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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934069

ABSTRACT

Exercise training involving exercises of optimal intensity and duration improves psychological and medical variables in relative leisure-deprived people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to analyze associated psychological variables and the effect of exercise intensity and duration on immune responses in relative leisure-deprived people infected with HIV. The participants completed different moderate-intensity exercises (30 min (60-80% HRmax) and 45 min (60-80% HRmax)) and high-intensity exercise for 10 min (>80% HRmax). Levels higher than "normal" were rated for relative leisure deprivation, indicating relative deprivation of leisure among participants. The overall level of quality of life was "normal", indicating that quality of life was not considered high. The stress level was psychologically considered low. Time had a significant effect on cortisol levels (p < 0.05). Compared to pre-exercise, cortisol level was significantly decreased immediately after moderate exercise for 45 min and 3 h post-exercise after high-intensity exercise for 10 min (p < 0.05). However, time and the interaction of condition and time had no significant effect on IL-6 and sIgA levels (p > 0.05). Despite the small sample size of this pilot study, the results demonstrate that moderate-intensity exercise can be recommended to improve the health and quality of life of people infected with HIV.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Hydrocortisone , Exercise , Humans , Immunity , Leisure Activities , Pilot Projects
2.
Children (Basel) ; 9(7)2022 Jul 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917317

ABSTRACT

Unscheduled revisits to emergency departments (EDs) are important because they indicate the quality of emergency care. However, the characteristics of pediatric patients visiting EDs changed during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, and these changes may have affected their revisit patterns. Therefore, we aimed to compare the ED revisit patterns of pediatric patients between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. This retrospective multicenter study included patients aged below 18 years who visited the ED in the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. ED revisit rates were analyzed using five age groups and three visit-revisit intervals. In the pre-COVID-19 period, the revisit rates decreased with increasing age. In the COVID-19 period, the revisit rates were the lowest for the group aged 4-6 years, and the rates increased for those aged ≥7 years. In conclusion, there were changes in the patterns of revisit rates of pediatric patients according to age between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the reasons for revisits according to age and establish strategies to reduce the revisit rates of pediatric patients.

3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(21): e168, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875391

ABSTRACT

Despite the accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), rapid antigen tests (RATs) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 are widely used as point-of-care tests. A total of 282 pairs of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Standard Q COVID-19 Ag tests were serially conducted for 68 patients every 3-4 days until their discharge. Through a field evaluation of RATs using direct nasopharyngeal swabs, the sensitivities were 84.6% and 87.3% for E and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) genes, respectively, for specimens with cycle thresholds (Cts) < 25. The Ct values of E and RdRp genes for 95% detection rates by RATs were 16.9 and 18.1, respectively. The sensitivity of RAT was 48.4% after the onset of symptoms, which was not sufficient. RAT positivity gradually decreased with increased time after symptom onset and had continuously lower sensitivity than NAATs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Humans , Nasopharynx , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811802, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731773

ABSTRACT

A mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 that can be developed in any molecular biology lab with standard facilities will be valuable in evaluating drugs and vaccines. Here we present a simplified SARS-CoV-2 mouse model exploiting the rapid adenoviral purification method. Mice that are sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 infection were generated by transducing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) by an adenovirus. The expression kinetics of the hACE2 in transduced mice were assessed by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR, and qPCR. Further, the ability of the hACE2 to support viral replication was determined in vitro and in vivo. The hACE2 expression in the lungs of mice was observed for at least nine days after transduction. The murine macrophages expressing hACE2 supported viral replication with detection of high viral titers. Next, in vivo studies were carried out to determine viral replication and lung disease following SARS-CoV-2 challenge. The model supported viral replication, and the challenged mouse developed lung disease characteristic of moderate interstitial pneumonia. Further, we illustrated the utility of the system by demonstrating protection using an oral mRNA vaccine. The multicistronic vaccine design enabled by the viral self-cleaving peptides targets receptor binding domain (RBD), heptad repeat domain (HR), membrane glycoprotein (M) and epitopes of nsp13 of parental SARS-CoV-2. Further, Salmonella and Semliki Forest virus replicon were exploited, respectively, for gene delivery and mRNA expression. We recorded potent cross-protective neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice against the SARS-CoV-2 delta variant. The vaccine protected the mice against viral replication and SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss and lung pathology. The findings support the suitability of the model for preclinical evaluation of anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapies and vaccines. In addition, the findings provide novel insights into mRNA vaccine design against infectious diseases not limiting to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Replicon/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cell Line , Disease Models, Animal , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
7.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
8.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715473

