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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(49): 1700-1705, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614365


The mRNA COVID-19 vaccines (Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech) provide strong protection against severe COVID-19, including hospitalization, for at least several months after receipt of the second dose (1,2). However, studies examining immune responses and differences in protection against COVID-19-associated hospitalization in real-world settings, including by vaccine product, are limited. To understand how vaccine effectiveness (VE) might change with time, CDC and collaborators assessed the comparative effectiveness of Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines in preventing COVID-19-associated hospitalization at two periods (14-119 days and ≥120 days) after receipt of the second vaccine dose among 1,896 U.S. veterans at five Veterans Affairs medical centers (VAMCs) during February 1-September 30, 2021. Among 234 U.S. veterans fully vaccinated with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and without evidence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, serum antibody levels (anti-spike immunoglobulin G [IgG] and anti-receptor binding domain [RBD] IgG) to SARS-CoV-2 were also compared. Adjusted VE 14-119 days following second Moderna vaccine dose was 89.6% (95% CI = 80.1%-94.5%) and after the second Pfizer-BioNTech dose was 86.0% (95% CI = 77.6%-91.3%); at ≥120 days VE was 86.1% (95% CI = 77.7%-91.3%) for Moderna and 75.1% (95% CI = 64.6%-82.4%) for Pfizer-BioNTech. Antibody levels were significantly higher among Moderna recipients than Pfizer-BioNTech recipients across all age groups and periods since vaccination; however, antibody levels among recipients of both products declined between 14-119 days and ≥120 days. These findings from a cohort of older, hospitalized veterans with high prevalences of underlying conditions suggest the importance of booster doses to help maintain long-term protection against severe COVID-19.†.

/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , /administration & dosage , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , Veterans Health Services
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(12): e1004-e1009, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269561


BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, with subsequent worldwide spread. The first US cases were identified in January 2020. METHODS: To determine if SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies were present in sera prior to the first identified case in the United States on 19 January 2020, residual archived samples from 7389 routine blood donations collected by the American Red Cross from 13 December 2019 to 17 January 2020 from donors resident in 9 states (California, Connecticut, Iowa, Massachusetts, Michigan, Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington, and Wisconsin) were tested at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Specimens reactive by pan-immunoglobulin (pan-Ig) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the full spike protein were tested by IgG and IgM ELISAs, microneutralization test, Ortho total Ig S1 ELISA, and receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity assay. RESULTS: Of the 7389 samples, 106 were reactive by pan-Ig. Of these 106 specimens, 90 were available for further testing. Eighty-four of 90 had neutralizing activity, 1 had S1 binding activity, and 1 had receptor-binding domain/ACE2 blocking activity >50%, suggesting the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2-reactive antibodies. Donations with reactivity occurred in all 9 states. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that SARS-CoV-2 may have been introduced into the United States prior to 19 January 2020.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , China , Connecticut , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Iowa , Massachusetts , Michigan , Oregon , Rhode Island , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Washington , Wisconsin
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(6): 344-351, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013165


BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data on the association between mental disorders and the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity are limited. AIMS: To evaluate the association between mental disorders and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe outcomes following COVID-19. METHOD: We performed a cohort study using the Korean COVID-19 patient database based on national health insurance data. Each person with a mental or behavioural disorder (diagnosed during the 6 months prior to their first SARS-CoV-2 test) was matched by age, gender and Charlson Comorbidity Index with up to four people without mental disorders. SARS-CoV-2-positivity risk and the risk of death or severe events (intensive care unit admission, use of mechanical ventilation and acute respiratory distress syndrome) post-infection were calculated using conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Among 230 565 people tested for SARS-CoV-2, 33 653 (14.6%) had mental disorders; 928/33 653 (2.76%) tested SARS-CoV-2 positive and 56/928 (6.03%) died. In multivariable analysis using the matched cohort, there was no association between mental disorders and SARS-CoV-2-positivity risk (odds ratio OR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.87-1.04); however, a higher risk was associated with schizophrenia-related disorders (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.14-1.99). Among confirmed COVID-19 patients, the mortality risk was significantly higher in patients with than in those without mental disorders (OR = 1.99, 95% CI 1.15-3.43). CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorders are likely contributing factors to mortality following COVID-19. Although the infection risk was not higher for people with mental disorders overall, those with schizophrenia-related disorders were more vulnerable to infection.

COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2