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1.
J Clin Virol ; 157: 105319, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 5-10 days of isolation for patients with COVID-19, depending on symptom duration and severity. However, in clinical practice, an individualized approach is required. We thus developed a clinical scoring system to predict viable viral shedding. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a hospital or community isolation facility between February 2020 and January 2022. Daily dense respiratory samples were obtained, and genomic RNA viral load assessment and viral culture were performed. Clinical predictors of negative viral culture results were identified using survival analysis and multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Among 612 samples from 121 patients including 11 immunocompromised patients (5 organ transplant recipients, 5 with hematologic malignancy, and 1 receiving immunosuppressive agents) with varying severity, 154 (25%) revealed positive viral culture results. Multivariable analysis identified symptom onset day, viral copy number, disease severity, organ transplant recipient, and vaccination status as independent predictors of culture-negative rate. We developed a 4-factor predictive model based on viral copy number (-3 to 3 points), disease severity (1 point for moderate to critical disease), organ transplant recipient (2 points), and vaccination status (-2 points for fully vaccinated). Predicted culture-negative rates were calculated through the symptom onset day and the score of the day the sample was collected. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical scoring system can provide the objective probability of a culture-negative state in a patient with COVID-19 and is potentially useful for implementing personalized de-isolation policies beyond the simple symptom-based isolation strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , United States , Adult , Humans , Virus Shedding , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Viral Load
2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 922431, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099166

ABSTRACT

Background: Isolation of COVID-19 patients is a crucial infection control measure to prevent further SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but determining an appropriate timing to end the COVID-19 isolation is a challenging. We evaluated the performance of the self-test rapid antigen test (RAT) as a potential proxy to terminate the isolation of COVID-19 patients. Materials and methods: Symptomatic COVID-19 patients were enrolled who were admitted to a regional community treatment center (CTC) in Seoul (South Korea). Self-test RAT and the collection of saliva samples were performed by the patients, on a daily basis, until patient discharge. Cell culture and subgenomic RNA detection were performed on saliva samples. Results: A total of 138 pairs of saliva samples and corresponding RAT results were collected from 34 COVID-19 patients. Positivity of RAT and cell culture was 27% (37/138) and 12% (16/138), respectively. Of the 16 culture-positive saliva samples, seven (43.8%) corresponding RAT results were positive. Using cell culture as the reference standard, the overall percent agreement, percent positive agreement, and percent negative agreement of RAT were 71% (95% CI, 63-78), 26% (95% CI, 12-42), and 82% (95% CI, 76-87), respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the RAT for predicting culture results were 44% (95% CI, 20-70), 75% (95% CI, 66-82), 18% (95% CI, 8-34), and 91% (95% CI, 84-96), respectively. Conclusion: About half of the patients who were SARS-CoV-2 positive based upon cell culture results gave negative RAT results. However, the remaining positive culture cases were detected by RAT, and RAT showed relatively high negative predictive value for viable viral shedding.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(39): e289, 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065446

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hematologic malignancies may produce replication-competent virus beyond 20 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, data regarding the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from patients with prolonged viral shedding is limited. METHODS: In May 2022, four additional cases of COVID-19 were reported in a hematologic ward at a tertiary care hospital in South Korea, after an 8-week isolation of a patient with prolonged viral shedding. We performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate the possibility of post-isolation transmission from this prolonged viral shedding. RESULTS: A patient (case 1) with acute myeloid leukemia was released from isolation 54 days after the diagnosis of COVID-19 based on rising Ct value of up to 29.3, and moved to a six-patient room. On days 10 and 11 post-isolation, his doctor (case 2) and 2 patients who were his roommates (case 3, 4) had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR results. Additionally, 16 days post-isolation, another patient (case 5) in a remote room had positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result. All the three patients were hospitalized for ≥ 14 days when they were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Except for case 3, the remaining 4 cases were available for WGS, which revealed that case 1 exhibited a 7 nucleotides difference in comparison to cases 4 and 5 and case 2 displayed a 20 nucleotides difference compared with case 1, while sequences of cases 4 and 5 were identical. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possibility of transmission from the patient with prolonged viral shedding, no evidence of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from the patient with prolonged positive RT-PCR using WGS was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitals , Humans , Nucleotides , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Shedding
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13491, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050506

