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Chest ; 162(4):A951, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060739


SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A) is a rare but clinically significant complication of COVID-19 infection characterized by severe illness with extrapulmonary organ dysfunction, markedly elevated inflammatory markers in the absence of severe respiratory illness or other obvious source of infection (1). We present a case of a 37-year-old male, with negative infectious evaluation and marked clinical improvement after administration of IVIG. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 37-year-old black male with a past medical history of type 2 diabetes who was admitted to the hospital with shock and organ failure;prior to his presentation, he was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring outpatient therapy. On presentation, he was tachycardic, febrile, hypotensive with significant renal failure and lactic acidosis;inflammatory markers were elevated (CRP 640, ESR 108). Imaging was significant for mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy, with clear parenchyma (Figure 1). Broad coverage antibiotics, vasopressors, and stress dose steroids were initiated. Infectious evaluation was unrevealing with negative blood, urine, and sputum cultures;Echocardiogram revealed LVEF of 40% with mild RV dysfunction. His renal failure worsened, requiring CRRT. Vasculitis evaluation with ANA, ANCA, MPO, PR3, GBM, HIV, C3-C4 and cryoglobulins returned normal. Eventually, the patient was weaned from vasopressor support on hospital day four. Trials of weaning steroids resulted in recurrence of fevers and increasing vasopressor support. Given continued fevers without obvious infection there were concerns for MIS-A occurring shortly after COVID-19 infection. Antibiotics were discontinued and he received 2g/kg of IVIG with marked clinical improvement and was rapidly weaned from vasopressor support. We initiated methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg twice daily with steroid taper. He had improvement in inflammatory markers after IVIG and high dose steroids (CRP-6.7, ESR-49 prior to discharge). DISCUSSION: MIS-A is a rare disease that occurs after COVID-19 infection, with few reported cases in literature. Presentation is variable, but symptoms include high fever, dyspnea, lethargy, myalgias, and a diffuse maculopapular rash. Notably, hypoxia is not a prominent feature, a significant distinction from classic COVID-19 infection. Patel et al noted a predominance in young adults, males, and non-Hispanic black or Hispanic persons (2). The proposed mechanism stems from dysregulated immune response, with abnormal interferon production which drives macrophage activation and organ damage (3). There are no treatment guidelines available, and treatment of MIS-A is extrapolated from MIS-C and includes immunomodulatory therapies with IV IG, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and methylprednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: Prompt recognition of MIS-A critical given its potential for significant multi-organ dysfunction. Reference #1: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults (MIS-A) Case Definition Information for Healthcare Providers. Available at Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults (MIS-A) Case Definition Information for Healthcare Providers ( Accessed 3/19/2022 Reference #2: Patel, P., Decuir, J., Abrams, J., Campbell, A. P., Godfred-Cato, S., & Belay, E. D. (2021). Clinical Characteristics of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Adults: A Systematic Review. In JAMA Network Open (Vol. 4, Issue 9). Reference #3: Weatherhead, J. E., Clark, E., Vogel, T. P., Atmar, R. L., & Kulkarni, P. A. (2020). Inflammatory syndromes associated with SARS-cov-2 infection: Dysregulation of the immune response across the age spectrum. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 130(12). DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Mohammed Al-Charakh No relevant relationships by John Pare t no disclosure on file for Maximiliano Tamae Kakazu;

Chest ; 162(4):A491, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060608


SESSION TITLE: COVID-19 Case Report Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic quickly spread throughout the world after it was first identified in Wuhan, China in 2019. Severe cases of hypoxic respiratory failure have since filled hospitals over the past few years. We present a case of an immunosuppressed patient with persistent respiratory failure from SARS-CoV-2, with a failure to mount antibody response, treated with convalescent plasma. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 54-year-old female with a past medical history significant for rheumatoid arthritis on immunosuppression with methotrexate, prednisone, sulfasalazine, and rituximab who presented with diarrhea, cough, and shortness of breath. She was unvaccinated and tested positive for COVID-19 pneumonia, which was treated with corticosteroids and Remdesevir. CT thorax revealed diffuse infiltrates (Figure-1). She had progressive hypoxia requiring ICU stay and her course was complicated by inferior wall STEMI, requiring Intra-aortic balloon pump and intubation given worsening hypoxia. She had progressive improvement and was discharged from the hospital on 4 L of supplemental oxygen after a 30-day hospital stay. She presented two days after discharge with cough, fevers and increasing oxygen requirements up to 100% high flow nasal cannula. She was septic and was treated with steroids and antibiotics. She was febrile despite broad spectrum antibiotics. CT thorax demonstrated diffuse infiltrates worsened from the previous and steroid dosing was increased (Figure-2). No obvious source of infection was found, and further evaluation revealed positive Covid-19 RT-PCR. Despite her initial infection occurring two months prior, COVID-19 anti-spike and anti-nucleocapsid antibodies were negative. She was treated with two doses of convalescent plasma and had improvement in her oxygenation, going from 80% high-flow nasal cannula to 6L of supplemental oxygen within two days of administration. DISCUSSION: It's unclear whether immunosuppressed patients with rheumatologic disease are at an increased risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the use of immunosuppressants places patients at risk of an improper immune response to infection. In immunocompetent patients, the typical time to negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR is 3 weeks after positivity (1), and most patients develop antibodies within 2-3 weeks after viral exposure (2). Anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies like rituximab, commonly used for rheumatologic diseases, can hinder humoral immunity, and impair vaccine response (3). Given our patient's immunosuppressive regimen, we suspect she failed to mount an immune response to COVID-19, resulting in 56 days of infection without an adequate antibody response, successfully treated with convalescent plasma. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with significant immunosuppression regimens may fail to produce antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, resulting in prolonged infection. Reference #1: Rodríguez-Grande, C., Adán-Jiménez, J., Catalán, P., Alcalá, L., Estévez, A., Muñoz, P., Pérez-Lago, L., de Viedma, D. G., Adán-Jiménez, J., Alcalá, L., Aldámiz, T., Alonso, R., Álvarez, B., Álvarez-Uría, A., Arias, A., Arroyo, L. A., Berenguer, J., Bermúdez, E., Bouza, E., … de la Villa, S. (2021). Inference of active viral replication in cases with sustained positive reverse transcription-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 59(2). Reference #2: Boechat, J. L., Chora, I., Morais, A., & Delgado, L. (2021). The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 immunopathology – Current perspectives. In Pulmonology (Vol. 27, Issue 5). Reference #3: Eisenberg, R. A., Jawad, A. F., Boyer, J., Maurer, K., McDonald, K., Prak, E. T. L., & Sullivan, K. E. (2013). Rituximab-treated patients have a poor response to influenza vaccination. Journal of Clinical Immunology, 33(2). DISCLOSURES No relevant relationships by Issa Makki No relevant relationships by John Parent No relevant relationships by Jay Patel No relevant relationships by Ruchira Sengupta