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To introduce the admission protocol of a COVID-19 specialized hospital outlined by the government, including the assessment of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), low dose chest computed tomography (CT) and antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) for patient screening. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 646 patients who were admitted between December 2020, and February 2021, during the third wave of COVID-19 in Korea. Ag-RDT and RT-PCR were routinely performed on all patients who required admission, and low-dose chest CT was performed on high-risk patients with associated symptoms. Any patients with high-risk COVID-19 infection according to the Ag-RDT test were quarantined alone in a negative pressured room, and those with low-risk COVID-19 infection remained in the preemptive quarantine room with or without negative pressure. The diagnostic values of the Ag-RDT test and associated cycle threshold (Ct) values of the RT-PCR test were subsequently evaluated. RESULTS: In terms of the diagnostic value, the Ag-RDT for COVID-19 had a sensitivity of 68.3%, specificity of 99.5%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 90.3%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 97.9%. For the 355 symptomatic patients with low-dose chest CT, the diagnostic values of combined evaluations had a sensitivity of 90.2%, specificity of 99.0%, PPV of 86.1%, and NPV of 99.3%. The cut-off Ct value for positive Ag-RDT was ≤25.67 for the N gene (sensitivity: 89.3%, specificity: 100%), which was regarded as a high viable virus in cell culture. There were no patients or medical staff who had COVID-19 in the hospital. CONCLUSION: Appropriate patient care was possible by definitive triage of the area, according to the symptoms and using diagnostic tests. Screening protocols, including the Ag-RDT test and low-dose chest CT, could be helpful in emergency point-of-care settings.

9.
Immune Netw ; 21(6): e41, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704288

ABSTRACT

Correlation between vaccine reactogenicity and immunogenicity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is unclear. Thus, we investigated to determine whether the reactogenicity after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination is associated with antibody (Ab) titers and T cell responses. This study was prospective cohort study done with 131 healthcare workers at tertiary center in Seoul, South Korea. The degrees of the local reactions after the 1st and 2nd doses of ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (ChAdOx1) vaccination were significantly associated with the S1-specific IgG Ab titers (p=0.003 and 0.01, respectively) and neutralizing Ab (p=0.04 and 0.10, respectively) in age- and sex-adjusted multivariate analysis, whereas those after the BNT162b2 vaccination did not show significant associations. T cell responses did not show significant associations with the degree of reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccination or the BNT162b2 vaccination. Thus, high degree of local reactogenicity after the ChAdOx1 vaccine may be used as an indicator of strong humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318717

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic is predicted to significantly affect patients with lung cancer, owing to its rapid progression and high mortality. Studies on lung cancer diagnosis and treatment during an epidemic are lacking. We analyzed the impact of COVID-19 on lung cancer diagnosis in Korea, where lung cancer incidence continues to rise. Methods: The number of newly diagnosed lung cancer cases in three university-affiliated hospitals during the pandemic and their clinical features were compared with lung cancer cases diagnosed during the same period in the past three years. The effectiveness of measures taken by the study hospitals to prevent nosocomial transmission was reviewed. Results: Between February and June during 2017–2020. 612 patients with lung cancer were diagnosed. During the pandemic, the number of patients who sought consultation at the division of pulmonology of study hospitals dropped by 16% from the previous year. Responding to the pandemic, the involved hospitals created physically isolated triage areas for patients with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Wide-range screening and preventive measures were implemented, thus minimizing delay in lung cancer diagnosis. No patients acquired COVID-19 due to hospital exposure. The proportion of patients with stage III–IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) significantly increased (2020: 74.7% vs. 2017: 57.9%, 2018: 66.7%, 2019: 62.7%, p=0.011). The number of lung cancers diagnosed during this period and the previous year remained the same. Conclusion: The proportion of patients with advanced NSCLC increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Mol Ther ; 30(5): 1926-1940, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665550