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of the factors affecting the difference in kinetics and longevity of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) response to SARS-CoV-2 is necessary to properly prioritize vaccination. In the present study, from March to December 2020, of the 143 patients who recovered from COVID-19, 87 underwent study visits scheduled every 3 months. Patient demographics and blood samples were collected followed by a plaque reduction neutralization test to analyze nAb titers. A linear mixed model was used to compare the effects of sex, age, and disease severity over time. Results demonstrated a gradual reduction in nAb titers over time with a significant decrease from 6 to 9 months post-COVID-19 infection (p < 0.001). In time-to-sex, age, and disease severity comparisons, reduction in nAb titers over time was unaffected by sex (p = 0.167), age (p = 0.188), or disease severity (p = 0.081). Additionally, the nAb titer was 1.46 times significantly higher in those aged ≥ 50 years than in those aged < 50 years (p = 0.036) irrespective of time Moreover, the nAb titer was 2.41 times higher in the moderate or above than that in the below moderate disease severity group (p < 0.001). However, no significant differences were observed in terms of sex (p = 0.300). Given the reduction in nAbs over time, maintaining protective neutralizing antibodies regardless of sex, age, or disease severity is needed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045842

ABSTRACT

Background : The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends 5–10 days of isolation for patients with COVID-19, depending on symptom duration and severity. However, in clinical practice, an individualized approach is required. We thus developed a clinical scoring system to predict viable viral shedding. Methods : We prospectively enrolled adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection admitted to a hospital or community isolation facility between February 2020 and January 2022. Daily dense respiratory samples were obtained, and genomic RNA viral load assessment and viral culture were performed. Clinical predictors of negative viral culture results were identified using survival analysis and multivariable analysis. Results : Among 612 samples from 121 patients including 11 immunocompromised patients (5 organ transplant recipients, 5 with hematologic malignancy, and 1 receiving immunosuppressive agents) with varying severity, 154 (25%) revealed positive viral culture results. Multivariable analysis identified symptom onset day, viral copy number, disease severity, organ transplant recipient, and vaccination status as independent predictors of culture-negative rate. We developed a 4-factor predictive model based on viral copy number (-3 to 3 points), disease severity (1 point for moderate to critical disease), organ transplant recipient (2 points), and vaccination status (-2 points for fully vaccinated). Predicted culture-negative rates were calculated through the symptom onset day and the score of the day the sample was collected. Conclusions : Our clinical scoring system can provide the objective probability of a culture-negative state in a patient with COVID-19 and is potentially useful for implementing personalized de-isolation policies beyond the simple symptom-based isolation strategy.

6.
Clin Lab ; 68(9)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To assess protective immunity among a general population against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the correlation of the commercially available solid-phase assay (SPA) for SARS-CoV-2 IgG with a neutralization assay must be investigated. METHODS: Both the neutralization assay and SPA were performed on samples of 143 recovered coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured using two SPAs for the chemiluminescence immunoassay principle with different target proteins: nucleocapsid and spike protein (Architect i2000SR [Abbott] and Liaison XL [DiaSorin], respectively). The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was conducted to obtain titers for the neutralizing antibody. RESULTS: All patients had PRNT titers ranging from 10 to 2,560. Spike Ab SPA had greater sensitivity than nucleocapsid Ab SPA (81.1% [116/143] and 70.6% [101/143], respectively, p = 0.003). The values measured for both SPAs had a positive correlation with the PRNT titers (both R = 0.77, p < 0.001). To predict a high PRNT titer (≥ 160), cutoff values of two SPAs were adjusted based on receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. The nucleocapsid Ab SPA (cutoff index of 4.17) attained 90.3% sensitivity and 75.9% specificity, whereas the spike Ab SPA (cutoff value of 109 unit/mL) attained 87.1% sensitivity and 89.3% specificity. Therefore, the spike Ab SPA had greater specificity than the nucleocapsid Ab SPA (p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: The qualitative SPA for nucleocapsid Ab, as well as the quantitative SPA for spike Ab, had a modest positive correlation with the neutralization assay. However, spike Ab SPA was more suitable for neutralizing capacity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
7.
Science ; 377(6609): 960-966, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962060

