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Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 36: 142, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206564


Background: Since the emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the treatment protocols are continuously updated, based on the evidence gathered all around the world and reported to the World Health Organization. Like many other emerging infectious diseases, using convalescent plasma from those recovered from the disease was a preliminary treatment approach that showed partial effectiveness for severe COVID-19 patients. Besides, blood filtration strategies, such as hemoperfusion and plasmapheresis, are employed to lessen the load of inflammatory molecules. However, few studies compared their effects to conclude which treatment might be more efficacious for COVID-19 patients. We compared the effects of plasmapheresis or plasma exchange, convalescent plasma therapy, and hemoperfusion on O2 saturation and inflammatory factors in COVID-19 patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, 50 COVID-19 patients received standard treatments based the international guidelines. Patients were divided into 4 groups: hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis, plasma therapy, and control. The control group received only the standard treatments. The mortality rate, O2 saturation, and laboratory factors were compared between the 4 groups. Results: We found a significant decrease in the C-reactive protein level following hemoperfusion (32.75 ± 23.76 vs 13 ± 7.54 mg/dL; p = 0.032) but not plasmapheresis and plasma therapy. Besides, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.327, 0.136, 0.550, for hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis, and plasma therapy, respectively) and other inflammatory molecules did not significantly change following treatments. There is also no significant difference in the mortality rate between the treatment groups (p = 0.353). Conclusion: It seems that hemoperfusion, plasmapheresis, and plasma therapy did not have considerable effects on decreasing the inflammation and mortality rate compared with standard treatment.

Iran J Med Sci ; 46(5): 322-338, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819065


BACKGROUND: Several reports have associated the severe Coronavirus disease-2019 (sCOVID-19) with secondary-hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (sHLH) and proposed utilizing the hemophagocytic syndrome diagnostic score (HScore) for sCOVID-19 patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to find the possible association of HScore parameters with severity in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases using all HScore and COVID-19 keywords. The studies were all from 2020, and the study language was limited to English. The records were screened based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Random/fixed-effect models were employed for meta-analysis, based on the I2 index of parameters. The pooled mean differences were estimated for continuous parameters. The pooled odds-ratio was estimated for fever. The level of significance was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Eighteen studies (comprising 2459 patients) out of 26151 screened studies were included in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the level of leukocyte, neutrophil, aspartate transaminase (AST), ferritin, and fibrinogen were significantly higher in sCOVID-19 patients than in non-severe ones. Significant lower levels of lymphocyte, platelet, and hemoglobin were also found in sCOVID-19 patients than non-severe patients. Fever was nearly associated with two times increased odds of sCOVID-19 (P=0.051). CONCLUSION: Lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypohemoglobinemia, hyperferritinemia, high levels of AST, and fever are common features of both sCOVID-19 and HLH. However, the leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and hyperfibrinogenemia found in sCOVID-19 are in contrast with HScore. Conclusively, HScore parameters could be risk factors for sCOVID-19. However, some parameters' roles are contradictory, suggesting the need for further investigation and a new way of HScore interpretation in sCOVID-19 patients.A preprint of this study was published at