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolution has resulted in many variants, contributing to the striking drop in vaccine efficacy and necessitating the development of next-generation vaccines to tackle antigenic diversity. Herein we developed a multivalent Semliki Forest virus replicon-based mRNA vaccine targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD), heptad repeat domain (HR), membrane protein (M), and epitopes of non-structural protein 13 (nsp13) of SARS-CoV-2. The bacteria-mediated gene delivery offers the rapid production of large quantities of vaccine at a highly economical scale and notably allows needle-free mass vaccination. Favorable T-helper (Th) 1-dominated potent antibody and cellular immune responses were detected in the immunized mice. Further, immunization induced strong cross-protective neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against the B.1.617.2 delta variant (clade G). We recorded a difference in induction of immunoglobulin (Ig) A response by the immunization route, with the oral route eliciting a strong mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA) response, which possibly has contributed to the enhanced protection conferred by oral immunization. Hamsters immunized orally were completely protected against viral replication in the lungs and the nasal cavity. Importantly, the vaccine protected the hamsters against SARS-CoV-2-induced pneumonia. The study provides proof-of-principle findings for the development of a feasible and efficacious oral mRNA vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Bacteria , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Cricetinae , Humans , Mice , Replicon , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e13, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is generally asymptomatic or mild in otherwise healthy children, however, severe cases may occur. In this study, we report the clinical characteristics of children classified as critical COVID-19 in Korea to provide further insights into risk factors and management in children. METHODS: This study was a retrospective case series of children < 18 years of age classified as critical COVID-19. Cases were identified by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency surveillance system and medical records were reviewed. Critical COVID-19 was defined as cases with severe illness requiring noninvasive (high flow nasal cannula, continuous positive airway pressure, or bilevel positive airway pressure) or invasive mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), between January 20, 2020 and October 7, 2021. RESULTS: Among 39,146 cases diagnosed with COVID-19 in subjects < 18 years of age, eight cases (0.02%) were identified as critical COVID-19. The median age was 13 years (range 10 month-17 years) and male-to-female ratio was 1:1. Three children had underlying diseases; one child has asthma and major depressive disorder, one child had Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and one child had mental retardation and was newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus with the diagnosis of COVID-19. Among the eight children, seven were obese (body mass index range [BMI] median 29.3, range 25.9-38.2, weight-for-length > 97% for infant) and one was overweight (BMI 21.3). All patients had fever, six patients had dyspnea or cough and other accompanied symptoms included sore throat, headache, lethargy and myalgia. Radiologic findings showed pneumonia within 1-8 days after symptom onset. Pneumonia progressed in these children for 2-6 days and was improved within 5-32 days after diagnosis. Among the eight critical cases, remdesivir was administered in six cases. Steroids were provided for all cases. Inotropics were administered in one case. Six cases were treated with noninvasive mechanical ventilator and three required mechanical ventilator. One case required ECMO due to acute respiratory distress syndrome. All cases were admitted to the intensive care unit and admission period ranged from 9-39 days. Among all critical COVID-19 cases < 18 years of age, there were no fatal cases. CONCLUSION: To develop appropriate policies for children in the COVID-19 pandemic, it is important to monitor and assess the clinical burden in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Critical Care , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(50): e343, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594418

ABSTRACT

As hospitals cater to elderly and vulnerable patients, a high mortality rate is expected if a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak occurs. Consequently, policies to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in hospital settings are essential. This study was conducted to investigate how effectively national and international guidelines provide recommendations for infection control issues in hospitals. After selecting important issues in infection control, we performed a systematic review and analysis of recommendations and guidelines for preventing COVID-19 transmission within medical institutions at national and international levels. We analyzed guidelines from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, and Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Recent guidelines do not provide specific solutions to infection control issues. Therefore, efforts need to be made to devise consistent advice and guidelines for COVID-19 control.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Personnel , Humans
15.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S316-S317, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564302