ABSTRACT

Understanding the circumstances that lead to pandemics is important for their prevention. We analyzed the genomic diversity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) early in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We show that SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity before February 2020 likely comprised only two distinct viral lineages, denoted "A" and "B." Phylodynamic rooting methods, coupled with epidemic simulations, reveal that these lineages were the result of at least two separate cross-species transmission events into humans. The first zoonotic transmission likely involved lineage B viruses around 18 November 2019 (23 October to 8 December), and the separate introduction of lineage A likely occurred within weeks of this event. These findings indicate that it is unlikely that SARS-CoV-2 circulated widely in humans before November 2019 and define the narrow window between when SARS-CoV-2 first jumped into humans and when the first cases of COVID-19 were reported. As with other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 emergence likely resulted from multiple zoonotic events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Computer Simulation , Genetic Variation , Genomics/methods , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology , Viral Zoonoses/virology
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2213606, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858512

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data are limited on whether patients with breakthrough COVID-19 infection have the potential to significantly contribute to the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To compare the secondary attack rate and infectious viral shedding kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 between fully vaccinated individuals (breakthrough infection group) and partially or unvaccinated individuals (nonbreakthrough infection group). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study assessed secondary transmission by analyzing the epidemiologic data of health care workers, inpatients, and caregivers diagnosed with COVID-19 during hospitalization or residence in a tertiary care hospital between March 1, 2020, and November 6, 2021. To evaluate viral shedding kinetics, the genomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 was measured using polymerase chain reaction and performed virus culture from daily saliva samples of individuals with mild COVID-19 infected with the Delta variant who were isolated in a community facility in Seoul, South Korea, between July 20 and August 20, 2021. Exposures: COVID-19 vaccination. Main Outcomes and Measures: The secondary attack rate and infectious viral shedding kinetics according to COVID-19 vaccination status. Results: A total of 173 individuals (median [IQR] age, 47 [32-59] years; 100 female [58%]) with COVID-19 were included in the secondary transmission study, of whom 50 (29%) had a breakthrough infection. Secondary transmission was significantly less common in the breakthrough infection group than in the nonbreakthrough infection group (3 of 43 [7%] vs 29 of 110 [26%]; P = .008). In the viral shedding kinetics study, 45 patients (median age, 37 years [IQR, 25-49 years]; 14 female [31%]) infected with the Delta variant were included, of whom 6 (13%) were fully vaccinated and 39 (87%) were partially or unvaccinated. Although the initial genomic viral load was comparable between the 2 groups, viable virus in cell culture was detected for a notably longer duration in partially vaccinated (8 days after symptom onset) or unvaccinated (10 days after symptom onset) individuals compared with fully vaccinated individuals (4 days after symptom onset). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, although the initial genomic viral load was similar between vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals, fully vaccinated individuals had a shorter duration of viable viral shedding and a lower secondary attack rate than partially vaccinated or unvaccinated individuals. Data from this study provide important evidence that despite the possibility of breakthrough infections, COVID-19 vaccinations remain critically useful for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Middle Aged
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e27-e34, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the clinical and virological characteristics of the Delta variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited. This prospective cohort study compared the characteristics of the Delta variant to other variants. METHODS: Adult patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who agreed to daily saliva sampling at a community isolation facility in South Korea between July and August 2021 were enrolled. Scores of 28 COVID-19-related symptoms were recorded daily. The genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA from saliva samples were measured by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cell cultures were performed on saliva samples with positive genomic RNA results. RESULTS: A total of 141 patients (Delta group, n = 108 [77%]; non-Delta group, n = 33 [23%]) were enrolled. Myalgia was more common in the Delta group than in the non-Delta group (52% vs 27%, P = .03). Total symptom scores were significantly higher in the Delta group between days 3 and 10 after symptom onset. Initial genomic RNA titers were similar between the 2 groups; however, during the late course of disease, genomic RNA titers were higher in the Delta group. Negative conversion of subgenomic RNA was slower in the Delta group (median 9 vs 5 days; P < .001). The duration of viral shedding in terms of positive viral culture was also longer in the Delta group (median 5 vs 3 days; P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients infected with the Delta variant exhibited prolonged viable viral shedding with more severe symptoms than those infected with non-Delta variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(17): e133, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834343

