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2.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1):673, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2021278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schools were closed after the onset of COVID-19, with non-face-to-face practices or distance education in nursing education replacing video learning or simulation classes in nursing education clinical practicum. This led to an increase in interest in virtual environment simulation education. While technology-based teaching methods might feel new and intriguing to learners, it is necessary to evaluate learner satisfaction with such an educational method beyond its novelty value. Therefore, this study examined the mediating effect of learning immersion on the relationships between instructional design and educational satisfaction, for virtual environment simulation. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional research design was used. The study sample included students in the third or fourth year of the nursing curriculum in South Korea. The participants were 164 nursing students, who had an experience with virtual environment simulation practices during the past year, prior to September 2021. Data were collected using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed the characteristics of nursing students, instructional design, learning immersion, and educational satisfaction. The collected data were analyzed using path analysis. RESULTS: The indirect effect of the path between instructional design and educational satisfaction, mediated through learning immersion in virtual environment simulation was found to be significant. Furthermore, the direct path was also statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Educational content, based on virtual environment simulation, should be implemented based on instructional design. It is necessary to recognize the importance of instructional design that can promote learning immersion in virtual environment simulation, as well as to prepare consistent standards for such design.

3.
Nursing Practice Today ; 9(3):221-233, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1994696

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: This study aims to examine the perception of artificial insemination interviews experienced by prospective nursing graduates who have experienced artificial insemination interviews at medical institutions using focus groups and provide necessary data to increase the efficiency of artificial insemination interviews. Methods & Materials: This study was conducted to examine nursing students' artificial insemination interview experience during COVID-19 by performing a focus group interview and qualitative content analysis. The focus group interview was carried out on November 17, 2021, to understand nursing students' artificial insemination interview experience during COVID-19, selecting a total of 14 senior nursing students. Results: As a result of analyzing the artificial insemination interview experiences of nursing students who participated in this study, 35 codes, grouped into eight subcategories, were derived. They are also classified into three categories 1) Finding your way in the dark, 2) Confronting artificial intelligence, and 3) Going beyond artificial intelligence. The eight subcategories derived are as follows: 1) Vagueness, 2) Find your way, 3) The fight between artificial intelligence and me, 4) Strong questions about interview evaluation, 5) New experience, 6) Learn your own tricks for artificial insemination interviews, 7) Setting up the environment for artificial insemination interview, 8) Establishment of information system for artificial insemination interview. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, an educational program should be developed based on the main data obtained from the artificial insemination interview experience so that nursing college students can adapt to the artificial insemination interview. © 2022 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Published by Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

4.
2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874728

ABSTRACT

Through collaborative playlists (CPs), streaming platform users have co-curated music together for various purposes for over a decade. As the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed how people come together through technology and engage with music, CPs have also taken on new roles and value. To understand how CP usage and perception have evolved since the onset of COVID-19, we conducted a mixed-methods investigation of CPs in the United States. Survey results from primarily CP users (N=142) revealed that interest in and usage of CPs have mostly increased since the pandemic, and that the role of music in connecting with others is positively correlated with the perceived impact of COVID-19. Follow-up interviews (N=9) provided additional insights into changing perceptions and usage patterns of CPs during COVID-19;for instance, fewer collaborators per playlist reflects users' greater focus on strengthening social connections and relationships. Taken together, findings and design implications on digitally mediated co-curation further elucidate the necessity for social and collaborative experiences with music supported by CPs during COVID-19. © 2022 ACM.

5.
2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874718

ABSTRACT

Recently, chatbots have been deployed in health care in various ways such as providing educational information, and monitoring and triaging symptoms. However, they can be ineffective when they are designed without a careful consideration of the cultural context of the users, especially for marginalized groups. Chatbots designed without cultural understanding may result in loss of trust and disengagement of the user. In this paper, through an interview study, we attempt to understand how chatbots can be better designed for Black American communities within the context of COVID-19. Along with the interviews, we performed design activities with 18 Black Americans that allowed them to envision and design their own chatbot to address their needs and challenges during the pandemic. We report our findings on our participants' needs for chatbots' roles and features, and their challenges in using chatbots. We then present design implications for future chatbot design for the Black American population. © 2022 Owner/Author.

