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1.
iScience ; 25(10): 105209, 2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041845

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have unquestionably blunted the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, but host factors such as age, sex, obesity, and other co-morbidities can affect vaccine efficacy. We identified individuals in a relatively healthy population of healthcare workers (CORALE study cohort) who had unexpectedly low peak anti-spike receptor binding domain (S-RBD) antibody levels after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine. Compared to matched controls, "low responders" had fewer spike-specific antibody-producing B cells after the second and third/booster doses. Moreover, their spike-specific T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire had less depth and their CD4+ and CD8+T cell responses to spike peptide stimulation were less robust. Single cell transcriptomic evaluation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed activation of aging pathways in low responder B and CD4+T cells that could underlie their attenuated anti-S-RBD antibody production. Premature lymphocyte aging may therefore contribute to a less effective humoral response and could reduce vaccination efficacy.

2.
QJM ; 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018084

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary fibrosis is a sequalae of SARS-CoV-2 infection that currently lacks effective preventative or therapeutic measures. Post-viral lung fibrosis due to SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to be progressive on selected patients using imaging studies. Persistent infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, a main feature of SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary fibrosis, and long-lived circulating inflammatory monocytes might be driving factors promoting the profibrotic milieu in the lung. The upstream signal (s) that regulates the presence of these immune cells (despite complete viral clearance) remains to be explored. Current data indicate that much of the stimulating signals are localized in the lungs. However, an ongoing low-grade systemic inflammation in long COVID-19 symptoms suggests that certain non-pulmonary regulators such as epigenetic changes in hematopoietic stem cells might be critical to the chronic inflammatory response. Since nearly one-third of the world population have been infected, a timely understanding of the underlying pathogenesis leading to tissue remodeling is required. Herein, we review the potential pathogenic mechanisms driving lung fibrosis following SARS-CoV-2 infection based upon available studies and our preliminary findings.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(14)2022 Jul 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938836

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Though previous coronaviruses have caused substantial epidemics in recent years, effective therapies remained limited at the start of the Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. The emergence and rapid spread throughout the globe of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus necessitated a rapid development of therapeutics. Given the multitude of therapies that have emerged over the last two years and the evolution of data surrounding the efficacy of these therapies, we aim to provide an update on the major clinical trials that influenced clinical utilization of various COVID-19 therapeutics. This review focuses on currently used therapies in the United States and discusses the molecular mechanisms by which these therapies target the SARS-CoV-2 virus or the COVID-19 disease process. PubMed and EMBASE were used to find trials assessing the efficacy of various COVID-19 therapies. The keywords SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, and the names of the various therapies included in this review were searched in different combinations to find large-scale randomized controlled trials performed since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Multiple therapeutic options are currently approved for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 and prevention of severe disease in high-risk individuals in both in the inpatient and outpatient settings. In severe disease, a combination of antiviral and immunomodulatory treatments is currently recommended for treatment. Additionally, anti-viral agents have shown promise in preventing severe disease and hospitalization for those in the outpatient setting. More recently, current therapeutic approaches are directed toward early treatment with monoclonal antibodies directed against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Despite this, no treatment to date serves as a definitive cure and vaccines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus remain our best defense to prevent further morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
4.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:135-135, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1592239

ABSTRACT

To date, one report found a higher incidence and mortality in COVID-19 patients with barotrauma during the winter surge. B Introduction: b Barotrauma is a complication seen in COVID-19 pneumonia seen in 1% of hospitalized patients to 15% in mechanically ventilated patients. B Conclusions: b Our results concurred with an earlier report that the incidence and mortality associated with barotrauma among COVID-19 inpatients during the winter were higher than in the spring. [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

6.
Cell Rep ; 34(1): 108590, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978235

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction in severely ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy (n = 3) and COVID-19 patients with moderate disease (n = 5), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, n = 6), or recovering from ARDS (n = 6). Our data reveal transcriptomic profiles indicative of defective antigen presentation and interferon (IFN) responsiveness in monocytes from ARDS patients, which contrasts with higher responsiveness to IFN signaling in lymphocytes. Furthermore, genes involved in cytotoxic activity are suppressed in both natural killer (NK) and CD8 T lymphocytes, and B cell activation is deficient, which is consistent with delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 patients with ARDS have a state of immune imbalance in which dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses may be contributing to a more severe disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
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