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The potential for a nosocomial outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from a fully vaccinated individual is largely unknown. METHODS: In October 2021, during the time when the delta variant was dominant, a nosocomial outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in two wards in a tertiary care hospital in Seoul, Korea. We performed airflow investigations and whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of the virus. RESULTS: The index patient developed symptoms 1 day after admission, and was diagnosed with COVID-19 on day 4 post-admission. He was fully vaccinated (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) 2 months before the diagnosis. Three inpatients and a caregiver in the same room, two inpatients in an adjacent room, two inpatients in rooms remote from the index room, and one nurse on the ward tested positive. Also, two resident doctors who stayed in an on-call room located on the same ward tested positive (although they had no close contact), as well as a caregiver who stayed on an adjacent ward, and a healthcare worker who had casual contact with this caregiver. Samples from five individuals were available for WGS, and all showed ≤ 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism difference. CCTV footage showed that the index case walked frequently in the corridors of two wards. An airflow study showed that the air from the corridor flowed into the resident on-call room, driven by an air circulator that was always turned on. CONCLUSION: Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from a fully vaccinated index occurred rapidly via the wards and on-call room. Care must be taken to not use equipment that can change the airflow.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , COVID-19/epidemiology , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
12.
J Microbiol ; 60(3): 308-320, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782972

ABSTRACT

The three types of approved coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines that have been emergency-use listed (EUL) by the World Health Organization are mRNA vaccines, adenovirus-vectored vaccines, and inactivated vaccines. Canonical vaccine developments usually take years or decades to be completed to commercialization; however, the EUL vaccines being used in the current situation comprise several COVID-19 vaccine candidates applied in studies and clinical settings across the world. The extraordinary circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have necessitated the emergency authorization of these EUL vaccines, which have been rapidly developed. Although the benefits of the EUL vaccines outweigh their adverse effects, there have been reports of rare but fatal cases directly associated with COVID-19 vaccinations. Thus, a reassessment of the immunological rationale underlying EUL vaccines in relation to COVID-19 caused by SARSCOV-2 virus infection is now required. In this review, we discuss the manifestations of COVID-19, immunologically projected effects of EUL vaccines, reported immune responses, informed issues related to COVID-19 vaccination, and the potential strategies for future vaccine use against antigenic variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Immunity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Infect Dis ; 225(9): 1554-1560, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission through exposure to aerosols has been suggested. Therefore, we investigated the possibility of aerosol SARS-CoV-2 transmission within an apartment complex where residents reported testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 despite having no direct contact with other SARS-CoV-2-infected people. METHODS: Information on symptom onset and exposure history of the patients was collected by global positioning system (GPS) tracking to investigate possible points of contact or spread. Samples collected from patients and from various areas of the complex were analyzed using RNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed. RESULTS: Of 19 people with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, 5 reported no direct contact with other residents and were from apartments in the same vertical line. Eight environmental samples tested positive for the virus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 3 of the positive cases and 1 environmental sample belonged to the B.1.497 lineage. Additionally, 3 clinical specimens and 1 environmental sample from each floor of the complex had the same amino acid substitution in the ORF1ab region. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 transmission possibly occurs between different floors of an apartment building through aerosol transmission via nonfunctioning drain traps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aerosols , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
14.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481021

