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1.
Global Implementation Research and Applications. ; : 1-12, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027758

ABSTRACT

The sudden onset of COVID-19 forced mental health therapists to rapidly transition to telehealth services. While some therapists and organizations were able to achieve an expeditious transition, others struggled. Using the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) framework, which outlines key phases that guide the implementation process, the current mixed methods study examined what factors predicted the transition to internet-based Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (iPCIT), a telehealth-delivered evidence-based practice (EBP). We investigated two areas related to the transition: (1) if PCIT therapists transitioned to provide iPCIT and (2) if they made this transition quickly. In Fall 2019, 324 therapists completed a survey about implementing PCIT. After stay-at-home orders, 223 of those therapists completed a follow-up survey about their transition to telehealth, organizational characteristics, their caseloads, and telehealth training. The majority of therapists (82%) transitioned to provide iPCIT, with 48% making the transition in less than a week. Open-ended responses indicated that therapists who did not transition-faced challenges related to limited client resources, a lack of training, and organizational delays. Qualitative findings informed predictors for two logistic regression models that are statistical models that predict the probability of an event occurring, with criterion variables (1) whether therapists transitioned to provide iPCIT and (2) whether they transitioned in less than a week. Results showed that caseload in Fall 2019 and receipt of iPCIT training were associated with iPCIT transition. Organizational setting, resiliency, and baseline caseload predicted rapid transition to iPCIT. Implications regarding supporting the implementation of telehealth delivery of EBPs are discussed.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2009715

ABSTRACT

In a long-lasting major disease outbreak such as that of COVID-19, the challenge for public health authorities is to keep people motivated and keen on following safety guidelines. In this study, a compartmental model with a heterogeneous transmission rate (based on awareness) is utilized to hypothesize about the public adoption of preventive guidelines. Three subsequent outbreaks in South Korea, Pakistan, and Japan were analyzed as case studies. The transmission, behavior change, and behavioral change ease rates of the disease were measured in these countries. The parameters were estimated using the maximum likelihood method with an additional identifiability analysis performed to determine the uniqueness of the estimated parameters for quantitatively comparing them during the first three waves of COVID-19. The mathematical analysis and simulation results show that individual responses had a significant effect on the outbreak. Individuals declining to follow the public health guidelines in Korea and Japan between the second and third waves contributed to making the third peak the highest of the three peaks. In Pakistan, however, individual responses to following public health guidelines were maintained between the second and third waves, resulting in the third peak being lower than the first, rather than being associated with the highest transmission rate. Thus, maintaining a high level of awareness is critical for containing the spread. Improvised public health campaigns are recommended to sustain individual attention and maintain a high level of awareness.

3.
Journal of General Internal Medicine ; 37:S213, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1995773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an unprecedented and rapid increase in telemedicine visits. It is unclear how this has affected resident training. This study explores Internal Medicine residents' perceptions of the impact of the transition to telemedicine on their learning experience. METHODS: Three focus groups were held over Zoom with post-graduate year 1 - 3 residents at the New York University Grossman School of Medicine who have their Primary Care continuity experiences at the Manhattan Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Issues explored include relationships with patients, decision-making around clinical issues, use of preceptors, and general impressions of tele-visits. Recordings of the focus groups were transcribed and thematically analyzed. RESULTS: Common themes across the focus groups were categorized into five domains: 1) building patient relationships, 2) using the remote setting, 3) judging appearance and physical examination, 4) confidence with decision making, and 5) interactions with supervisors. Participants felt that they were able to maintain relationships with pre-existing patients, particularly those with chronic conditions for whom tele-visits were an appropriate and even preferable alternative to routine in-person encounters. Participants reported difficulty connecting and building rapport with new patients but suggested the remote setting was helpful for providing additional context (e.g. input from a family member), allowing them to better understand patients' concerns or circumstances. However, some participants expressed hesitancy about asking personal questions because patients were not in private settings. The inability to conduct comprehensive physical exams made it difficult to evaluate physical concerns, and participants were frequently unable to rely on skills that were emphasized in their training, such as assessing overall appearance and frailty. As a result, they had a higher level of uncertainty about diagnosis and management and a lower threshold for making referrals and ordering diagnostic testing. Residents did not ask preceptors for help during a tele-visit - in contrast to in-person clinical visits - which precluded real-time support when participants encountered uncertainty. Due to the awkwardness of asynchronous communication, participants had a higher threshold for asking their preceptors questions and making changes in management plans after televisits were concluded. CONCLUSIONS: In light of the staying power of telemedicine and the overall trend towards virtual care, our findings substantiate the need to identify and address new clinical training competencies. In particular, trainees may need guidance for negotiating clinical decision-making and management when caring for patients remotely;structured preceptor protocols can help to support trainee education and quality patient care.

