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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(4)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305268

ABSTRACT

Live virus neutralization is the gold standard to investigate immunity. This prospective observational study aimed to determine the magnitude of response against the original B.1 lineage and against the BA.5 lineage six months after the third BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine dose in patients with HIV infection on successful antiretroviral treatment and no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. A total of 100 subjects (M/F 83/17, median age 54 years) were included in the analysis: 95 had plasma HIV RNA <40 copies/mL, the median CD4+ T cell count at the administration of the third dose was 580 cells/mm3, and the median nadir CD4+ T cell count was 258 cells/mm3. Neutralizing antibodies (NtAb) against B.1 were detectable in all the subjects, but those to BA.5 were only detected in 88 (p < 0.001). The median NtAb titer to B.1 was significantly higher than that to BA.5 (393 vs. 60, p < 0.0001), and there was a strong positive correlation between the paired measurements (p < 0.0001). Linear regression on a subset of 87 patients excluding outlier NtAb titers showed that 48% of the changes in NtAb titers to BA.5 are related to the changes in value titers to B.1. SARS-CoV-2 variants evolve rapidly, challenging the efficacy of vaccines, and data on comparative NtAb responses may help in tailoring intervals between vaccine doses and in predicting vaccine efficacy.

2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2227990

ABSTRACT

We investigated the spike IgG levels of HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy six months after they received their second dose (T2) and six months after the third dose (T3) of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, as well as the influence of different levels of plasma HIV viremia of overall CD4+ cell count and nadir value on the humoral time course. One hundred eighty-four patients were enrolled. The median age was 55 years, the median CD4+ cell count was 639 cells/mm3 and the median nadir value was 258 cells/mm3. On the basis of all tests performed during the study period, persistently undetectable plasma HIV RNA (PUD) was found in 66 patients, low-level viremia (LLV) in 57 and ongoing viremia (OV) in 61. Serum levels of IgG antibodies against a trimeric S-protein antigen were tested with DiaSorin Liaison SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG and the response was classified as optimal (>75th percentile), intermediate (50th−25th percentile) and low (<25th percentile). The frequencies of the three different patterns of plasma HIV viremia (PUD, LLV and OV) were comparable in patients with low, intermediate and optimal IgG response evaluated at T2, with no difference in overall CD4+ cell count or nadir count. At T3, 92.9% of patients achieved an optimal response: T2 response proved to be the most important factor in predicting T3 optimal response in patients with LLV and OV.A nadir value ≤ 330 cells/mm3 had 100% sensitivity in predicting a non-optimal response. In conclusion, we demonstrated the persistence of anti-spike IgG, with high serum levels occurring in most patients six months after the third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and a predictive role of humoral response at T2 in subjects with detectable plasma HIV viremia. Immunological alterations related to past immunodeficiency may persist despite immune reconstitution, and the nadir value could be a useful tool for elaborating personalized vaccine schedules.

3.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(8)2022 Aug 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969548

ABSTRACT

We report the time course of neutralizing antibody (NtAb) response, as measured by authentic virus neutralization, in healthcare workers (HCWs) with a mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection diagnosed at the onset of the pandemic, with no reinfection throughout and after a three-dose schedule of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine with an overall follow-up of almost two years since infection. Forty-eight HCWs (median age 47 years, all immunocompetent) were evaluated: 29 (60.4%) were asymptomatic. NtAb serum was titrated at eight subsequent time points: T1 and T2 were after natural infection, T3 on the day of the first vaccine dose, T4 on the day of the second dose, T5, T6, and T7 were between the second and third dose, and T8 followed the third dose by a median of 34 days. NtAb titers at all postvaccination time points (T4 to T8) were significantly higher than all those at prevaccination time points (T1 to T3). The highest NtAb increase was following the first vaccine dose while subsequent doses did not further boost NtAb titers. However, the third vaccine dose appeared to revive waning immunity. NtAb levels were positively correlated at most time points suggesting an important role for immunogenetics.

4.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869825

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis of small and large vessels is reported as a key player in COVID-19 severity. However, host genetic determinants of this susceptibility are still unclear. Congenital Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by uncleaved ultra-large vWF and thrombotic microangiopathy, frequently triggered by infections. Carriers are reported to be asymptomatic. Exome analysis of about 3000 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects of different severities, belonging to the GEN-COVID cohort, revealed the specific role of vWF cleaving enzyme ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We report here that ultra-rare variants in a heterozygous state lead to a rare form of COVID-19 characterized by hyper-inflammation signs, which segregates in families as an autosomal dominant disorder conditioned by SARS-CoV-2 infection, sex, and age. This has clinical relevance due to the availability of drugs such as Caplacizumab, which inhibits vWF-platelet interaction, and Crizanlizumab, which, by inhibiting P-selectin binding to its ligands, prevents leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation at the site of vascular damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAM Proteins/genetics , ADAM Proteins/metabolism , ADAMTS13 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , von Willebrand Factor/chemistry , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 40-44, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654526