Chest ; 162(4):A351-A352, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060571


SESSION TITLE: Post-COVID-19 Infection Complications SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/17/2022 12:15 pm - 01:15 pm INTRODUCTION: Coccidioidomycosis caused by the fungi C. immitis and C. Posadasii is well known to be endemic to the Southwest United States. Less than 1% of these infections will manifest as extrapulmonary symptoms and multiple sites causing dissemination fungemia [1]. Risk factors for disseminated infection include exogenous immunosuppression, immunodeficiency, pregnancy, and ethnic backgrounds of African and Filipino descent [2]. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old previously immunocompetent Congolese male with recent onset of recurrent skin abscess, and positive testing for COVID-19 three week prior (not treated with steroids). He presents with shortness of breath, back pain, fevers after recently migrating from the Southwest region to the Midwest. Upon admission imaging with Computed Tomography (CT) revealed extensive pulmonary infiltrates (Fig 1), intra-abdominal abscesses, and magnetic resonance imaging revealing (MRI) osteomyelitis of the thoracic (Fig 2) and lumbar spine (Fig 3). His work of breathing continued to worsen, requiring prompt intubation, and he was initiated on a broad-spectrum antimicrobial regimen, including fluconazole, voriconazole, cefepime and vancomycin. Immunoglobulins, HIV and oxidative burst testing was unremarkable. Cultures from image-guided aspiration of the psoas abscess, incision, and drainages of skin abscess and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were all positive for coccidioidomycosis, transitioned to amphotericin B. Course complicated with the development of multidrug-resistance pseudomonas aerogenes VAP treated with inhaled tobramycin and meropenem. He developed progressive acute respiratory distress syndrome with refractory hypoxemia. After 3 weeks of antimicrobial and anti-fungal treatment, a decision was made to transfer the patient to a lung transplant center, however, due to ongoing fungemia, he was deemed to be not a candidate for extracorporeal membrane exchange and lung transplantation. About a month into his hospitalization, the family decided to withdraw care. DISCUSSION: Reactivation of latent coccidiomycosis has been largely studied in the immunosuppressed population that includes HIV, hematological malignancies, and diabetes mellitus, however little is known about this fungal infection in the immunosuppressed state in the setting of COVID-19. Thus far only two case reports have been reported of co-infection if COVID-19 and pulmonary coccidioidomycosis [3]. The days of the COVID-19 pandemic might contribute to further delays in diagnosing this fungal infection due to similarities of pulmonary manifestation. CONCLUSIONS: This case demonstrates a COVID-19 infection leading to an immunosuppressed status resulting in disseminated infection from reactivation of latent coccidiomycosis. As a result, physicians must maintain a high level of suspicion for superimposed fungal infections in those with even relative immunosuppression from a recent COVID infection. Reference #1: Odio CD, Marciano BE, Galgiani JN, Holland SM. Risk Factors for Disseminated Coccidioidomycosis, United States. Emerg Infect Dis. 2017;23(2):308-311. doi:10.3201/eid2302.160505 Reference #2: Hector RF, Laniado-Laborin R. Coccidioidomycosis–a fungal disease of the Americas. PLoS Med. 2005;2(1):e2. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020002 Reference #3: Shah AS, Heidari A, Civelli VF, et al. The Coincidence of 2 Epidemics, Coccidioidomycosis and SARS-CoV-2: A Case Report. Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports. January 2020. doi:10.1177/2324709620930540 DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Stephen Doyle No relevant relationships by Connor McCalmon No relevant relationships by John Parent No relevant relationships by Jay Patel No relevant relationships by Angela Peraino No relevant relationships by Keval Ray