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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 232: 109192, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 stay-at-home orders may reduce access to substance use treatment and naloxone, an opioid overdose reversal drug. The objective of this analysis was to compare monthly trends in pharmacy-based dispensing rates of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) (buprenorphine and extended-release [ER] naltrexone) and naloxone in the United States during March 2019-December 2020 by age and sex. METHODS: We calculated monthly prescription dispensing rates per 100,000 persons using IQVIA New to Brand. We used Joinpoint regression to calculate monthly percent change in dispensing rates and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests to examine differences in median monthly rates overall, and by age and sex between March 2019-December 2019 and March 2020-December 2020. RESULTS: Buprenorphine dispensing increased among those aged 40-64 years and ≥ 65 years from March 2019 to December 2020. Median rates of total ER naltrexone dispensing were lower in March 2020-December 2020 compared to March 2019-December 2019 for the total population, and for females and males. From March 2019 to December 2020, ER naltrexone dispensing decreased and naloxone dispensing increased for those aged 20-39 years. CONCLUSIONS: Dispensing ER naltrexone declined during the study period. Given the increase in substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic, maintaining equivalent access to MOUD may not be adequate to accommodate rising numbers of new patients with opioid use disorder. Access to all MOUD and naloxone could be further expanded to meet potential needs during and after the public health emergency, given their importance in preventing opioid overdose-related harms.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Pharmacy , Adult , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Naltrexone/therapeutic use , Narcotic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
2.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(37): 1267-1273, 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456567

ABSTRACT

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander populations have been disproportionately affected by COVID-19 (1-3). Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations vary in language; cultural practices; and social, economic, and environmental experiences,† which can affect health outcomes (4).§ However, data from these populations are often aggregated in analyses. Although data aggregation is often used as an approach to increase sample size and statistical power when analyzing data from smaller population groups, it can limit the understanding of disparities among diverse Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian subpopulations¶ (4-7). To assess disparities in COVID-19 outcomes among Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian populations, a disaggregated, descriptive analysis, informed by recommendations from these communities,** was performed using race data from 21,005 COVID-19 cases and 449 COVID-19-associated deaths reported to the Hawaii State Department of Health (HDOH) during March 1, 2020-February 28, 2021.†† In Hawaii, COVID-19 incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 population were 1,477 and 32, respectively during this period. In analyses with race categories that were not mutually exclusive, including persons of one race alone or in combination with one or more races, Pacific Islander persons, who account for 5% of Hawaii's population, represented 22% of COVID-19 cases and deaths (COVID-19 incidence of 7,070 and mortality rate of 150). Native Hawaiian persons experienced an incidence of 1,181 and a mortality rate of 15. Among subcategories of Asian populations, the highest incidences were experienced by Filipino persons (1,247) and Vietnamese persons (1,200). Disaggregating Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Asian race data can aid in identifying racial disparities among specific subpopulations and highlights the importance of partnering with communities to develop culturally responsive outreach teams§§ and tailored public health interventions and vaccination campaigns to more effectively address health disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , /statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Community Health Services/organization & administration , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Hawaii/epidemiology , Humans
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(17): 521-522, 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389843

ABSTRACT

In the United States, approximately 1.4 million persons access emergency shelter or transitional housing each year (1). These settings can pose risks for communicable disease spread. In late March and early April 2020, public health teams responded to clusters (two or more cases in the preceding 2 weeks) of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in residents and staff members from five homeless shelters in Boston, Massachusetts (one shelter); San Francisco, California (one); and Seattle, Washington (three). The investigations were performed in coordination with academic partners, health care providers, and homeless service providers. Investigations included reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing at commercial and public health laboratories for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, over approximately 1-2 weeks for residents and staff members at the five shelters. During the same period, the team in Seattle, Washington, also tested residents and staff members at 12 shelters where a single case in each had been identified. In Atlanta, Georgia, a team proactively tested residents and staff members at two shelters with no known COVID-19 cases in the preceding 2 weeks. In each city, the objective was to test all shelter residents and staff members at each assessed facility, irrespective of symptoms. Persons who tested positive were transported to hospitals or predesignated community isolation areas.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Cities , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , San Francisco/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1477-1481, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202104

