnant women studied did not differ from that found in the general population of the same age.

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