4.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989809

ABSTRACT

Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) from COVID-19 hotspots worldwide have reported poor mental health outcomes since the pandemic's beginning. The virulence of the initial COVID-19 surge in Spain and the urgency for rapid evidence constrained early studies in their capacity to inform mental health programs accurately. Here, we used a qualitative research design to describe relevant mental health problems among frontline HCWs and explore their association with determinants and consequences and their implications for the design and implementation of mental health programs. Materials and methods Following the Programme Design, Implementation, Monitoring, and Evaluation (DIME) protocol, we used a two-step qualitative research design to interview frontline HCWs, mental health experts, administrators, and service planners in Spain. We used Free List (FL) interviews to identify problems experienced by frontline HCWs and Key informant (KI) interviews to describe them and explore their determinants and consequences, as well as the strategies considered useful to overcome these problems. We used a thematic analysis approach to analyze the interview outputs and framed our results into a five-level social-ecological model (intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public health). Results We recruited 75 FL and 22 KI interviewees, roughly balanced in age and gender. We detected 56 themes during the FL interviews and explored the following themes in the KI interviews: fear of infection, psychological distress, stress, moral distress, and interpersonal conflicts among coworkers. We found that interviewees reported perceived causes and consequences across problems at all levels (intrapersonal to public health). Although several mental health strategies were implemented (especially at an intrapersonal and interpersonal level), most mental health needs remained unmet, especially at the organizational, community, and public policy levels. Conclusions In keeping with available quantitative evidence, our findings show that mental health problems are still relevant for frontline HCWs 1 year after the COVID-19 pandemic and that many reported causes of these problems are modifiable. Based on this, we offer specific recommendations to design and implement mental health strategies and recommend using transdiagnostic, low-intensity, scalable psychological interventions contextually adapted and tailored for HCWs.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 904449, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979075

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused individuals to suffer economic losses, in particular due to the implementation of intensive quarantine policies. Economic loss can cause anxiety and has a negative psychological impact on individuals, worsening their mental health and satisfaction with life. We examined the protective and risk factors that can influence the relationship between economic loss and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Panel data from 911 participants were collected in April and May 2020 and again 6 months later. We analyzed the relationship between economic loss and anxiety and investigated the moderating effects of knowledge about COVID-19, gratitude, and perceived stress. Moreover, we investigated whether there were any changes in moderating effects over time or in different demographic groups. Results: In the early stages of the spread of COVID-19, gratitude (B = -0.0211, F = 4.8130, p < 0.05) and perceived stress (B = 0.0278, F = 9.3139, p < 0.01) had moderating effects on the relationship between economic loss and anxiety. However, after 6 months, only perceived stress had a significant moderating effect (B = 0.0265, F = 7.8734, p < 0.01). Conclusion: In the early stages of COVID-19, lower levels of gratitude and higher perceived stress led to greater anxiety. In later stages of the prolonged pandemic, only perceived stress had a continued moderating effect on the relationship between economic loss and anxiety. This study suggests that psychological interventions to reduce perceived stress are needed to treat the possible adverse effects of the spread of infectious diseases on mental health.