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the longitudinal evolution of neutralizing antibody titres (NtAb) in three different cohorts of healthcare workers (HCWs), including vaccinated HCWs with and without a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and previously infected unvaccinated HCWs. COVID-19 was mild or asymptomatic in those experiencing infection. METHODS: NtAb was tested before BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine (V0), 20±2 days after the first dose (V1_20), 20±3 days (V2_20) and 90±2 days (V2_90) after the second dose in vaccinated HCWs and after about 2 months (N_60), 10 months (N_300) and 13 months (N_390) from natural infection in unvaccinated HCWs. NtAb were measured by authentic virus neutralization with a SARS-CoV-2 B.1 isolate circulating in Italy at HCW enrolment. RESULTS: Sixty-two HCWs were enrolled. NtAb were comparable in infected HCWs with no or mild disease at all the study points. NtAb of uninfected HCWs were significantly lower with respect to those of previously infected HCWs at V1_20, V2_20 and V2_90. The median NtAb fold decrease from V2_20 to V2_90 was higher in the uninfected HCWs with respect to those with mild infection (6.26 vs 2.58, p=0.03) and to asymptomatic HCWs (6.26 vs 3.67, p=0.022). The median Nabt at N_390 was significantly lower than at N_60 (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In uninfected HCWs completing the two-dose vaccine schedule, a third mRNA vaccine dose is a reasonable option to counteract the substantial NtAb decline occurring at a significantly higher rate compared with previously infected, vaccinated HCWs. Although low, Nabt were still at a detectable level after 13 months in two-thirds of previously infected and unvaccinated HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Life (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374447

ABSTRACT

We aimed to investigate neutralizing antibody titers (NtAbT) to the P.1 and B.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants in a cohort of healthy health care workers (HCW), including 20 previously infected individuals tested at baseline (BLinf, after a median of 298 days from diagnosis) and 21 days after receiving one vaccine dose (D1inf) and 15 uninfected subjects tested 21 days after the second-dose vaccination (D2uninf). All the subjects received BNT162b2 vaccination. D1inf NtAbT increased significantly with respect to BLinf against both B.1 and P.1 variants, with a fold-change significantly higher for P.1. D1inf NtAbT were significantly higher than D2uninf NtAbT, against B.1 and P.1. NtAbT against the two strains were highly correlated. P.1 NtAbT were significantly higher than B.1 NtAbT. This difference was significant for post-vaccination sera in infected and uninfected subjects. A single-dose BNT162b2 vaccination substantially boosted the NtAb response to both variants in the previously infected subjects. NtAb titers to B.1 and P.1 lineages were highly correlated, suggesting substantial cross-neutralization. Higher titers to the P.1 than to the B.1 strain were driven by the post-vaccination titers, highlighting that cross-neutralization can be enhanced by vaccination.

8.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 176-178, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351693

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NtAb) titres in previously infected or uninfected health care workers who received one or two doses of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: NtAbs were titrated as dose-inhibiting 50% virus replication (ID50) by live virus microneutralization. We evaluated 41 health care workers recovering from mild or asymptomatic infection at first vaccination dose (T1_inf) and 21 days later (T2_inf). Sixteen uninfected health care workers were evaluated 20 days after first dose (T2_uninf) and 20 days after second vaccine dose (T3_uninf). RESULTS: At T2_inf, but not at T1_inf, there was a significant correlation between days from diagnosis (median 313, interquartile range 285-322) and NtAb levels (P = 0.011). NtAb titres increased at T2_inf with respect to T1_inf (1544 (732-2232) vs 26 (10-88), P < 0.001). Similarly, there was a significant increase in NtAb titres at T3_uninf compared with T2_uninf (183 (111-301) vs 5 (5-15), P < 0001). However, NtAb levels at T2_inf were significantly higher than those at T2_uninf and T3_uninf (P < 0.0001 for both analyses). CONCLUSIONS: A single vaccination in people with mild or asymptomatic previous infection further boosts SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity to levels higher than those obtained by complete two-vaccination in uninfected subjects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , RNA, Messenger
10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(7): ofab312, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322652

ABSTRACT

We describe the time course of neutralizing antibody (NtAb) titer in a cohort of health care workers with mild or asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection. NtAb levels decreased over time; however, serum neutralizing activity remained detectable after a median of 7 months from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis in the majority of cases.

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