ABSTRACT

Background Infection control measures against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) within a hospital often rely on expert experience and intuition due to the lack of clear guidelines. This study surveyed current strategies for the prevention of the spread of COVID-19 in medical institutions. Methods Upon systematic review of the guidelines at the national level, 14 key topics were selected. Six hospitals were provided an open survey that assessed their responses to these topics between August 11 and 25, 2020. Using these data, an online questionnaire was developed and sent to the infection control teams of 46 hospitals in South Korea. The survey was conducted between January 31, 2021, and February 20, 2021. Results All 46 hospitals responded to the survey, and 24 hospitals (52.2%) had treated 100 or more cases of COVID-19. All hospitals operated screening clinics, and the criteria were respiratory symptoms (100%), fever (97.8%), and epidemiological association (93.5%). It was found that 89.1% (41/46) of hospitals allowed symptomatic patients to visit their general outpatient clinics if fever or respiratory symptoms were not associated with COVID-19. Most hospitals (87.2%;34/39) conducted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for all hospitalized patients. Moreover, 76.1% (35/46) of hospitals implemented preemptive isolation policies for hospitalized patients, of which 97.1% (34/35) were released from isolation after a single negative PCR test. A little over half of the hospitals (58.7%;27/46) treated patients that met the national criteria for release from isolation but consistently had positive PCR results. Of these hospitals, 63% (17/27) used N95/KF94 masks, and 40.7% (11/27) used surgical masks without other personal protective equipment for treating them. Most hospitals (76.9%;20/26) accommodated them in shared rooms when the cycle threshold value of the PCR test was more than a certain value (34.6%;9/26), or after a certain period that satisfied the national criteria (26.9%;7/26). Finally, 76.1% (35/46) of hospitals performed emergency procedures or operations on suspected patients. Table 1. Screening and selective treatment policy to prevent COVID-19 patients from entering the hospital Note Values are presented as number (%) Abbreviations: COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019;PCR, polymerase chain reaction 1 This question requested the respondent to select multiple items. 2 Suspected cases of COVID-19 include fever, respiratory symptoms, and epidemiological associations with COVID-19 patients. Note Values are presented as number (%) Abbreviations: COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019;PCR, polymerase chain reaction;PAPR, powered air-purifying respirator;Ct, cycle threshold 1 This question requested the respondent to select multiple items. 2 It includes infectious diseases, pulmonology, and the infection control and prevention office. 3 One hospital that wrote a non-categorical answer for the question was excluded. The hospital made a decision after discussing it with an infectious diseases specialist. Conclusion Various guidelines were being applied by each medical institution, but there was a lack of an explicit set of national guidelines to support them. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

16.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
17.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0067221, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532977

ABSTRACT

Here, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of a serological assay using the nucleocapsid protein developed for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection and evaluated its performance using three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), namely, Standard E 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) total antibody (Ab) ELISA (SD Biosensor), and EDI novel coronavirus COVID-19 IgG and IgM ELISA. A recombinant nucleocapsid protein (rNP) was expressed from plants and Escherichia coli for the detection of serum total Ab. We prospectively collected 141 serum samples from 32 patients with reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19 and determined the sensitivity and dynamics of their total Ab response. Specificity was evaluated using 158 prepandemic samples. To validate the assays, we evaluated the performance using two different cutoff values. The sensitivity and specificity for each assay were as follows: 92.91% and 94.30% (plant-rNP), 83.69% and 98.73% (SD Biosensor), 75.89% and 98.10% (E. coli-rNP), 76.47% and 100% (EDI-IgG), and 80.39% and 80% (EDI-IgM). The plant-based rNP showed the highest sensitivity and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (0.980) among all the assays (P < 0.05). The seroconversion rate for total Ab increased sequentially with disease progression, with a sensitivity of 100% after 10 to 12 days of post-symptom onset (PSO) for both rNP-plant-based and SD Biosensor ELISAs. After 2 weeks of PSO, the seroconversion rates were >80% and 100% for EDI-IgM and EDI-IgG ELISA, respectively. Seroconversion occurred earlier with rNP plant-based ELISA (5 days PSO) compared with E. coli-based (7 days PSO) and SD Biosensor (8 days PSO) ELISA. We determined that rNP produced in plants enables the robust detection of SARS-CoV-2 total Abs. The assay can be used for serosurvey and complementary diagnosis of COVID-19. IMPORTANCE At present, the principal diagnostic methods for COVID-19 comprise the identification of viral nucleic acid by genetic approaches, including PCR-based techniques or next-generation sequencing. However, there is an urgent need for validated serological assays which are crucial for the understanding of immune responses against SARS-CoV-2. In this study, a highly sensitive and specific serological antibody assay was developed for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 with an overall accuracy of 93.56% using a recombinant nucleoprotein expressed from plants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Plant Proteins/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Nucleocapsid , Plant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroconversion , Tobacco/genetics
18.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 53(1): 172-182, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446178