6.
2022 zh Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, zh EA 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1846563

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been known to have a disproportionate impact on African Americans in the United States. Although studies have been conducted on the reasons for this disparity, there has been less focus on how the African American population sought trustworthy health information using technology. This is important because African Americans' mistrust of the medical system has been suggested as a possible reason for the disproportionate impact. Therefore, we conducted interviews with 18 African Americans with chronic conditions to discover what types of challenges they faced while searching for trustworthy information on COVID-19 and the strategies they used to overcome these challenges. We found that participants actively evaluated the credibility of different information sources, searched for first-hand information from people they could relate to, and tried to avoid or reduce media consumption to prevent information overload. © 2022 ACM.

7.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 149(2):AB59-AB59, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1798141
8.
Digital Government: Research and Practice ; 2(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1772392

ABSTRACT

African Americans have faced health disparities in terms of access to health care and treatment of illnesses. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic exacerbates those disparities caused by limited access to medical care and healthy lifestyles, vulnerability to misleading information, and mistrust of the medical profession, all of which disproportionately affect the African American population in terms of infection and mortality. Conversational agents (CAs) are a technological intervention with the potential to narrow the disparities because they make health care more accessible, are effective in disseminating health information among a population with low health literacy, and can increase users' trust in health information. However, designing CAs for this population presents challenges with regard to embodying the African American culture into CAs and addressing privacy and security concerns. This commentary discusses some advantages and challenges of using CAs to help African Americans protect themselves against coronavirus disease 2019, and calls for more research in this area. © 2020 ACM.

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S305, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185839

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aimed to investigate psychological distress among infectious disease (ID) physicians during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in the Republic of Korea. Methods: Using an online-based survey link sent via text message and email, we conducted a survey from April 21 to 25, 2020, targeting all ID physicians currently working in ID (n = 265). The questionnaire was based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scales, and information was collected on factors protecting against psychological distress and difficulties in relation to COVID-19. Results: Of 265 ID physicians, 115 (43.3%) responded, showing burnout (97, 90.4%), depression (20, 17.4%), anxiety (23, 20.0%), and stress (5, 4.3%). There were no differences in terms of distress between ID physicians who were directly involved in the care of patients with COVID-19 or not (Table 1). Greater than 50% of physicians valued their work and felt recognized by others, whereas < 10% indicated that sufficient human and financial support and private time had been provided during the outbreak. The most challenging issues concerned a lack of human resources for COVID-19 treatment or infection control, a shortage of personal protective equipment or airborne infection isolation rooms, pressure for research, and lack of guidelines for COVID-19 management (Figure 1). Conclusion: During the COVID-19 outbreak in the ROK, most respondents reported psychological distress. Preparing strategies for infectious disease outbreaks that support ID physicians is essential. (Figure Presented).

10.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-6248

ABSTRACT

'Federated Learning' (FL) is a method to train Artificial Intelligence (AI) models with data from multiple sources while maintaining anonymity of the data thus removing many barriers to data sharing. During the SARS-COV-2 pandemic, 20 institutes collaborated on a healthcare FL study to predict future oxygen requirements of infected patients using inputs of vital signs, laboratory data, and chest x-rays, constituting the "EXAM" (EMR CXR AI Model) model. EXAM achieved an average Area Under the Curve (AUC) of over 0.92, an average improvement of 16%, and a 38% increase in generalisability over local models. The FL paradigm was successfully applied to facilitate a rapid data science collaboration without data exchange, resulting in a model that generalised across heterogeneous, unharmonized datasets. This provided the broader healthcare community with a validated model to respond to COVID-19 challenges, as well as set the stage for broader use of FL in healthcare.

11.
Journal of the Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing ; 27(4):428-437, 2020.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1016402

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), an emerging infectious disease introduced in South Korea in 2020. Medically inclined college students are more susceptible to be infected by the virus. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors influencing preventive behavior against COVID-19 among medically inclined college students. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire survey. Data were collected from 400 medically inclined college students from four colleges of medice. Independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis were conducted to analysis the data. Results: The study subjects had high knowledge and optimism related to COVID-19. Preventive behavior against COVID-19 was affected mostly by attitude (β=.32, p<.001). Such behavior was also high in relation to knowledge (β=.17, p<.001), and nursing students (β=.15, p=.002). Conclusion: Infection prevention education for medically inclined college students mainly focuses on knowledge transfer. Infection preventive education programs aimed at improving COVID-19 optimistic attitudes and knowledge are helpful for these students to maintain appropriate preventive practices. The confirmation of the importance of optimistic attitudes and risk perception toward infectious diseases through this study can provide insight into infection prevention education programs to improve practice to wards new epidemic prevention behaviors. © 2020 Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing.