6.
BJPsych Open ; 8(4): e144, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962922

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Internationally, an increasing proportion of emergency department visits are mental health related. Concurrently, psychiatric wards are often occupied above capacity. Healthcare providers have introduced short-stay, hospital-based crisis units offering a therapeutic space for stabilisation, assessment and appropriate referral. Research lags behind roll-out, and a review of the evidence is urgently needed to inform policy and further introduction of similar units. AIMS: This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of short-stay, hospital-based mental health crisis units. METHOD: We searched EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and PsycINFO up to March 2021. All designs incorporating a control or comparison group were eligible for inclusion, and all effect estimates with a comparison group were extracted and combined meta-analytically where appropriate. We assessed study risk of bias with Risk of Bias in Non-Randomized Studies - of Interventions and Risk of Bias in Randomized Trials. RESULTS: Data from twelve studies across six countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, The Netherlands, UK and USA) and 67 505 participants were included. Data indicated that units delivered benefits on many outcomes. Units could reduce psychiatric holds (42% after intervention compared with 49.8% before intervention; difference = 7.8%; P < 0.0001) and increase out-patient follow-up care (χ2 = 37.42, d.f. = 1; P < 0.001). Meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in length of emergency department stay (by 164.24 min; 95% CI -261.24 to -67.23 min; P < 0.001) and number of in-patient admissions (odds ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.43-0.68; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Short-stay mental health crisis units are effective for reducing emergency department wait times and in-patient admissions. Further research should investigate the impact of units on patient experience, and clinical and social outcomes.

7.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research ; 46:258A, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1937902

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Loneliness and sleep problems have been independently associated both with each other and with drinking-related impairment. However, much research investigating loneliness and sleep has not considered the social context of drinking. Of particular relevance, individuals may engage in solitary drinking as a means of managing both loneliness and sleep problems. This cross-sectional study tested (a) associations of loneliness and sleep quality with solitary drinking, and (b) associations of loneliness, sleep quality, and solitary drinking with drinking consequences. Methods & Data: Online survey data were drawn from 184 past-year college drinkers (Mage = 18.73 [SD = 1.07];55% female;68% White) reporting on affect and substance use behavior six months into the COVID-19 pandemic. Logistic regression was used to detect differences in odds of past-year solitary drinking by loneliness and subjective sleep quality, and zero-inflated negative binomial regression was used to detect differences in drinking consequences by loneliness, subjective sleep quality, and past-year solitary drinking. All analyses controlled for sex, age, White race, depressive symptoms, and overall drinking frequency. Results: Loneliness, but subjective sleep quality, was positively associated with odds of past-year solitary drinking (OR = 1.11 [95% CI = 1.02, 1.21], p = .02). The relationship of loneliness with solitary drinking was attenuated to non-significance (p = .06) when the interaction between loneliness and sleep on solitary drinking was considered. Solitary drinking was associated with greater drinking consequences (RR = 1.28 [95% CI = 1.01, 1.59], p = .03), although neither loneliness nor sleep were associated with drinking consequences. Conclusions: College students may engage in solitary drinking to cope with loneliness, which may be particularly heightened in the context of pandemic-related social isolation;however, they do not appear to drink alone to manage sleep. Consistent with prior literature, findings highlight solitary drinking as a risk for greater drinking consequences, though null associations with loneliness and sleep suggest that additional risk factors for solitary drinking and associated consequences be explored.

