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1.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147384

ABSTRACT

Introduction Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants brought waves of pandemics with breakthrough infections in vaccinated individuals. We analyzed the antibody responses after primary and booster vaccination in healthy controls (HC) and patients with early breast cancer (BC). Methods In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, the binding activity of serum antibody level against spike proteins and antigens of SARS-CoV-2 variants was measured within 21 days after each vaccination in the BC group and HC group. Results All participants, 40 in the BC and 20 in the HC group, had increased antibody response after vaccination. BC group, however, had weaker humoral responses than the HC group (IgG: 1.5, 2.3, 2.5-folds in BC vs. 1.9, 3.6, 4.0-folds in HC after each dose;IgA: 2.1, 3.0, 3.6-folds in BC vs. 4.2, 10.4, 5.2-folds in HC after each dose, respectively). Those under concurrent cytotoxic chemotherapy had weaker antibody response than the non-cytotoxic treatment group and HC. Adjunct use of steroids and age were not significant risk factors. The levels of binding antibody against the Delta and the Omicron (BA1) variants were lower than the wild-type, especially in BC. Conclusion In the waves of new sub-variants, our study suggests that an additional dose of vaccinations should be recommended according to the anti-cancer treatment modality in patients with BC who had received booster vaccination.

2.
Anal Chem ; 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133134

ABSTRACT

A high-throughput, accurate screening is crucial for the prevention and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Current methods, which involve sampling from the nasopharyngeal (NP) area by medical staffs, constitute a fundamental bottleneck in expanding the testing capacity. To meet the scales required for population-level surveillance, self-collectable specimens can be used; however, its low viral load has hindered its clinical adoption. Here, we describe a magnetic nanoparticle functionalized with synthetic apolipoprotein H (ApoH) peptides to capture, concentrate, and purify viruses. The ApoH assay demonstrates a viral enrichment efficiency of >90% for both SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, leading to an order of magnitude improvement in analytical sensitivity. For validation, we apply the assay to a total of 84 clinical specimens including nasal, oral, and mouth gargles obtained from COVID-19 patients. As a result, a 100% positivity rate is achieved from the patient-collected nasal and gargle samples, which exceeds that of the traditional NP swab method. The simple 12 min pre-enrichment assay enabling the use of self-collectable samples will be a practical solution to overcome the overwhelming diagnostic capacity. Furthermore, the methodology can easily be built on various clinical protocols, allowing its broad applicability to various disease diagnoses.

3.
Oncologist ; 2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062950

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected millions of individuals, and patients with cancer are known to be more susceptible. Vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 have been developed and used for patients with cancer, but scarce data are available on their efficacy in patients under active anti-cancer therapies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we semi-quantitatively measured the titers of the immunoglobulin G against the anti-spike protein subunit 1 of SARS-CoV-2 after vaccination of patients with early breast cancer undergoing concurrent chemotherapy, endocrinal or targeted non-cytotoxic treatments, and no treatments. RESULTS: Standard doses of COVID-19 vaccines provided sufficient immune responses in patients with early breast cancer, regardless of the type of anticancer therapies. However, the post-vaccination serum anti-spike antibody titers were significantly lower in the patients under cytotoxic chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Our study emphasizes the importance of the personalized risk stratification and consideration for booster doses in more vulnerable populations.

5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(32): e252, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the COVID-19 vaccination era need to be clarified because breakthrough infection after vaccination is not uncommon. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed hospitalized COVID-19 patients during a delta variant-dominant period 6 months after the national COVID-19 vaccination rollout. The clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe progression were assessed and subclassified according to vaccination status. RESULTS: A total of 438 COVID-19 patients were included; the numbers of patients in the unvaccinated, partially vaccinated and fully vaccinated groups were 188 (42.9%), 117 (26.7%) and 133 (30.4%), respectively. The vaccinated group was older, less symptomatic and had a higher Charlson comorbidity index at presentation. The proportions of patients who experienced severe progression in the unvaccinated and fully vaccinated groups were 20.3% (31/153) and 10.8% (13/120), respectively. Older age, diabetes mellitus, solid cancer, elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase and chest X-ray abnormalities were associated with severe progression, and the vaccination at least once was the only protective factor for severe progression. Chest X-ray abnormalities at presentation were the only predictor for severe progression among fully vaccinated patients. CONCLUSION: In the hospitalized setting, vaccinated and unvaccinated COVID-19 patients showed different clinical features and risk of oxygen demand despite a relatively high proportion of patients in the two groups. Vaccination needs to be assessed as an initial checkpoint, and chest X-ray may be helpful for predicting severe progression in vaccinated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
7.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(29): e238, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963382

ABSTRACT

Despite the low prevalence of secondary bacterial infection in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, most of them were administered antibiotic therapy empirically. However, the prognostic impact of empirical antibiotic therapy has not been evaluated. We conducted retrospective propensity score-matched case-control study of 233 COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe illnesses who required oxygen therapy and evaluated whether empirical antibiotic therapy could improve clinical outcomes. Empirical antibiotic therapy did not improve clinical outcomes including length of stay, days with oxygen requirement, the proportion of patients with increased oxygen demand, the proportion of patients who required mechanical ventilation, and overall mortality. This finding implies that routine administration of antibiotics for the treatment of COVID-19 is not essential and should be restricted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
8.
Virulence ; 13(1): 1242-1251, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956537