12.
Infection & Chemotherapy ; (2093-2340 (Print))2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-854256

ABSTRACT

Background: From May to July 2015, the Republic of Korea experienced the largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outside the Arabian Peninsula. A total of 186 patients, including 36 deaths, had been diagnosed with MERS-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection as of September 30th, 2015. Materials and Methods: We obtained information of patients who were confirmed to have MERS-CoV infection. MERS-CoV infection was diagnosed using real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The median age of the patients was 55 years (range, 16 to 86). A total of 55.4% of the patients had one or more coexisting medical conditions. The most common symptom was fever (95.2%). At admission, leukopenia (42.6%), thrombocytopenia (46.6%), and elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (42.7%) were observed. Pneumonia was detected in 68.3% of patients at admission and developed in 80.8% during the disease course. Antiviral agents were used for 74.7% of patients. Mechanical ventilation, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and convalescent serum were employed for 24.5%, 7.1%, and 3.8% of patients, respectively. Older age, presence of coexisting medical conditions including diabetes or chronic lung disease, presence of dyspnea, hypotension, and leukocytosis at admission, and the use of mechanical ventilation were revealed to be independent predictors of death. Conclusion: The clinical features of MERS-CoV infection in the Republic of Korea were similar to those of previous outbreaks in the Middle East. However, the overall mortality rate (20.4%) was lower than that in previous reports. Enhanced surveillance and active management of patients during the outbreak may have resulted in improved outcomes. FAU - Choi, Won Suk

13.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; (2328-8957 (Electronic))2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-851860

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2015, an outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection occurred in South Korea involving 186 patients, 39 of whom were healthcare workers (HCWs) exposed to the infection. An effective post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) strategy may limit the spread of infection;however, there is no consensus regarding PEP for MERS-CoV infection. In this study, we assessed (1) the efficacy of oral ribavirin and lopinavir/ritonavir as PEP for HCWs exposed to patients with severe MERS-CoV pre-isolation pneumonia, and (2) safety of the PEP regimen. Methods: We retrospectively enrolled 43 HCWs with high-risk exposure to MERS-CoV from 5 hospitals affected during this outbreak in South Korea. The rate of MERS-CoV infection was compared between 22 workers at 1 hospital who received PEP consisting of oral ribavirin and lopinavir/ritonavir after exposure to patients with severe MERS-CoV pre-isolation pneumonia and 21 workers at other hospitals who did not receive PEP. Results: Six workers (14%) developed MERS-CoV infection;all of these subjects belonged to the non-PEP group. The attack rate was lower in the PEP group compared with the non-PEP group (0% vs. 28.6%;Odds ratio = 0.405, 95% confidence interval = 0.274–0.599;P = 0.009). The most commonly reported side effects of PEP therapy were nausea and diarrhea, but there were no severe adverse effects associated with PEP therapy. Conclusion: PEP with a combination of oral ribavirin and lopinavir/ritonavir appears to be effective and generally safe for preventing MERS-CoV infection after high-risk exposure in healthcare workers. Disclosures: All authors: No reported disclosures. FAU - Park, So Yeon

14.
International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation ; 24(7):1968-1974, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-827094

ABSTRACT

Background/Objectives: Middle East Respiratory Syndrome(MERS) is caused by the MERS-Korona virus, a type of beta-corona virus, is a serious respiratory disease with numerous reported. The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of MERS in Korea in 2015 and use it as basic data for preventing future infectious diseases in Korea. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study was designed by the authority. The research material, after MERS-CoV's declaration of an end, the authorities searched the website of a reputable organization in Korea for a proven report on MERS-CoV. Findings: Of 111 male patients and 75 female patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infections between May 20, and July 13, 2015, total 38(20.4% fatality rate) case died. The most common causes of infection occurred in hospital visits and hospital admissions. 82 (44.1%) patients;64(34.4%) were patients’ family, caregivers, or visitors;39(21.0%) were healthcare personnel, and one(0.5%) case was of unknown origin. It was associated with 16 medical institutions, most of them related to medical institutions. Improvements/Applications: Judging by this nature, isolation in the hospital of the initial and estimated superconductors is paramount and is an important criterion for prevention and isolation in the future 'Management and Countermeasures of Infectious Diseases'. © 2020, Hampstead Psychological Associates. All rights reserved.

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