ABSTRACT

We conducted a prospective cohort study at a community facility designated for the isolation of individuals with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 between 10 January and 22 February 2021 to investigate the relationship of viral shedding with symptom changes of COVID-19. In total, 89 COVID-19 adult patients (12 asymptomatic, 16 presymptomatic, 61 symptomatic) were enrolled. Symptom scores, the genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from saliva samples with a cell culture were measured. Asymptomatic COVID-19 patients had a similar viral load to symptomatic patients during the early course of the disease, but exhibited a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity. Subgenomic RNA and viable virus by cell culture in asymptomatic patients were detected only until 3 days after diagnosis, and the positivity of the subgenomic RNA and cell culture in symptomatic patients gradually decreased in both from 40% in the early disease course to 13% at 10 days and 4% at 8 days after the symptom onset, respectively. In conclusion, symptomatic patients have a high infectivity with high symptom scores during the early disease course and gradually lose infectivity depending on the symptom. Conversely, asymptomatic patients exhibit a rapid decrease in viral load with the loss of infectivity, despite a similar viral load during the early disease course.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Shedding , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Viral Load
15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5120, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373414

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which infected >200 million people resulting in >4 million deaths. However, temporal landscape of the SARS-CoV-2 translatome and its impact on the human genome remain unexplored. Here, we report a high-resolution atlas of the translatome and transcriptome of SARS-CoV-2 for various time points after infecting human cells. Intriguingly, substantial amount of SARS-CoV-2 translation initiates at a novel translation initiation site (TIS) located in the leader sequence, termed TIS-L. Since TIS-L is included in all the genomic and subgenomic RNAs, the SARS-CoV-2 translatome may be regulated by a sophisticated interplay between TIS-L and downstream TISs. TIS-L functions as a strong translation enhancer for ORF S, and as translation suppressors for most of the other ORFs. Our global temporal atlas provides compelling insight into unique regulation of the SARS-CoV-2 translatome and helps comprehensively evaluate its impact on the human genome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Protein Biosynthesis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Transcriptome , Gene Expression Regulation, Viral , Genome, Human , Humans , Open Reading Frames , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/metabolism
16.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 28(1): 101-106, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356179

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The development of a rapid diagnostic test for viable SARS-CoV-2 is important for infection control. Real-time RT-PCR assays detect non-viable virus, and cell culture differentiates viable virus but it takes several weeks and is labour-intensive. Subgenomic RNAs may reflect replication-competent virus. We therefore evaluated the usefulness of subgenomic RNAs for diagnosing viable SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients with various severities of confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled at a tertiary hospital between February and December 2020. RT-PCR assay results for genomic and subgenomic RNA of SARS-CoV-2 from nasopharyngeal swab, sputum and saliva specimens were compared with cell culture results. RESULTS: A total 189 specimens from 20 COVID-19 patients were tested in genomic and subgenomic PCR assays and cultured on Vero cells. Of these 189 samples, 62 (33%) gave positive culture results, 93 (49%) negative results and the remaining 34 (18%) indeterminate results. Compared with cell culture results, the sensitivities of genomic RNA and subgenomic RNA of the N and S genes were comparable at 100%, but the specificity of subgenomic RNA (N, 65% and S, 68%) was higher than that of genomic RNA (N, 23% and S, 17%, p < 0.001). The mean durations of positive culture and subgenomic RNA were 11.39 ± 10.34 and 13.75 ± 11.22 days after symptom onset (p 0.437), respectively, while that of genomic RNA was 22.85 ± 11.83 days after symptom onset (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: Our comparison of subgenomic RNA detection with symptom duration and SARS-CoV-2 culture positivity provides a significant advancement on the transmissibility-based approach beyond the detection of SARS-CoV-2 genomic RNA, and warrants further studies on the development of better diagnostic strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Vero Cells
17.
Biomol Ther (Seoul) ; 29(3): 268-272, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140725

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) has caused more than 100 million confirmed cases of human infectious disease (COVID-19) since December 2019 to paralyze our global community. However, only limited access has been allowed to COVID-19 vaccines and antiviral treatment options. Here, we report the efficacy of the anticancer drug pralatrexate against SARS-CoV-2. In Vero and human lung epithelial Calu-3 cells, pralatrexate reduced viral RNA copies of SARS-CoV-2 without detectable cytotoxicity, and viral replication was successfully inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. In a time-to-addition assay, pralatrexate treatment at almost half a day after infection also exhibited inhibitory effects on the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in Calu-3 cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of pralatrexate as a drug repurposing COVID-19 remedy.

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