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern have been emerging. However, knowledge of temporal and spatial dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 is limited. This study characterized SARS-CoV-2 evolution in immunosuppressed patients with long-term SARS-CoV-2 shedding for 73-250 days, without specific treatment. We conducted whole-genome sequencing of 27 serial samples, including 26 serial samples collected from various anatomic sites of two patients and the first positive sample from patient 2's mother. We analysed the intrahost temporal dynamics and genomic diversity of the viral population within different sample types. Intrahost variants emerging during infection showed diversity between individual hosts. Remarkably, N501Y, P681R, and E484K, key substitutions within spike protein, emerged in vivo during infection and became the dominant population. P681R, which had not yet been detected in the publicly available genome in Korea, appeared within patient 1 during infection. Mutually exclusive substitutions at residues R346 (R346S and R346I) and E484 (E484K and E484A) of spike protein and continuous turnover of these substitutions occurred. Unique genetic changes were observed in urine samples. A household transmission from patient 2 to his mother, at least 38 days after the diagnosis, was characterized. Viruses may differently mutate and adjust to the host selective pressure, which could enable the virus to replicate efficiently for fitness in each host. Intrahost variants could be candidate variants likely to spread to the population eventually. Our findings may provide new insights into the dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in response to interactions between the virus and host.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Whole Genome Sequencing
10.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 181, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Practical guidance is needed regarding the vaccination of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent individuals in resource-limited countries. It includes the number of vaccine doses that should be given to unvaccinated patients who experienced COVID-19 early in the pandemic. METHODS: We recruited COVID-19 convalescent individuals who received one or two doses of an mRNA vaccine within 6 or around 18 months after a diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Their samples were assessed for IgG-binding or neutralizing activity and cell-mediated immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern. RESULTS: A total of 43 COVID-19 convalescent individuals were analyzed in the present study. The results showed that humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern, including the Omicron variant, were comparable among patients vaccinated within 6 versus around 18 months. A second dose of vaccine did not significantly increase immune responses. CONCLUSION: One dose of mRNA vaccine should be considered sufficient to elicit a broad immune response even around 18 months after a COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
12.
13.
J Infect Dis ; 226(7): 1224-1230, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may wane rapidly in persons recovered from mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but little is known about the longevity. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained 8, 12, and 18 months after infection from 20 patients with mild COVID-19. The binding activities of serum antibodies (immunoglobulin [Ig]A, IgG, and IgM) against SARS-CoV-2 antigens of the Wuhan-1 reference strain (wild-type) and the B.1.1.7, P.1, B.1.167.2, and B.1.1.529 variants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Neutralizing antibody titers were measured using a cytopathic effect-based live virus neutralization assay. RESULTS: Serum IgA and IgG antibodies against spike or receptor-binding domain (RBD) protein of wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were detected for up to 18 months, and neutralizing antibodies persisted for 8 to 18 months after infection. However, any significant antibody responses against RBD proteins of SARS-CoV-2 variants were not observed, and median neutralizing antibody titers against the Delta variant at 8, 12, and 18 months were 8- to 11-fold lower than against wild-type viruses (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: Humoral immunity persisted for up to 18 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with mild COVID-19. However, humoral immune activity against more recently circulating variants was reduced in this population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(16): e126, 2022 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between changes in anxiety levels and personal protective equipment (PPE) use is yet to be evaluated. The present study assessed this relationship among healthcare workers (HCWs) involved in the care of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: An online survey was conducted in a municipal hospital with 195 nationally designated negative pressure isolation units in Korea. Anxiety level was measured using the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS), and changes in anxiety levels were assessed based on the time when COVID-19 vaccine was introduced in March 2021 in Korea. Monthly PPE usage between June 2020 and May 2021 was investigated. RESULTS: The mean SAS score (33.25 ± 5.97) was within normal range and was lower than those reported in previous studies conducted before COVID-19 vaccination became available. Among the 93 HCWs who participated, 64 (68.8%) answered that their fear of contracting COVID-19 decreased after vaccination. The number of coveralls used per patient decreased from 33.6 to 0. However, a demand for more PPE than necessary was observed in situations where HCWs were exposed to body fluids and secretions (n = 38, 40.9%). Excessive demand for PPE was not related to age, working experience, or SAS score. CONCLUSION: Anxiety in HCWs exposed to COVID-19 was lower than it was during the early period of the pandemic, and the period before vaccination was introduced. The number of coveralls used per patient also decreased although an excessive demand for PPE was observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Personal Protective Equipment , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 830433, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785337