8.
Frontiers in psychiatry ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1904818

ABSTRACT

Objectives The prolonged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused individuals to suffer economic losses, in particular due to the implementation of intensive quarantine policies. Economic loss can cause anxiety and has a negative psychological impact on individuals, worsening their mental health and satisfaction with life. We examined the protective and risk factors that can influence the relationship between economic loss and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Panel data from 911 participants were collected in April and May 2020 and again 6 months later. We analyzed the relationship between economic loss and anxiety and investigated the moderating effects of knowledge about COVID-19, gratitude, and perceived stress. Moreover, we investigated whether there were any changes in moderating effects over time or in different demographic groups. Results In the early stages of the spread of COVID-19, gratitude (B = –0.0211, F = 4.8130, p < 0.05) and perceived stress (B = 0.0278, F = 9.3139, p < 0.01) had moderating effects on the relationship between economic loss and anxiety. However, after 6 months, only perceived stress had a significant moderating effect (B = 0.0265, F = 7.8734, p < 0.01). Conclusion In the early stages of COVID-19, lower levels of gratitude and higher perceived stress led to greater anxiety. In later stages of the prolonged pandemic, only perceived stress had a continued moderating effect on the relationship between economic loss and anxiety. This study suggests that psychological interventions to reduce perceived stress are needed to treat the possible adverse effects of the spread of infectious diseases on mental health.

9.
Evidence-Based Practice in Child and Adolescent Mental Health ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1895734

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created compounding stressors for school-aged children, parents, and teachers and underscored the urgent need to widely implement evidence-based programs for promoting youth mental and behavioral health. In two community-engaged studies, we piloted psychoeducational workshops that taught behavior management and stress management strategies to parents and teachers. The research team partnered with a northern California school district to develop and implement these psychoeducational workshops. In study 1, parents (N = 165) participated in a series of workshops on behavior management. Parents perceived the strategies covered in each workshop to be acceptable, appropriate, and feasible and were able to accurately describe behavior management strategies following each workshop. In study 2, teachers (N = 113) participated in workshops on behavior management and stress management. Teachers perceived the strategies covered in each workshop to be acceptable, appropriate, and feasible and were able to accurately describe the strategies following each workshop. Findings suggest that psychoeducational workshops may be a promising avenue for promoting youth mental and behavioral health. Lessons learned from conducting this community-engaged research are discussed, as well as future directions for widely implementing psychoeducational workshops for parents and teachers.

10.
Embase; 2021.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-337383

ABSTRACT

Sotrovimab (VIR-7831) and VIR-7832 are dual action monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Sotrovimab and VIR-7832 were derived from a parent antibody (S309) isolated from memory B cells of a 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) survivor. Both mAbs contain an “LS” mutation in the Fc region to prolong serum half-life. In addition, VIR-7832 encodes an Fc GAALIE mutation that has been shown previously to evoke CD8+ T-cells in the context of an in vivo viral respiratory infection. Sotrovimab and VIR-7832 neutralize wild-type and variant pseudotyped viruses and authentic virus in vitro. In addition, they retain activity against monoclonal antibody resistance mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to previously authorized mAbs. The sotrovimab/VIR-7832 epitope continues to be highly conserved among circulating sequences consistent with the high barrier to resistance observed in vitro. Furthermore, both mAbs can recruit effector mechanisms in vitro that may contribute to clinical efficacy via elimination of infected host cells. In vitro studies with these mAbs demonstrated no enhancement of infection. In a Syrian Golden hamster proof-of concept wildtype SARS-CoV-2 infection model, animals treated with sotrovimab had less weight loss, and significantly decreased total viral load and infectious virus levels in the lung compared to a control mAb. Taken together, these data indicate that sotrovimab and VIR-7832 are key agents in the fight against COVID-19.

11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736912

ABSTRACT

Informal carers play a vital role in supporting people living with mental health conditions, but comparatively little is known about the economic value of caring. This study undertook an online survey of adult informal carers supporting adults with mental health conditions to better understand the impacts of caring on carer quality of life, levels of loneliness, finances and employment, as well as estimate the economic value of time spent caring. In total, 712 carers participated in the multi-national survey between August 2019 and April 2020. A total of 17% were male, with a mean age of 53, and 68% supported a child living with a mental health condition. A total of 56% of care recipients were male, with a mean age of 37. Adverse impacts on quality of life, loneliness and personal finances were greatest in carers living with care recipients. Overall mean weekly hours of care were 43.42, rising to 65.41 for carers living with care recipients. Mean weekly costs of care per carer ranged from €660 to €2223 depending on living arrangements. Annual costs ranged between €34,960 and €125,412, depending on living arrangements and valuation method. Informal care costs are substantial, and policy makers should consider investing more in carer support, especially for carers living with care recipients.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Mental Disorders , Adult , Caregivers/psychology , Child , Family/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Quality of Life
13.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326626