ABSTRACT

We examined disparities in cumulative incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by race/ethnicity, age, and sex in the United States during January 1-October 1, 2020. Hispanic/Latino and non-Hispanic Black, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander persons had a substantially higher incidence of infection than non-Hispanic White persons.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hawaii , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Incidence , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(11): 382-388, 2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140828

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately affected racial and ethnic minority groups in the United States. Whereas racial and ethnic disparities in severe COVID-19-associated outcomes, including mortality, have been documented (1-3), less is known about population-based disparities in infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In addition, although persons aged <30 years account for approximately one third of reported infections,§ there is limited information on racial and ethnic disparities in infection among young persons over time and by sex and age. Based on 689,672 U.S. COVID-19 cases reported to CDC's case-based surveillance system by jurisdictional health departments, racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 incidence among persons aged <25 years in 16 U.S. jurisdictions¶ were described by age group and sex and across three periods during January 1-December 31, 2020. During January-April, COVID-19 incidence was substantially higher among most racial and ethnic minority groups compared with that among non-Hispanic White (White) persons (rate ratio [RR] range = 1.09-4.62). During May-August, the RR increased from 2.49 to 4.57 among non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NH/PI) persons but decreased among other racial and ethnic minority groups (RR range = 0.52-2.82). Decreases in disparities were observed during September-December (RR range = 0.37-1.69); these decreases were largely because of a greater increase in incidence among White persons, rather than a decline in incidence among racial and ethnic minority groups. NH/PI, non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN), and Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) persons experienced the largest persistent disparities over the entire period. Ensuring equitable and timely access to preventive measures, including testing, safe work and education settings, and vaccination when eligible is important to address racial/ethnic disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Health Status Disparities , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Age Distribution , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Sex Distribution , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(27): 864-869, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640057

ABSTRACT

As of July 5, 2020, approximately 2.8 million coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and 130,000 COVID-19-associated deaths had been reported in the United States (1). Populations historically affected by health disparities, including certain racial and ethnic minority populations, have been disproportionally affected by and hospitalized with COVID-19 (2-4). Data also suggest a higher prevalence of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, among persons experiencing homelessness (5). Safety-net hospitals,† such as Boston Medical Center (BMC), which provide health care to persons regardless of their insurance status or ability to pay, treat higher proportions of these populations and might experience challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. This report describes the characteristics and clinical outcomes of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 treated at BMC during March 1-May 18, 2020. During this time, 2,729 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were treated at BMC and categorized into one of the following mutually exclusive clinical severity designations: exclusive outpatient management (1,543; 56.5%), non-intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization (900; 33.0%), ICU hospitalization without invasive mechanical ventilation (69; 2.5%), ICU hospitalization with mechanical ventilation (119; 4.4%), and death (98; 3.6%). The cohort comprised 44.6% non-Hispanic black (black) patients and 30.1% Hispanic or Latino (Hispanic) patients. Persons experiencing homelessness accounted for 16.4% of patients. Most patients who died were aged ≥60 years (81.6%). Clinical severity differed by age, race/ethnicity, underlying medical conditions, and homelessness. A higher proportion of Hispanic patients were hospitalized (46.5%) than were black (39.5%) or non-Hispanic white (white) (34.4%) patients, a finding most pronounced among those aged <60 years. A higher proportion of non-ICU inpatients were experiencing homelessness (24.3%), compared with homeless patients who were admitted to the ICU without mechanical ventilation (15.9%), with mechanical ventilation (15.1%), or who died (15.3%). Patient characteristics associated with illness and clinical severity, such as age, race/ethnicity, homelessness, and underlying medical conditions can inform tailored strategies that might improve outcomes and mitigate strain on the health care system from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , Female , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , Safety-net Providers , Young Adult
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