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite the fact of ongoing worldwide vaccination programs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), understanding longevity, breadth, and type of immune response to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is still important to optimize the vaccination strategy and estimate the risk of reinfection. Therefore, we performed thorough immunological assessments 1 year post-COVID-19 with different severity. Methods: We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma samples at 1 year post-COVID-19 in patients who experienced asymptomatic, mild, and severe illness to assess titers of various isotypes of antibodies (Abs) against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, phagocytic capability, and memory B- and T-cell responses. Findings: A total of 24 patients (7, 9, and 8 asymptomatic, mild, and severe patients, respectively) and eight healthy volunteers were included in this study. We firstly showed that disease severity is correlated with parameters of immune responses at 1 year post-COVID-19 that play an important role in protecting against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, namely, the phagocytic capacity of Abs and memory B-cell responses. Interpretation: Various immune responses at 1 year post-COVID-19, particularly the phagocytic capacity and memory B-cell responses, were dependent on the severity of the prior COVID-19. Our data could provide a clue for a tailored vaccination strategy after natural infection according to the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(8): e67, 2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714984

ABSTRACT

We investigated the kinetics of the neutralizing antibody responses to the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 delta variant over the course of 1 year in 16 patients infected at the beginning of the pandemic. In patients with severe disease, neutralizing responses to the delta variant were detectable, albeit at lower levels than responses to the wild type. Neutralizing responses to the delta variant were undetectable, however, in asymptomatic persons. This finding implies that the vaccination strategy for persons with past natural infection should depend on the severity of the previous infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccination , Young Adult
18.
Infect Chemother ; 53(4): 776-785, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Co-infection with bacteria and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may result in greater use of healthcare resources and a poor prognosis. Therefore, early selection and use of optimal antibiotics are essential. The direct rapid antibiotic susceptibility test (dRAST) can detect antibiotic resistance within 6 h of a Gram smear result. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of dRAST for improving early selection of appropriate antibiotics for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with bacteremia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 96 blood culture-positive COVID-19 patients. Bacterial isolates and antimicrobial resistance profiles of each case were evaluated. Cases were divided into two groups based on whether they underwent conventional antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) or dRAST. The time to optimal targeted treatment for the two groups was investigated and compared. In addition, we examined the proportion of cases for which appropriate antibiotics were selected and broad spectrum antibiotics were administered at 72 h from blood sample collection. RESULTS: The mean time to optimal targeted antibiotic treatment was shorter for the dRAST group [55.7; standard deviation (SD), 28.7 vs. 92.3; SD, 51.1 h; P = 0.041]. The proportion of cases receiving optimal targeted antibiotics 72 h after blood collection for culture was higher [6/10 (60.0%) vs. 10/25 (40.0%)] and the percentage receiving broad spectrum antibiotics at 72 h was lower [6/10 (60.0%) vs. 19/25 (76.0%)] in the dRAST group than in the conventional AST group. In terms of microbiology profile, the contamination rate was high (35.5%) and multidrug-resistant strains were common (63.2%) in COVID-19 patients with bacteremia. CONCLUSION: Application of dRAST for selection of antibiotics to treat bacteremia in COVID-19 patients may enable earlier and optimal treatment. The high incidence of contamination and resistant organisms in blood cultures from COVID-19 patients suggest that dRAST may speed up appropriate targeted treatment.

19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3052-3062, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528794

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects humans and dromedary camels and is responsible for an ongoing outbreak of severe respiratory illness in humans in the Middle East. Although some mutations found in camel-derived MERS-CoV strains have been characterized, most natural variation found across MERS-CoV isolates remains unstudied. We report on the environmental stability, replication kinetics, and pathogenicity of several diverse isolates of MERS-CoV, as well as isolates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, to serve as a basis of comparison with other stability studies. Although most MERS-CoV isolates had similar stability and pathogenicity in our experiments, the camel-derived isolate C/KSA/13 had reduced surface stability, and another camel isolate, C/BF/15, had reduced pathogenicity in a small animal model. These results suggest that although betacoronaviruses might have similar environmental stability profiles, individual variation can influence this phenotype, underscoring the need for continual global viral surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aerosols , Animals , Camelus , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virulence , Zoonoses
20.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(3): 732-740, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526361

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir, an antiviral agent for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is metabolized intracellularly, with these metabolites eliminated predominantly in urine. Because of a lack of safety and pharmacokinetic (PK) data, remdesivir is not currently recommended for patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate less than 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 and those on hemodialysis. This study evaluated the PKs of remdesivir and its metabolite, GS-441524, in patients with COVID-19 who were and were not receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT). This study enrolled two patients with normal renal function, two with impaired renal function not receiving RRT, two receiving continuous RRT (CRRT), and three undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Patients were administered 200 mg remdesivir on the first day, followed by 100 mg/day for 5-10 days. Serial blood samples were collected for PK analysis, and PK parameters were assessed by a noncompartmental method. Systemic exposure to remdesivir was higher in patients with impaired renal function and those receiving CRRT than in patients with normal renal function, but was similar in patients undergoing IHD and those with normal renal function. By contrast, systemic exposure to GS-441524 was highest in patients undergoing IHD, followed by patients with impaired renal function and those receiving CRRT, and lowest in patients with normal renal function. The PK profiles of remdesivir and GS-441524 varied according to renal function and RRT. The impact of PK changes of remdesivir and its metabolite on safety and efficacy should be considered when administering remdesivir to patients with COVID-19 with renal impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods
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