ABSTRACT

VIR-7831 (sotrovimab) and VIR-7832 are dual action monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 were derived from a parent antibody (S309) isolated from memory B cells of a 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) survivor. Both mAbs contain an “LS” mutation in the Fc region to prolong serum half-life. In addition, VIR-7832 encodes an Fc GAALIE mutation that has been shown previously to evoke CD8+ T-cells in the context of an in vivo viral respiratory infection. VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 potently neutralize wild-type and variant authentic virus in vitro as well as variant pseudotyped viruses including the Omicron variant. In addition, they retain activity against monoclonal antibody resistance mutations conferring reduced susceptibility to currently authorized mAbs. The VIR-7831/VIR-7832 epitope continues to be highly conserved among circulating sequences consistent with the high barrier to resistance observed in vitro. Furthermore, both mAbs can recruit effector mechanisms in vitro that may contribute to clinical efficacy via elimination of infected host cells. In vitro studies with these mAbs demonstrated no enhancement of infection. In a Syrian Golden hamster proof-of concept wildtype SARS-CoV-2 infection model, animals treated with VIR-7831 had less weight loss, and significantly decreased total viral load and infectious virus levels in the lung compared to a control mAb. Taken together, these data indicate that VIR-7831 and VIR-7832 are key agents in the fight against COVID-19.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314219

ABSTRACT

Background: The risk of depression has risen in the general population during the COVID-19 epidemic. This study was conducted to explore risk and protective factors associated with depression among the general population uninfected by COVID-19. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,500 representative South Korean citizens aged 19–65 years through an anonymous online survey. Depression was defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-10 score of 10 or higher. Other questionnaires included one measuring psycho-behavioural and social changes, and stress, due to COVID-19, a six-item version of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6), and a three-item version of the UCLA loneliness scale. Results: Of the 1492 participants not infected by COVID-19, 312 (20.9%) exhibited depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that depression was positively associated with COVID-19-related stress and psycho-behavioural variables such as disturbances in eating and sleeping, younger age, smoking, underlying mental illness, and loneliness scale scores. In contrast, exercise three or more times per week and GQ-6 scale scores were inversely associated with depression. Conclusion: During the COVID-19 pandemic, maintaining daily routines including eating, sleeping, and regular exercise and focusing on gratitude may be important for the prevention of depression. In addition, more attention should be paid to vulnerable populations, including young people, those with mental illnesses, and smokers, who might be more susceptible to depression.

15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 66(3): e0212521, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636300

ABSTRACT

Severe illness caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by an overexuberant inflammatory response resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and progressive respiratory failure (A. Gupta, M. V. Madhavan, K. Sehgal, N. Nair, et al., Nat Med 26:1017-1032, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-0968-3). Rhesus theta (θ) defensin-1 (RTD-1) is a macrocyclic host defense peptide exhibiting antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. RTD-1 treatment significantly improved survival in murine models of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-1) and endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI) (C. L. Wohlford-Lenane, D. K. Meyerholz, S. Perlman, H. Zhou, et al., J Virol 83:11385-11390, 2009, https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01363-09; J. G. Jayne, T. J. Bensman, J. B. Schaal, A. Y. J. Park, et al., Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 58:310-319, 2018, https://doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2016-0428OC). This investigation aimed to characterize the preclinical pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of intravenous (i.v.) RTD-1. Based on the lack of adverse findings, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was established at 10 mg/kg/day in rats and 15 mg/kg/day in monkeys. Analysis of single ascending dose studies in both species revealed greater-than-dose-proportional increases in the area under the curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) (e.g., 8-fold increase from 5 mg/kg to 20 mg/kg in rats) suggestive of nonlinear PK. The volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) ranged between 550 and 1,461 mL/kg, indicating extensive tissue distribution, which was validated in a biodistribution study of [14C]RTD-1 in rats. Based on interspecies allometric scaling, the predicted human clearance and Vss are 6.48 L/h and 28.0 L, respectively, for an adult (70 kg). To achieve plasma exposures associated with therapeutic efficacy established in a murine model of ALI, the estimated human equivalent dose (HED) is between 0.36 and 0.83 mg/kg/day. The excellent safety profile demonstrated in these studies and the efficacy observed in the murine models support the clinical investigation of RTD-1 for treatment of COVID-19 or other pulmonary inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Defensins/pharmacology , Mice , Rats , Tissue Distribution
16.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 233(5):E153-E153, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1535622
17.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons ; 233(5):e153, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1466571