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 outbreak has not only posed a threat to physical health but has also changed our daily lives. This study explored how the COVID-19 pandemic affected Korean parents' and children's daily lives and stress levels. Parents' childcare time, children's screen time, the time spent for social interactions and learning, and parents' and children's stress levels before and after the pandemic were compared. The main caregivers' childcare time increased significantly during the pandemic (4.00 h/day). For children, the time spent for screen time (1.76 h) and online interactions (0.95 h) increased significantly, whereas face-to-face interaction time (4.17 h) and time spent learning (2.16 h) decreased significantly. In addition, parents' and children's stress levels increased significantly during the pandemic. Other descriptive information is provided and discussed. Our results indicate that Korean parents and children experienced significant disruption to their daily lives and increased stress during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Parents , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Arch Virol ; 166(10): 2803-2815, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415036

ABSTRACT

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most important pathogen in the Korean swine industry. Despite efforts including improved biosecurity and vaccination protocols, the virus continues to circulate and evolve. Based on phylogenetic analysis of open reading frame 5 (ORF5), Korean PRRSVs are known to form not only globally circulating lineages but also country-specific lineages (Lin Kor A, B, and C). To understand the recent epidemiological status of PRRSV in Korea, a total of 1349 ORF5 sequences of Korean PRRSV isolates from 2014 to 2019 were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using the maximum-likelihood method, and temporal changes in the relative prevalence of lineages were investigated. The analysis showed that PRRSV1 and PRRSV2 were both highly prevalent throughout the years examined. Among the PRRSV1 isolates, subgroup A (90.1%) and vaccine-like subgroup C (9.0%) composed most of the population. For PRRSV2 isolates, vaccine-like lineage 5 (36.3%) was dominant, followed by Lin Kor B (25.9%), Kor C (16.6%), lineage 1 (11.6%), and Kor A (9.1%). The PRRSV2 lineage 1 population increased from 2014 (1.8%) to 2019 (29.6%) in Korea due to the continual spread of sublineage 1.8 (NADC30-like) and introduction of sublineage 1.6 into the country. Additional genetic analysis, including analysis of non synonymous and synonymous mutations, revealed evidence of diversification and positive selection in immunologically important regions of the genome, suggesting that current vaccination is failing and promoting immune-mediated selection. Overall, these findings provide insights into the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of cocirculating viral lineages, and constant surveillance of PRRSV occurrence is needed.


Subject(s)
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Genetic Variation , Genotype , Phylogeny , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/classification , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/isolation & purification , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Swine , Viral Vaccines/genetics
20.
Immune Netw ; 21(4): e29, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399492

ABSTRACT

There are limited data directly comparing humoral and T cell responses to the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and BNT162b2 vaccines. We compared Ab and T cell responses after first doses of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. BNT162b2 vaccines. We enrolled healthcare workers who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccine in Seoul, Korea. Anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) S1 protein-specific IgG Abs (S1-IgG), neutralizing Abs (NT Abs), and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell response were evaluated before vaccination and at 1-wk intervals for 3 wks after vaccination. A total of 76 persons, comprising 40 injected with the ChAdOx1 vaccine and 36 injected with the BNT162b2 vaccine, participated in this study. At 3 wks after vaccination, the mean levels (±SD) of S1-IgG and NT Abs in the BNT162b2 participants were significantly higher than in the ChAdOx1 participants (S1-IgG, 14.03±7.20 vs. 6.28±8.87, p<0.0001; NT Ab, 183.1±155.6 vs. 116.6±116.2, p=0.035), respectively. However, the mean values of the T cell responses in the 2 groups were comparable after 2 wks. The humoral immune response after the 1st dose of BNT162b2 developed faster and was stronger than after the 1st dose of ChAdOx1. However, the T cell responses to BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 were similar.

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