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this study we aimed to determine surgical outcomes of pediatric patients undergoing surgery with perioperative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) diagnosis. Methods: We examined all patients 18 years old and younger who underwent surgery at a children's hospital and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 1 week before or after their procedure. Age-matched control patients who underwent similar procedures over the past ten years were included in a 3:1 ratio. The primary outcome of our study was 7- and 30-day mortality rates. Secondary outcomes in our study were postoperative pulmonary complications, specifically unexpected ventilation, pneumonia, or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Other outcomes included postoperative hospital stay, ICU admission, and readmission for surgical complications. Results: Our study included 43 procedures performed on 39 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and underwent surgery from March 1, 2020 to December 31, 2020. No 7- or 30-day mortality events were observed in any patients. Pulmonary complications were observed in 3 out of 43 (7%) surgeries performed on patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, and no pulmonary complications were observed in 124 surgeries performed on patients without SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (p=.003). SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis did not affect length or occurrence of postoperative hospital stay, ICU admission, and readmission for surgical complications. Abnormal preoperative chest x-ray and preoperative blood pressure were also associated with pulmonary complications in additional analyses (p=.02 and.01, respectively). Conclusion: Our results indicate that pediatric patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis may be at increased risk for pulmonary complications.

18.
O'Toole, A.; Hill, V.; Pybus, O. G.; Watts, A.; Bogoch, II, Khan, K.; Messina, J. P.; consortium, Covid- Genomics UK, Network for Genomic Surveillance in South, Africa, Brazil, U. K. Cadde Genomic Network, Tegally, H.; Lessells, R. R.; Giandhari, J.; Pillay, S.; Tumedi, K. A.; Nyepetsi, G.; Kebabonye, M.; Matsheka, M.; Mine, M.; Tokajian, S.; Hassan, H.; Salloum, T.; Merhi, G.; Koweyes, J.; Geoghegan, J. L.; de Ligt, J.; Ren, X.; Storey, M.; Freed, N. E.; Pattabiraman, C.; Prasad, P.; Desai, A. S.; Vasanthapuram, R.; Schulz, T. F.; Steinbruck, L.; Stadler, T.; Swiss Viollier Sequencing, Consortium, Parisi, A.; Bianco, A.; Garcia de Viedma, D.; Buenestado-Serrano, S.; Borges, V.; Isidro, J.; Duarte, S.; Gomes, J. P.; Zuckerman, N. S.; Mandelboim, M.; Mor, O.; Seemann, T.; Arnott, A.; Draper, J.; Gall, M.; Rawlinson, W.; Deveson, I.; Schlebusch, S.; McMahon, J.; Leong, L.; Lim, C. K.; Chironna, M.; Loconsole, D.; Bal, A.; Josset, L.; Holmes, E.; St George, K.; Lasek-Nesselquist, E.; Sikkema, R. S.; Oude Munnink, B.; Koopmans, M.; Brytting, M.; Sudha Rani, V.; Pavani, S.; Smura, T.; Heim, A.; Kurkela, S.; Umair, M.; Salman, M.; Bartolini, B.; Rueca, M.; Drosten, C.; Wolff, T.; Silander, O.; Eggink, D.; Reusken, C.; Vennema, H.; Park, A.; Carrington, C.; Sahadeo, N.; Carr, M.; Gonzalez, G.; Diego, Search Alliance San, National Virus Reference, Laboratory, Seq, Covid Spain, Danish Covid-19 Genome, Consortium, Communicable Diseases Genomic, Network, Dutch National, Sars-CoV-surveillance program, Division of Emerging Infectious, Diseases, de Oliveira, T.; Faria, N.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G..
Wellcome Open Research ; 6:121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450989

ABSTRACT

Late in 2020, two genetically-distinct clusters of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with mutations of biological concern were reported, one in the United Kingdom and one in South Africa. Using a combination of data from routine surveillance, genomic sequencing and international travel we track the international dispersal of lineages B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 (variant 501Y-V2). We account for potential biases in genomic surveillance efforts by including passenger volumes from location of where the lineage was first reported, London and South Africa respectively. Using the software tool grinch (global report investigating novel coronavirus haplotypes), we track the international spread of lineages of concern with automated daily reports, Further, we have built a custom tracking website (cov-lineages.org/global_report.html) which hosts this daily report and will continue to include novel SARS-CoV-2 lineages of concern as they are detected.

19.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 445, 2021 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of depression has risen in the general population during the COVID-19 epidemic. This study was conducted to explore risk and protective factors associated with depression among the general population uninfected by COVID-19. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,500 representative South Korean citizens aged 19-65 years through an anonymous online survey. Depression was defined as a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 score of 10 or higher. Other questionnaires included one measuring psycho-behavioural and social changes, and stress, due to COVID-19, a six-item version of the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6), and a three-item version of the UCLA loneliness scale. RESULTS: Of the 1492 participants not infected by COVID-19, 312 (20.9%) exhibited depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that depression was positively associated with COVID-19-related stress and psycho-behavioural variables such as disturbances in eating and sleeping, younger age, smoking, underlying mental illness, and loneliness scale scores. In contrast, exercise three or more times per week and GQ-6 scale scores were inversely associated with depression. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, maintaining daily routines including eating, sleeping, and regular exercise and focusing on gratitude may be important for the prevention of depression. In addition, more attention should be paid to vulnerable populations, including young people, those with mental illnesses, and smokers, who might be more susceptible to depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
20.
Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1281926

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study examines the effectiveness of Zero-Contact Marketing that minimizes contact between employees and consumers in marketplaces by adopting an integrated research framework of motivation theory, servicescape model and the theory of reasoned action (TRA). Design/methodology/approach: This study randomly collected 314 respondents through an online survey in May 2020 in South Korea. Structural equation modeling (SEM) assessed the overall hypothetical research model. Findings: Zero-Contact Marketing facilitates the positive impacts of Korean consumers' motivations (intrinsic and extrinsic) and service environment on their word-of-mouth (WOM) intention to spread information about a store offering Zero-Contact Marketing service and the store revisit intention. In addition, consumers' attitude toward Zero-Contact Marketing and shopping pleasure (SPL) has stronger impacts on consumers' WOM intention than they do on the store revisit intention. Research limitations/implications: The limitation of this study lies in that the survey participants responded only in South Korea, which may lead to biased results. To provide a more generalized insight, this study should be extended by considering consumers in other countries, since many consumers around the world tend to minimize face-to-face interaction and avoid unnecessary interruptions under the current pandemic. Practical implications: By minimizing the social interaction between employees and consumers, Zero-Contact Marketing may increase consumers' shopping satisfaction with free shopping moments and no disturbance, especially under the COVID-19 pandemic. Originality/value: The findings provide theoretical contributions by empirically validating the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and service environment on consumers' internal and external responses in a Zero-Contact retail setting. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

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